Clinical Pharmacokinetics

, Volume 48, Issue 8, pp 517–528 | Cite as

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Parameters of Antimicrobials

Potential for Providing Dosing Regimens that Are Less Vulnerable to Resistance
  • Chiara AdembriEmail author
  • Andrea Novelli
Review Article


Whereas infections caused by multidrug-resistant micro-organisms are increasing worldwide, there are few new molecules, especially ones that are active against Gram-negative strains. There are extensive data showing that the administration of antimicrobials according to pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters improves the possibility of a positive clinical outcome, particularly in severely ill patients. Evidence is growing that when pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters are used to target not only clinical cure but also eradication, the spread of resistance will also be contained. The present paper summarizes the most relevant papers published in this field and provides some suggestions for dosing regimens that can be adopted in the clinical setting to limit the spread of resistance.


Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Levofloxacin Linezolid Meropenem Moxifloxacin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Mary Forrest for editing the English of this manuscript and Dr Marco Miranda for compiling the references. No funding has been used in the preparation of this manuscript. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Critical Care Department, Section of Anesthesiology and Intensive CareUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Preclinical PharmacologyUniversity of FlorenceFirenzeItaly

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