, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 387–402 | Cite as

Sixteen Years of Global Experience with the First Refrigerator-Stable Varicella Vaccine (Varilrix™)

  • Hans W. Kreth
  • Bee-Wah Lee
  • Pensri Kosuwon
  • Jose Salazar
  • Nina Gloriani-Barzaga
  • Hans L. Bock
  • François MeuriceEmail author
Drug Review


Without vaccination, chickenpox (varicella) will affect almost every person in the world during their lifetime. The burden of disease due to varicella is often unrecognized. Varilrix™ is a varicella vaccine derived from the Oka strain of varicella virus. The vaccine, as a frozen formulation, was licensed for use in 1984 and was the first commercially available varicella vaccine. It subsequently became the first refrigerator-stable varicella vaccine; its development commenced in 1991 and it has been licensed for use since 1994. Varilrix™ is indicated for use in high-risk groups, potentially immunocompromised individuals, and healthy subjects in many countries. This article reviews data from extensive worldwide experience with the refrigerator-stable version of the vaccine, including information derived from its use in over 10 000 individuals participating in clinical trials investigating its immunogenicity, efficacy, effectiveness, and safety, as well as postmarketing data including its use in universal mass vaccination programs. Sixteen years of clinical and postmarketing experience with the same formulation represents the longest and most extensive experience with a refrigerator-stable varicella vaccine worldwide. Varilrix™, in conjunction with the trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine Priorix™, has also been the basis for clinical development of the tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (Priorix-Tetra™).


Atopic Dermatitis Herpes Zoster Seroconversion Rate Varicella Vaccine Varicella Vaccination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Drs H.W. Kreth, B.-W. Lee, P. Kosuwon, J. Salazar, and N. Gloriani-Barzaga were principal investigators in some of the studies covered in this review.

The authors are indebted to all of the investigators and clinical research staff involved in the studies and gratefully acknowledge all of the individuals who participated in the studies.

Forty studies using the refrigerator-stable formulation of Varilrix™ were funded by GSK Biologicals. GSK Biologicals incurred all costs associated with the development of the present manuscript.

Editorial assistance in the preparation of this manuscript was provided by Drs C. Arnaudeau-Begard and J. Wolter.

Dr H.W. Kreth has received consulting and lecture fees from GSK and has been the principal investigator in clinical trials of Varilrix™. Dr B.-W. Lee has received honoraria from GSK for giving lectures at medical conferences. Drs P. Kosuwon, J. Salazar, and N. Gloriani-Barzaga have no conflicts of interest. Drs H.L. Bock and F. Meurice are employees of GSK Biologicals.


  1. 1.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella. In: Atkinson W, Hambor-sky J, Mclntyre L, et al., editors. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. 10th ed. Washington, DC: Public Health Foundation, 2007: 175–96Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Johnson GR, et al. A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. N Engl J Med 2005 Jun 2; 352(22): 2271–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson RW, Whitton TL. Management of herpes zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2004 Mar; 5(3): 551–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    National Advisory Committee on Immunization. An advisory committee statement (ACS): National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI). NACI update to statement on varicella vaccine. Can Commun Dis Rep 2002 Feb 15; 28: 1–8Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boelle PY, Hanslik T. Varicella in non-immune persons: incidence, hospitalization and mortality rates. Epidemiol Infect 2002 Dec; 129(3): 599–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gil A, San-Martin M, Carrasco P, et al. Epidemiology of severe varicella-zoster virus infection in Spain. Vaccine 2004 Sep 28; 22(29–30): 3947–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Banz K, Wagenpfeil S, Neiss A, et al. The burden of varicella in Germany: potential risks and economic impact. Eur J Health Econom 2004; 5: 46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rawson H, Crampin A, Noah N. Deaths from chickenpox in England and Wales 1995-7: analysis of routine mortality data. BMJ 2001 Nov 10; 323(7321): 1091–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meyer PA, Seward JF, Jumaan AO, et al. Varicella mortality: trends before vaccine licensure in the United States, 1970-1994. J Infect Dis 2000; 182: 383–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-related deaths among children-United States, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998; 47: 365–8Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital statistics, deaths from all causes 2003 [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2008 Feb 19]
  12. 12.
    Rotavirus vaccine for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999 Mar 19; 48(RR-2): 1–20Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clements DA. Varicella vaccination in children. BioDrugs 2000; 14(1): 49–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Takahashi M. 25 years’ experience with the Biken Oka strain varicella vaccine: a clinical overview. Paediatr Drugs 2001; 3(4): 285–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gershon A, Takahashi M, Seward J. Varicella vaccine. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, editors. Vaccines. 4th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Saunders, 2004: 783–825Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Skull SA, Wang EE. Varicella vaccination: a critical review of the evidence. Arch Dis Child 2001 Aug; 85(2): 83–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2007 Jun 22; 56(RR-4): 1–40Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seward JF, Watson BM, Peterson CL, et al. Varicella disease after introduction of varicella vaccine in the United States, 1995-2000. JAMA 2002 Feb 6; 287(5): 606–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Coudeville L, Brunot A, Szucs TD, et al. The economic value of childhood varicella vaccination in France and Germany. Value Health 2005; 8(3): 209–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Getsios D, Caro JJ, Caro G, et al. Instituting a routine varicella vaccination program in Canada: an economic evaluation. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21(6): 542–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    WHO. [Accessed 2008 Feb 19]Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Robert Koch Institute. Empfehlungen der Ständigen Impfkommission (STIKO) am Robert Koch-Institut/Stand: Juli 2006. Epidemiol Bull 2006; 30: 235–54Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chi CY, Wang SM, Lin HC, et al. Complications of varicella infection in children in southern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2006 Oct; 39(5): 402–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI)/National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The Australian immunisation handbook. 8th ed. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 2003Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pinot de Moira A, Nardone A. Varicella zoster virus vaccination policies and surveillance strategies in Europe. Eurosurveillance 2005; 10(1): 3–4Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meurice F, De Bouver DL, Vandevoorde D, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka/SB Bio) in healthy children. J Infect Dis 1996; 174Suppl. 3: S324–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Varis T, Vesikari T. Efficacy of high-titer live attenuated varicella vaccine in healthy young children. J Infect Dis 1996; 174Suppl. 3: S330–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vesikari T, Baer M, Varis T, et al. Efficacy of varicella vaccine is dependent on the virus titer [abstract]. 1st World Congress of Pediatric Infectious Diseases; 1996 Dec 4–7; AcapulcoGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tan AY, Connett CJ, Connett GJ, et al. Use of a reformulated Oka strain varicella vaccine (SmithKline Beecham Biologicals/Oka) in healthy children. Eur J Pediatr 1996 Aug; 155(8): 706–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lim YJ, Chew FT, Tan AY, et al. Risk factors for breakthrough varicella in healthy children. Arch Dis Child 1998 Dec; 79(6): 478–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kanra G, Ceyhan M, Ozmert E. Safety and immunogenicity of live attenuated varicella vaccine in 9-month-old children. Pediatr Int 2000; 42: 674–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ramkissoon A, Coovadia HM, Jugnundan P, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a live attenuated varicella vaccine in healthy Indian children aged 9–24 months. S Afr Med J 1995 Dec; 85(12): 1295–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Habermehl P, Lignitz A, Knuf M, et al. Cellular immune response of a varicella vaccine following simultaneous DTaP and VZV vaccination. Vaccine 1999; 17: 669–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lu MY, Huang LM, Lee CY, et al. Evaluation of a live attenuated varicella vaccine in 15- to 18-month-old healthy children. Acta Paed Sin 1998 Jan–Feb; 39(1): 38–42Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Barzaga NG, Florese RH, Bock HL. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a varicella vaccine in healthy seronegative and seropositive subjects. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2002; 33: 259–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Scheifele DW, Halperin SA, Diaz-Mitoma F. Three-year follow-up of protection rates in children given varicella vaccine. Can J Infect Dis 2002; 13: 382–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Diaz-Mitoma F, Halperin SA, Scheifele D. Reactogenicity to a live attenuated varicella vaccine in Canadian children. Can J Infect Dis 2000; 11: 97–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Satari HHI, Hadinegoro SRH, Han HH, et al. Reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity of live attenuated varicella vaccine (OKA stain) in healthy seronegative children from 1 to 12 years of age [abstract no. OP-F5-10]. 23rd International Congress of Pediatrics; 2001 Sep 14–19; BeijingGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Parment PA, Svahn A, Rudén U, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a single dose of live attenuated varicella vaccine and a booster dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine given concomitantly at 12 years of age. Scand J Infect Dis 2003; 35(10): 736–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stück B, Stehr K, Bock HL. Concomitant administration of varicella vaccine with combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in healthy children aged 12 to 24 months of age. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2002; 20: 113–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Czajka H, Pajek B, Pejcz J, et al. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of modified formulations of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (VZV) vaccines not containing human serum albumin (HSA) stabilizer [abstract]. 4th World Congress of Pediatric Infectious Diseases; 2005 Sep 1–4; WarsawGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Usonis V, Steens J-M. A combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella candidate vaccine administered as a second dose in children primed with an MMR vaccine [abstract]. 3rd World Congress of Pediatric Infectious Diseases; 2002 Nov 19–23; SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Knuf M, Habermehl P, Zepp F, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of two doses of tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine in healthy children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006 Jan; 25(1): 12–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Prikazsky V, Plesnik V, Petvaldska L, et al. One and two dose varicella vaccine studies in healthy adolescents aged 13–17 years [abstract]. 1st World Congress of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and 15th International Congress of Pediatric Infectious Diseases; 1996 Dec 4–7; AcapulcoGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Prikazsky V, Chitour K, De Bouver J-L, et al. Two dose varicella vaccine study, with two year follow-up, in healthy adolescents [abstract no. INF D 13]. 2nd European Pediatrics Congress; 1995 Apr 24–27; BerlinGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Burgess MA, Cossart YE, Wilkins TD, et al. Varicella vaccination of health-care workers. Vaccine 1999; 17: 765–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kosuwon P, Wasi C, Sutra S, et al. Flexibility in the administration schedule of varicella vaccination in healthy adolescents and young adults. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2002; 20: 241–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kosuwon P, Sutra S, Kosalaraksa P. Advantage of a two-dose versus one-dose varicella vaccine in healthy non-immune teenagers and young adults. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2004 Sep; 35(3): 697–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kappagoda C, Shaw P, Burgess M, et al. Varicella vaccine in non-immune household contacts of children with cancer or leukaemia. J Paediatr Child Health 1999 Aug; 35(4): 341–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kreth HW, Hoeger PH, Members of the VZV-AD Study Group. Safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of live attenuated varicella vaccine in children between 1 and 9 years of age with atopic dermatitis. Eur J Pediatr 2006; 165: 677–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nithichaiyo C, Chongsrisawat V, Hutagalung Y, et al. Immunogenicity and adverse effects of live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka-strain) in children with chronic liver disease. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2001; 19: 101–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Alpay H, Yildiz N, Onar A, et al. Varicella vaccination in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 2002 Mar; 17(3): 181–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sauerbrei A, Prager J, Hengst U, et al. Varicella vaccination in children after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1997 Sep; 20(5): 381–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Donati M, Zuckerman M, Dhawan A, et al. Response to varicella immunization in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 2000 Nov 15; 70(9): 1401–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Giacchino R, Marcellini M, Timitilli A, et al. Varicella vaccine in children requiring renal or hepatic transplantation. Transplantation 1995 Nov 15; 60(9): 1055–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Geel AL, Landman TS, Kal JA, et al. Varicella zoster virus serostatus before and after kidney transplantation, and vaccination of adult kidney transplant candidates. Transplant Proc 2006 Dec; 38(10): 3418–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Geel A, Zuidema W, van Gelder T, et al. Successful vaccination against varicella zoster virus prior to kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc 2005 Mar; 37(2): 952–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chaves Tdo S, Lopes MH, de Souza VA, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies against varicella-zoster virus and response to the varicella vaccine in pediatric renal transplant patients. Pediatr Transplant 2005 Apr; 9(2): 192–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Leung TF, Li CK, Hung EC, et al. Immunogenicity of a two-dose regime of varicella vaccine in children with cancers. Eur J Haematol 2004 May; 72(5): 353–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Emir S, Buyukpamukcu M, Koseoglu V, et al. Varicella vaccination in children with lymphoma and solid tumours. Postgrad Med J 2006 Nov; 82(973): 760–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ljungman P, Wang FZ, Nilsson C, et al. Vaccination of autologous stem cell transplant recipients with live varicella vaccine: a pilot study. Support Care Cancer 2003 Nov; 11(11): 739–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bekker V, Westerlaken GH, Scherpbier H, et al. Varicella vaccination in HIV-1-infected children after immune reconstitution. AIDS 2006 Nov 28; 20(18): 2321–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kocabas E, Karakoc GB, Alabaz D, et al. The effect of varicella vaccination in asthmatic children receiving inhaled steroids [abstract]. European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases 19th Annual Meeting; 2001 Mar 26–28; IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Leung AY, Chow HC, Kwok JS, et al. Safety of vaccinating sibling donors with live-attenuated varicella zoster vaccine before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 2007 Jun; 39(11): 661–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sheffer R, Segal D, Rahamani S, et al. Effectiveness of the Oka/GSK attenuated varicella vaccine for the prevention of chickenpox in clinical practice in Israel. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005 May; 24(5): 434–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Passwell JH, Hemo B, Levi Y, et al. Use of a computerized database to study the effectiveness of an attenuated varicella vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004; 23: 221–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Arnedo-Pena A, Puig-Barbera J, Aznar-Orenga MA, et al. Varicella vaccine effectiveness during an outbreak in a partially vaccinated population in Spain. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006 Sep; 25(9): 774–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Miron D, Lavi I, Kitov R, et al. Vaccine effectiveness and severity of varicella among previously vaccinated children during outbreaks in day-care centers with low vaccination coverage. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005 Mar; 24(3): 233–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Williams V, Gershon A, Brunell PA. Serologic response to varicella-zoster membrane antigens measured by direct immunofluorescence. J Infect Dis 1974; 130(6): 669–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sharrar RG, LaRussa P, Galea SA, et al. The postmarketing safety profile of varicella vaccine. Vaccine 2000 Nov 22; 19(7–8): 916–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Asano Y. Varicella vaccine: the Japanese experience. J Infect Dis 1996 Nov; 174Suppl. 3: S310–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pierfitte C, Thonnard J, Defawe D, et al. Varicella breakthrough: Varilrix™ spontaneously reported cases [abstract]. 6th Asian Pacific Congress of Medical Virology; 2003 Dec 7–10; Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) update on varicella. Can Commun Dis Rep 2004 Feb 1; 30: 1–26Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Grose C. Varicella vaccination of children in the United States: assessment after the first decade 1995-2005. J Clin Virol 2005 Jun; 33(2): 89–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Galil K, Lee B, Steine T, et al. Outbreak of varicella at a day-care center despite vaccination. N Engl J Med 2002 Dec 12; 347(24): 1909–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kuter B, Matthews H, Shinefield H, et al. Ten year follow-up of healthy children who received one or two injections of varicella vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004 Feb; 23(2): 132–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zepp F, Otto W, Helm K, et al. Antibody persistence and varicella breakthrough cases assessment two years after administration of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine in children aged 11–23 months [abstract no. 619]. uropean Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases 25th Annual Meeting; 2007 May 2–4; PortoGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Quian J, Rüttimann R, Romero C, et al. Impact of universal varicella vaccination of one year-olds in Uruguay: 1997–2005. Arch Dis Child 2008 Oct; 93(10): 845–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Quian J, Cerisola A, Romero C, et al. Neurologic complications in children hospitalized with varicella before and after the start of the universal mass vaccination of children at the age of 1 year [abstract]. European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases 23rd Annual Meeting; 2005 May 18–20; ValenciaGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gentile DA, Marco del Pont J, Martinez Iriart E, et al. Efectividad de la vacuna anti-varicela-zoster como profilaxis post-exposicion. Arch Argent Pediatr 2002; 100(1): 25–30Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mor M, Harel L, Kahan E, et al. Efficacy of post-exposure immunization with live attenuated varicella vaccine in the household setting: a pilot study. Vaccine 2004; 23: 325–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Goh P, Lim FS, Han HH, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of early vaccination with two doses of tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine in healthy children from 9 months of age. Infection 2007 Oct; 35(5): 326–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Frydenberg AR, Buttery JP, Royle J. Determining the rate of varicella vaccine rash in children with moderate-severe eczema. J Paediatr Child Health 2005 Nov; 41(11): 561–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rentier B, Gershon AA, European Working Group on Varicella. Consensus: varicella vaccination of healthy children. Pediate Infect Dis J 2004 May; 23(5): 379–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sengupta N, Booy R, Schmitt HJ, et al. Varicella vaccination in Europe: are we ready for a universal childhood programme? Eur J Pediatr 2008 Jan; 167(1): 47–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Knuf M, Neiss A, Wutzler P. Impact of universal varicella vaccination in Germany: an epidemiological and economic analysis. Klin Padiate 2006 Jul–Aug; 218(4): 203–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sugawara T, Ohkusa Y, Oikawa K, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of routine immunization for varicella in Japan. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 2006 May; 80(3): 212–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Boot HJ, de Melker HE, Stolk EA, et al. Assessing the introduction of universal varicella vaccination in the Netherlands. Vaccine 2006 Sep 11; 24(37–39): 6288–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hambleton S, Gershon AA. Preventing varicella-zoster disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005 Jan; 18(1): 70–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Brisson M, Edmunds WJ, Gay NJ. Varicella vaccination: impact of vaccine efficacy on the epidemiology of VZV. J Med Virol 2003; 70Suppl. 1: S31–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vazquez M, Shapiro ED. Varicella vaccine and infection with varicella-zoster virus. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(2): 439–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nguyen HQ, Jumaan AO, Seward JF. Decline in mortality due to varicella after implementation of varicella vaccination in the United States. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 450–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Quirk M. Varicella vaccination reduces risk of herpes zoster. Lancet Infect Dis 2002; 2: 454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jumaan AO, Yu O, Jackson LA, et al. Incidence of herpes zoster, before and after varicella-vaccination-associated decreases in the incidence of varicella, 1992–2002. J Infect Dis 2005 Jun 15; 191(12): 2002–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Yih WK, Brooks DR, Lett SM, et al. The incidence of varicella and herpes zoster in Massachusetts as measured by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) during a period of increasing varicella vaccine coverage, 1998–2003. BMC Public Health 2005 Jun 16; 5(1): 68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Arvin A, Gershon A. Control of varicella: why is a two-dose schedule necessary? Pediate Infect Dis J 2006 Jun; 25(6): 475–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    WHO. Progress towards elimination of measles and prevention of congenital rubella infection in the WHO European Region, 1990–2004. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2005 Feb 25; 80(8): 66–71Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    National Advisory Committee on Immunization. Canadian Immunization Guide. 6th ed. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Medical Association, 2002Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans W. Kreth
    • 1
  • Bee-Wah Lee
    • 2
  • Pensri Kosuwon
    • 3
  • Jose Salazar
    • 4
  • Nina Gloriani-Barzaga
    • 5
  • Hans L. Bock
    • 6
  • François Meurice
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsNational University of SingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of MedicineKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsUniversity of the East-Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical CenterManilaPhilippines
  5. 5.Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Public HealthUniversity of the Philippines ManilaManilaPhilippines
  6. 6.GlaxoSmithKline BiologicalsSingapore
  7. 7.GlaxoSmithKline BiologicalsRixensartBelgium

Personalised recommendations