Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

2008 White Paper for Implementing Strategies and Interventions for Cardiovascular Prevention in Italy

  • 24 Accesses

  • 3 Citations

Abstract

The present article for improving strategies and interventions for cardiovascular prevention in Italy represents the collaborative work of several scientific societies that recognize their own role and mission in the field of prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It originates from the need, felt in many European and non-European countries, as well as at the level of the EU, to rapidly promote strategies and interventions to better prevent cardiovascular diseases.

The main reason for producing this article is represented by the growing clinical and socioeconomic impact that cardiovascular diseases will have in Italy in the next few years. This, in fact, will bring serious problems regarding the ability to sustain the entire national healthcare system in Italy.

This article reviews some of the major data available on projections of cardiovascular diseases and their social and economic burden. This article represents a White Paper, and it is conceived as a new starting point, proposing general specific interventions, addressed to decision-makers, stakeholders, institutions, citizens, physicians, healthcare workers, organizations and industries. These proposals are listed, and briefly discussed, leading to the development of a ‘call-to-action’, aimed at reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and their impact on the healthcare system, even in the short to medium term.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. 1.

    Rosamond W, Flegal K, Furie K, et al. for the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics: 2008 update — a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 2008 Jan 29; 117(4): e25–146

  2. 2.

    MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J, et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease, part 1: prolonged differences in blood pressure — prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990; 335: 765–74

  3. 3.

    Collins R, Peto R, MacMahon S, et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease, part 2: short-term reductions in blood pressure - overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet 1990; 335: 827–39

  4. 4.

    Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, et al. for the Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 2002; 360: 1903–13

  5. 5.

    Neaton JD, Wentworth D. Serum cholesterol, blood pressure, cigarette smoking and death from coronary heart disease: overall findings and differences by age for 316.099 white men. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) research group. Arch Intern Med 1992; 152: 56–64

  6. 6.

    Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Hedner T, et al. Stroke is more common than myocardial infarction in hypertension: analysis based on 11 major randomized intervention trials. Blood Press 2001; 10: 190–2

  7. 7.

    De Backer G, EUROASPIRE II Study Group. Evidence-based goals versus achievement in clinical practice in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: findings in EUROASPIRE II. Atheroscler Suppl 2002 Apr; 2(4): 13–6

  8. 8.

    Menotti A, Lanti M, Nedeljkovic S, et al. The relationship of age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol and smoking habits with the risk of typical and atypical coronary heart disease death in the European cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Int J Cardiol 2006 Jan 13; 106(2): 157–63

  9. 9.

    World Health Organization. Global burden of disease for the year 2002 [online]. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/bodgbd2002/en/index.html [Accessed 2008 Mar]

  10. 10.

    Jafar TH, Stark PC, Schmid CH, et al. AIPRD Study Group. Progression of chronic kidney disease: the role of blood pressure control, proteinuria, and angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibition: a patient-level meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139(4): 244–52

  11. 11.

    Dzau VJ, Antman EM, Black HR, et al. The cardiovascular disease continuum validated: clinical evidence of improved patient outcomes, part I. Pathophysiology and clinical trial evidence (risk factors through stable coronary artery disease). Circulation 2006 Dec 19; 114(25): 2850–70

  12. 12.

    Dzau VJ, Antman EM, Black HR, et al. The cardiovascular disease continuum validated: clinical evidence of improved patient outcomes, part II. Clinical trial evidence (acute coronary syndromes through renal disease) and future directions. Circulation 2006 Dec 19; 114(25): 2871–91

  13. 13.

    Lanti M, Menotti A, Nedeljkovic S, et al. Long-term trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in cohorts of aging men in the European cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Aging Clin Exp Res 2005 Aug; 17(4): 306–15

  14. 14.

    Panico S, Palmieri L, Vanuzzo D, et al. Risk of major first cardiovascular event among Italian women: results of the CUORE Project. Ital Heart J 2004; 5Suppl. 8: 59S–63S

  15. 15.

    Conroy RM, Pyorala K, Fitzgerald AP, et al. for the SCORE project group. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003; 24(11): 987–1003

  16. 16.

    National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III): final report. Circulation 2002; 106: 3143–421

  17. 17.

    Chobanian A, Bakris G, Black H, et al. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003; 289: 2560–71

  18. 18.

    De Backer G, Ambrosioni E, Borch-Johnsen K, et al. Third Joint Task Force of European and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Third Joint Task Force of European and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Eur Heart J 2003; 24: 1601–10

  19. 19.

    World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH). Statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertens 2003; 21: 1983–92

  20. 20.

    Williams B, Poulter NR, Brown MJ, et al. for the British Hypertension Society (BHS) Guidelines. Guidelines of management of hypertension: report of the fourth working party on British Hypertension Society — BHS IV. J Hum Hypertens 2004; 18: 139–85

  21. 21.

    Fox K, Garcia MA, Ardissino D, et al. Task Force on the Management of Stable Angina Pectoris of the European Society of Cardiology. ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG). Guidelines on the management of stable angina pectoris: executive summary — the Task Force on the Management of Stable Angina Pectoris of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2006; 27(11): 1341–81

  22. 22.

    Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, et al. Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension. European Society of Cardiology. 2007 Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens 2007; 25(6): 1105–87

  23. 23.

    Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, et al. European Society of Cardiology (ESC). European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD), International Diabetes Federation Europe (IDF-Europe), European Stroke Initiative (EUSI), Society of Behavioural Medicine (ISBM), European Society of Hypertension (ESH), WONCA Europe (European Society of General Practice/Family Medicine), European Heart Network (EHN), European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: full text. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007; 14Suppl. 2: S1–113

  24. 24.

    Grundy SM, Brewer Jr HB, Cleeman JI, et al. American Heart Association; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 2004; 109(3): 433–8

  25. 25.

    Rydèn L, Standl E, Bartnik M, et al. Task Force on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases: executive summary. The Task Force on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J 2007 Jan; 28(1): 88–136

  26. 26.

    Boersma E, Keil U, De Bacquer D, et al. EUROASPIRE I and II Study Groups. Blood pressure is insufficiently controlled in European patients with established coronary heart disease. J Hypertens 2003 Oct; 21(10): 1831–40

  27. 27.

    Pyörälä K, Lehto S, De Bacquer D, et al. EUROASPIRE I Group, EUROASPIRE II Group. Risk factor management in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with coronary heart disease: findings from the EUROASPIRE I AND II surveys. Diabetologia 2004 Jul; 47(7): 1257–65

  28. 28.

    De Bacquer D, De Bacquer G, Cokkinos D, et al. Overweight and obesity in patients with established coronary heart disease: are we meeting the challenge? Eur Heart J 2004 Jan; 25(2): 121–8

  29. 29.

    O’Callaghan PA, Fitzgerald A, Fogarty J, et al. New and old cardiovascular risk factors: C-reactive protein, homocysteine, cysteine and von Willebrand factor increase risk, especially in smokers. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2005 Dec; 12(6): 542–7

  30. 30.

    Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, et al. Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 2002; 360: 1347–60

  31. 31.

    Wolf-Maier K, Cooper RS, Banegas JR, et al. Hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States. JAMA 2003; 289(18): 2363–9

  32. 32.

    Volpe M, Tocci G, Trimarco B, et al. Blood pressure control in Italy: results of recent surveys on hypertension. J Hypertens 2007; 25(7): 1491–8

  33. 33.

    Kotseva K, Stagmo M, De Bacquer D, et al. on behalf of EUROASPIRE II Study Group. Treatment potential for cholesterol management in patients with coronary heart disease in 15 European countries: findings from the EUROASPIRE II survey. Atherosclerosis 2008 Apr; 197(2): 710–7

  34. 34.

    Foot DK, Lewis RP, Pearson TA, et al. Demographics and cardiology, 1950–2050. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000 Mar 15; 35(4): 1067–81

  35. 35.

    Hypertension: uncontrolled and conquering the world. Lancet 2007 Aug 18; 370 (9587): 539

  36. 36.

    Fuster V, Voute J, Hunn M, et al. Low priority of cardiovascular and chronic diseases on the global health agenda: a cause for concern. Circulation 2007 Oct 23; 116(17): 1966–70

  37. 37.

    Alderman MH, Furberg CD, Kostis JB, et al. Hypertension guidelines: criteria that might make them more clinically useful. Am J Hypertens 2002; 15(10 Pt 1): 917–23

  38. 38.

    Volpe M, Alderman MH, Furberg CD, et al. Beyond hypertension toward guidelines for cardiovascular risk reduction. Am J Hypertens 2004; 17(11 Pt 1): 1068–74

  39. 39.

    Volpe M, Erhardt LR, Williams B. Managing cardiovascular risk: the need for change. J Hum Hypertens 2008 Feb; 22(2): 154–7

  40. 40.

    Tunstall-Pedoe H, Kuulasmaa K, Amouyel P, et al. Myocardial infarction and coronary deaths in the World Health Organization MONICA Project. Registration procedures, event rates, and case-fatality rates in 38 populations from 21 countries in four continents. Circulation 1994 Jul; 90(1): 583–612

  41. 41.

    Strategic Priorities of the World Health Organization. The Cardiovascular Disease Program [online]. Available from URL: http://www.who.it/cardiovascular_disease/priorities/en/ [Accessed 2008 Feb]

  42. 42.

    Italian Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) [online]. Available from URL: http://www.istat.it [Accessed 2008 Feb]

  43. 43.

    Fields LE, Burt VL, Cutler JA, et al. The burden of adult hypertension in the United States 1999 to 2000: a rising tide. Hypertension 2004 Oct; 44(4): 398–404

  44. 44.

    Hobbs FD, Jones MI, Allan TF, et al. European survey of primary care physician perceptions on heart failure diagnosis and management (Euro-HF). Eur Heart J 2000 Nov; 21(22): 1877–87

  45. 45.

    The Study Group on Diagnosis of the Working Group on Heart Failure of The European Society of Cardiology. Increasing awareness and improving the management of heart failure in Europe: the IMPROVEMENT of HF initiative. Eur J Heart Fail 1999 Jun; 1 (2): 139–44

  46. 46.

    Marchioli R, Avanzini F, Barzi F, et al. Assessment of absolute risk of death after myocardial infarction by use of multiple-risk-factor assessment equations: GISSI-Prevenzione mortality risk chart. Eur Heart J 2001 Nov; 22(22): 2085–103

  47. 47.

    Remme W, Boccanelli A, Cline C, et al. SHAPE Study. Increasing awareness and perception of heart failure in Europe and improving care: rationale and design of the SHAPE Study. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2004 Mar; 18(2): 153–9

  48. 48.

    Remme WJ, McMurray JJ, Rauch B, et al. Public awareness of heart failure in Europe: first results from SHAPE. Eur Heart J 2005 Nov; 26(22): 2413–21

  49. 49.

    Di Chiara A, Chiarella F, Savonitto S, et al. BLIT Investigators. Epidemiology of acute myocardial infarction in the Italian CCU network: the BLITZ study. Eur Heart J 2003 Sep; 24(18): 1616–29

  50. 50.

    Casella G, Savonitto S, Chiarella F, et al. BLITZ-1 Study Investigators. Clinical characteristics and outcome of diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction: data from the BLITZ-1 study. Ital Heart J 2005 May; 6(5): 374–83

  51. 51.

    Di Chiara A, Fresco C, Savonitto S, et al. BLITZ-2 Investigators. Epidemiology of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes in the Italian cardiology network: the BLITZ-2 study. Eur Heart J 2006 Feb; 27(4): 393–405

  52. 52.

    Italian National Institute for the Social Welfare (INPS) database [online]. Available from URL: http://www.inps.it [Accessed 2008 Feb]

  53. 53.

    Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (GISE) [online]. Available from URL: http://www.gises.it [Accessed 2008 Feb]

  54. 54.

    Fattore G, Landolina M, Bontempi L, et al. Gruppo di Studio congiunto Federazione Italiana di Cardiologia-Assobiomedica di Cardiologia-Assobiomedica ‘Valutazione del Medello CRT-Eucomed’. Economic impact of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure: available evidence and evaluation of the CRT-Eucomed model for analysis of cost-effectiveness. Ital Heart J Suppl 2005 Dec; 6(12): 796–803

  55. 55.

    Thom T, Haase N, Rosamond W, et al. American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics: 2006 update — a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 2006; 113(6): e85–151

  56. 56.

    Knoops KT, de Groot LC, Kromhout D, et al. Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women: the HALE project. JAMA 2004 Sep 22; 292(12): 1433–9

  57. 57.

    Marchioli R, Avanzini F, Barzi F, et al. GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators. Assessment of absolute risk of death after myocardial infarction by use of multiplerisk-factor assessment equations: GISSI-Prevenzione mortality risk chart. Eur Heart J 2001 Nov; 22(22): 2085–103

  58. 58.

    Strömberg A. The crucial role of patient education in heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2005 Mar 16; 7(3): 363–9

  59. 59.

    Collins KM, Dantico M, Shearer NB, et al. Heart disease awareness among college students. J Commun Health 2004 Oct; 29(5): 405–20

  60. 60.

    Mayer Jr O, Simon J, Heidrich J, et al. EUROASPIRE II Study Group. Educational level and risk profile of cardiac patients in the EUROASPIRE II substudy. J Epidemiol Commun Health 2004 Jan; 58(1): 47–52

  61. 61.

    Greenlund KJ, Zheng ZJ, Keenan NL, et al. Trends in self-reported multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors among adults in the United States, 1991-1999. Arch Intern Med 2004 Jan 26; 164(2): 181–8

  62. 62.

    Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists Collaboration. Effects of different blood-pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events: results of prospectively-designed overviews of randomised trials. Lancet 2003; 362: 1527–45

  63. 63.

    Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of cholesterollowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. Lancet 2005; 366: 1267–78

  64. 64.

    Cannon CP, Steinberg BA, Murphy SA, et al. Meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcomes trials comparing intensive versus moderate statin therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48(3): 438–45

  65. 65.

    Sesti G, Volpe M, Cosentino F, et al. Metabolic syndrome: diagnosis and clinical management, an official document of the Working Group of the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Prevention (SIPREC). High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev 2006; 13(4): 185–98

  66. 66.

    Anderson KM, Odell PM, Wilson PW, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk profile. Am Heart J 1991; 121: 293–8

  67. 67.

    Giampaoli S, Palmieri L, Capocaccia R, et al. Estimating population-based incidence and prevalence of major coronary events. Int J Epidemiol 2001 Oct; 30 Suppl. 1: S5–10

  68. 68.

    Tunstal-Pedoe H. The Dundee coronary risk-disk for management of change in risk factors. BMJ 1991; 303: 744–7

  69. 69.

    Voss R, Cullen P, Schulte H, et al. Prediction of risk of coronary events in middle-aged men in the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster Study (PROCAM) using neural networks. Int J Epidemiol 2002; 31: 1253–62

  70. 70.

    Emberson J, Whincup P, Morris R, et al. Evaluating the impact of population and high-risk strategies for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 484–91

  71. 71.

    Lloyd-Jones DM, Leip EP, Larson MG, et al. Prediction of lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease by risk factor burden at 50 years of age. Circulation 2006; 113: 791–8

  72. 72.

    Anselmino M, Malmberg K, Ohrvik J, et al. on behalf of the Euro Heart Survey Investigators. Evidence-based medication and revascularization: powerful tools in the management of patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2008 Apr; 15(2): 216–23

  73. 73.

    Tonstad S, Sandvik E, Larsen PG, et al. Gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of the metabolic syndrome in screened subjects at risk for coronary heart disease. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2007 Jun; 5(2): 174–82

  74. 74.

    Brevetti G, Bucur R, Balbarini A, et al. Women and peripheral arterial disease: same disease, different issues. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2008 Apr; 9(4): 382–8

  75. 75.

    Vitale C, Miceli M, Rosano GM. Gender-specific characteristics of atherosclerosis in menopausal women: risk factors, clinical course and strategies for prevention. Climacteric 2007 Oct; 10Suppl. 2: 16–20

  76. 76.

    Tocci G, Valenti V, Sciarretta S, et al. Multivariate risk assessment and risk score cards in hypertension. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2007; 3(3): 313–20

  77. 77.

    Volpe M. Microalbuminuria screening in patients with hypertension: recommendations for clinical practice. Int J Clin Pract 2008 Jan; 62(1): 97–108

  78. 78.

    Zanchetti A, Cuspidi C, Comarella L, et al. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in elderly hypertensives: results of the APROS-diadys study. J Hypertens 2007; 25(10): 2158–67

  79. 79.

    Emdin M, Clerico A, Clemenza F, et al. Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists, Italian Society of Cardiology, Italian Federation of Cardiology, Italian Society of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Italian Society of Laboratory Medicine, Italian Society of Emergency Medicine. Recommendations for the clinical use of cardiac natriuretic peptides. Ital Heart J 2005; 6(5): 430–46

  80. 80.

    Mancia G, Ambrosioni E, Rosei EA, et al. for the ForLife study group. Blood pressure control and risk of stroke in untreated and treated hypertensive patients screened from clinical practice: results of the ForLife study. J Hypertens 2005; 23(8): 1575–81

  81. 81.

    Mancia G, Grassi G, Zanchetti A. New-onset diabetes and antihypertensive drugs. J Hypertens 2006; 24(1): 3–10

  82. 82.

    Sever PS, Dahlof B, Poulter NR, et al. for the ASCOT Investigators. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Drugs 2004; 64Suppl. 2: 43–60

  83. 83.

    Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Weber M, et al. for the VALUE trial group. Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) randomised trial. Lancet 2004; 363(9426): 2022–31

  84. 84.

    Liu L, Zhang Y, Guozhang L, et al. for the FEVER Study Group. The Felodipine Event Reduction (FEVER) Study: a chinese randomised long-term placebocontrolled trial in Chinese hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 2005; 23: 2157–73

  85. 85.

    Julius S, Nesbitt SD, Egan BM, et al. Trial of Preventing Hypertension (TROPHY) Study Investigators. Feasibility of treating prehypertension with an angiotensin receptor blocker. N Engl J Med 2006; 354(16): 1685–97

  86. 86.

    Bosch J, Lonn E, Pogue J, et al. HOPE/HOPE-TOO Study Investigators. Longterm effects of ramipril on cardiovascular events and on diabetes: results of the HOPE study extension. Circulation 2005 Aug 30; 112(9): 1339–46

  87. 87.

    Gaede P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving HH, et al. Effect of a multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008 Feb 7; 358(6): 580–91

  88. 88.

    Christensen R, Kristensen PK, Bartels EM, et al. Efficacy and safety of the weight-loss drug rimonabant: a meta-analysis of randomised trials [published erratum appears in Lancet 2008 Feb 16; 371 (9612): 558]. Lancet 2007 Nov 17; 370(9600): 1706–13

  89. 89.

    Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, et al. Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 2008 Feb 16; 371(9612): 569–78

  90. 90.

    Volpe M, Erhardt LR, Williams B. Cardiovascular risk management in clinical practice: time to change. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev 2008; 15: 9–16

Download references

Acknowledgements

Giovanna Laurendi, Italian Health Ministry, Department of Prevention. The author wishes to thank Giuliano Tocci, MD, and Francesca Giovannelli, MD, for helping with the preparation of the English version of this article.

List of societies and organizations participating in this article: Associazione Nazionale Cardiologi Extraospedalieri (ANCE); Associazione Regionale Cardiologi Ambulatoriali (ARCA); European Society for Cardiovascular Prevention (ESOCAP); Federazione delle Società Medico-Scientifiche Italiane (FISM); Federazione degli Ordini dei Farmacisti Italiani (FOFI); Fondazione Lorenzini; Federazione Nazionale Collegi Infermieri Professionali; Assistenti Sanitari e Vigilatrici d’Infanzia (IPASVI); Società Italiana di Diabetologia (SID); Societa Italiana Ipertensione Arteriosa (SIIA); Società Italiana di Medicina Interna (SIMI); Società Italiana per la Prevenzione Cardiovascolare (SIPREC); Società Italiana per lo Studio dell’Aterosclerosi (SISA); Società Italiana per lo Studio dell’Emostasi e della Trombosi (SISET); Società Italiana di Terapia Clinica e Sperimentale (SITECS).

Members of the Working Group: Vincenzo Romano (ANCE), Enrico Orsini (ARCA), Marco Comaschi (ESOCAP), Felice Ribaldone (FOFI), Rodolfo Paoletti (Lorenzini Foundation), Graziella Bruno (SID), Dario Manfellotto (SIIA), Massimo Pagani (SIMI).

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article. The author has no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article.

Author information

Correspondence to Prof. Massimo Volpe.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Volpe, M. 2008 White Paper for Implementing Strategies and Interventions for Cardiovascular Prevention in Italy. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev 15, 63–73 (2008). https://doi.org/10.2165/00151642-200815020-00005

Download citation

Key words

  • cardiovascular prevention
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cardiovascular mortality
  • hypertension
  • dyslipidaemia
  • diabetes
  • cardiovascular risk factors