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Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in Children

Recognition and Management

Abstract

Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is most common in children and has the potential to cause life-long musculoskeletal deformities. Most cases are caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is now rare in countries that routinely use the Hib vaccine. Although magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred modality in localized disease, scintigraphy is often preferred as the first line of investigation because it helps to clarify the location of infection and exclude the presence of multifocal disease. Where the presentation is typical, there is no underlying disease, there is a low prevalence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), and there is a good response to antibacterial therapy, a diagnostic bone aspirate or biopsy is not necessary. The first-line antibacterial choice in most circumstances is a β-lactamase-resistant penicillin. If CA-MRSA is suspected, the first-line options include clindamycin, the addition of an aminoglycoside or, rarely, vancomycin. In most patients, the total duration of therapy can be substantially shorter than the traditional 6 weeks, and oral therapy can be commenced after a brief course of intravenous antibacterials. We recommend 3 days of intravenous therapy followed by 3 weeks of high-dose oral antibacterials, provided there is no underlying illness, the presentation is typical and acute, and there has been a good response to treatment initially. Any deviation from this requires more intensive confirmation of the diagnosis (with imaging and/or biopsy or aspiration), and prolongation of intravenous therapy and total duration of treatment. Close monitoring and follow-up for at least 2 years are advised to detect complications.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Professor Kerr Graham for his thoughtful comments on the manuscript and for providing the radiology images.

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

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Correspondence to Dr Jonathan R. Carapetis.

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Steer, A.C., Carapetis, J.R. Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in Children. Pediatr-Drugs 6, 333–346 (2004). https://doi.org/10.2165/00148581-200406060-00002

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Keywords

  • Osteomyelitis
  • Sickle Cell Disease
  • Septic Arthritis
  • Chronic Osteomyelitis
  • Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis