Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Medicated chewing gum

Pros and cons


Chewing gum has been used for centuries to clean the mouth or freshen the breath. The first patent on chewing gum was filed in 1869 and the first medicated chewing gum was commercially introduced in 1928. In 1991, The European Pharmacopoeia defined the intended use of medicated chewing gum as local treatment of mouth diseases or for systemic delivery after absorption through the buccal mucosa or from the gastrointestinal tract.

Medicated chewing gum consists of a masticatory gum core with a coating that can be a film of polymers, waxes, sweeteners, sugar, flavors, or colors. The pharmacologically active ingredient can be present in the core, in the coating, or in both. The degree of the oromucosal absorption depends on the condition of the mucosa, the contact time, and the physicochemical properties of the active ingredient. A small un-ionized lipophilic molecule dissolved in saliva that is enzymatically stable is likely to be absorbed most readily. Regarding local actions, it is possible to achieve beneficial effects with medicated chewing gum that might be superior to those achieved with lozenges.

A saliva-soluble ingredient will be almost completely released within 10–15 minutes of chewing whereas a lipid-soluble ingredient will dissolve in the gum base and thereafter be slowly and incompletely released. As mastication increases the production of saliva, the active ingredient (depending on its characteristics) is dissolved into the saliva and thereafter swallowed with a consequent systemic absorption.

Medicated chewing gum has through the years gained increasing acceptance as a drug delivery system. Several ingredients are now incorporated in medicated chewing gum, e.g. fluoride for prophylaxis of dental caries, chlorhexidine as a local disinfectant, nicotine for smoking cessation, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) as an analgesic, dimenhydrinate for motion sickness, and caffeine as a ’stay alert’ preparation. There are many other conditions and diseases where there is a potential for the use of medicated chewing gum. Children in particular may consider chewing gum as a more preferred method of drug administration compared with oral liquids or tablets. The use of medicated chewing gum is feasible as a local treatment of diseases of the oral cavity as well as a treatment of systemic conditions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Table I
Table II
Table III
Table IV
Table V


  1. 1.

    The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement.


  1. 1

    Silagy C, Lancaster T, Stead L, et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (3 (new 4)): 1 (CD000146)–72

  2. 2

    Edgar WM, Geddes AM. Chewing gum and dental health: a review. Br Dent J 1990; 168(4): 173–7

  3. 3

    Odusola F. Chewing gum as aid in treatment of hyposalivation. N Y State Dent J 1991 Apr; 57(4): 28–31

  4. 4

    Simons D. Chewing gum: trick or treat? A review of the literature. Dent Update 1996 May; 23(4): 162–9

  5. 5

    Imfeld T. Chewing gum-facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1999; 10(3): 405–19

  6. 6

    Hayes C. The effect of non-cariogenic sweeteners on the prevention of dental caries: a review of the evidence. J Dent Educ 2001 Oct; 65(10): 1106–9

  7. 7

    Allen LV. Chewing gum dosage forms. US Pharm 1992 Mar; 17: 78–82

  8. 8

    Rassing MR. Specialized oral mucosal drug delivery systems: chewing gum. In: Rathbone MJ, editor. Oral mucosal drug delivery. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1996: 319–58

  9. 9

    Rassing MR. Chewing gum as a drug delivery system. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1994; 13: 89–121

  10. 10

    Rassing MR, Jacobsen J. Medicated chewing gum. In: Rathbone MJ, Hadgraft J, Roberts MS, editors. Modified release drug delivery technology. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 2003: 419–30

  11. 11

    Anonymous. A concise history of chewing gum. Dent Stud Magazine 1969 Jun; 47(9): 626–41

  12. 12

    Hendrickson R. The great American chewing gum book. 1st ed. Radnor (PA): Clinton Book Company, 1976

  13. 13

    Cloys LA, Christen AG, Christen JA. The development and history of chewing gum. Bull Hist Dent 1992 Oct; 40(2): 57–65

  14. 14

    Growth through research: a history of Schering-Plough Corporation [brochure]. Kenilworth: Schering-Plough Corporation, 1992: 3

  15. 15

    Council of Europe. European pharmacopoeia. 4th ed. Strasbourg Cedex: Directorate of the Quality of Medicine of the Council of Europe, 2001

  16. 16

    Euromonitor International. Integrated market information system [online]. Available from URL: [Accessed 2004 April 22]

  17. 17

    Anonymous. Singapore relaxes chewing gum ban. Updated 2002 Nov 20. Available from URL: [Accessed 2004 Mar 24]

  18. 18

    Cherukuri S, Pinney J, Henningfield JE, et al., inventors. JSR LLC, Fuisz Technologies Limited, assignee. Medicated chewing gum delivery system for nicotine. US patent WO 00/13662. 2000 Mar 16

  19. 19

    Cherukuri SR, Fridello DR, Ferroti M, et al., inventors. Nabisco Brands Inc., assignee. Gum base, chewing gum containing same and method. US patent 4,352,822. 1982 Oct 5

  20. 20

    Mackay DAM, Clark KW, Witzel F, et al., inventors. Life Savers, Inc., assignee. Long-lasting flavored chewing gum including chalk-free gum base. US patent 4,064,274. 1977 Dec 20

  21. 21

    McGrew G, Barkalow D, Johnson S, et al., inventors. WM Wrigley Jr Company, assignee. Chewing gum containing medicament active agents. US patent WO 00/35298. 2000 Jun 22

  22. 22

    Collins L, Dawes C. The surface area of the adult human mouth and thickness of the salivary film covering the teeth and oral mucosa. J Dent Res 1987; 66(8): 1300–2

  23. 23

    Schroeder HE. Differentiation of human oral stratified mucosa. Basel: S. Karger, 1981

  24. 24

    Edgar WM, O’Mullane DM. Saliva and dental health. 1st ed. Plymouth: Latimer Trend and Company, 1990

  25. 25

    Jenkins GN, Edgar WM. The effect of daily gum-chewing on salivary flow rates in man. J Dent Res 1989 May; 68(5): 786–90

  26. 26

    Percival RS, Challacombe SJ, Marsh PD. Flow rates of resting whole and stimulated parotid saliva in relation to age and gender. J Dent Res 1994; 73(8): 1416–20

  27. 27

    Sreebny L, Schwartz S. A reference guide to drugs and dry mouth. 2nd ed. Gerodontology 1997; 14(1): 33–47

  28. 28

    Abdollahl M, Radfar M. A review of drug-induced oral reactions. J Contemp Dent Pract 2003 Feb 1; 4(1): 10–31

  29. 29

    Dawes C, Macpherson LMD. Effects of nine different chewing-gums and lozenges on salivary flow rate and pH. Caries Res 1992; 26: 176–82

  30. 30

    Rosenhek M, Macpherson LMD, Dawes C. The effects of chewing-gum stick size and duration of chewing on salivary flow rate and succrose and bicarbonate concentrations. Arch Oral Biol 1993; 38(10): 885–91

  31. 31

    Dong C, Puckett A-DJ, Dawes C. The effects of chewing frequency and duration of gum chewing on salivary flow rate and sucrose concentration. Arch Oral Biol 1995 Jul; 40(7): 585–8

  32. 32

    Dawes C, Watanabe S. The effects of different foods and concentrations of citric acid on the flow rate of whole saliva in man. Arch Oral Biol 1988; 33(1): 1–5

  33. 33

    Froehlich DA, Pangborn RM, Whitaker JR. The effect of oral stimulation on human parotid salivary flow rate and alpha-amylase secretion. Physiol Behav 1987; 41(3): 209–17

  34. 34

    Guinard JX, Zoumas-Morse C, Walchak C, et al. Relation between saliva flow and flavor release from chewing gum. Physiol Behav 1997 Apr; 61(4): 591–6

  35. 35

    Dawes C, Macpherson LM. The distribution of saliva and sucrose around the mouth during the use of chewing gum and the implications for the site-specificity of caries after callus deposition. J Dent Res 1993; 72(5): 852–7

  36. 36

    Dunér-Engström M, Larsson O, Lundberg J, et al. Effect of nicotine chewing gum on salivary secretion. Swed Dent J 1986; 10(3): 93–6

  37. 37

    Benowitz NL, Lee BL, Jacob P. Toxicity of nicotine: implications with regard to nicotine replacement therapy. Prog Clin Biol Res 1989; 261: 187–217

  38. 38

    Finn SB, Jamison HC. The effect of a dicalcium phosphate chewing gum on caries incidence in children: 30-month results. J Am Dent Assoc 1967 Apr; 74(5): 987–95

  39. 39

    Richardson AS, Hole LW, McCombie F, et al. Anticariogenic effect of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate chewing gum: results after two years. J Can Dent Assoc 1972 Jun; 38(6): 213–8

  40. 40

    Chow LC, Takagi S, Shern RJ, et al. Effects on whole saliva of chewing gums containing calcium phosphates. J Dent Res 1994 Jan; 73(1): 26–32

  41. 41

    Smoak BR, Koufman JA. Effects of gum chewing on pharyngeal and esophageal pH. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2001 Dec; 110(12): 1117–9

  42. 42

    Smith AJ, Moran J, Dangler LV, et al. The efficacy of an anti-gingivitis chewing gum. J Clin Periodontol 1996 Jan; 23(1): 19–23

  43. 43

    Oliveby A, Ekstrand J, Lagerlof F. Effect of salivary flow rate on salivary fluoride clearance after use of a fluoride-containing chewing gum. Caries Res 1987; 21(5): 393–401

  44. 44

    Ekstrand J, Birkhed D, Lindgren LE, et al. Effect of repeated intake of a sugar free fluoride-containing chewing gum on acidogenicity and microbial composition of dental plaque. Scand J Dent Res 1985 Aug; 93(4): 309–14

  45. 45

    Lamb WJ, Corpron RE, More FG, et al. In situ remineralization of subsurface enamel lesion after the use of a fluoride chewing gum. Caries Res 1993; 27(2): 111–6

  46. 46

    Sjogren K, Birkhed D, Persson LG, et al. Salivary fluoride clearance after a single intake of fluoride tablets and chewing gums in children, adults, and dry mouth patients. Scand J Dent Res 1993 Oct; 101(5): 274–8

  47. 47

    Etemadzadeh H. Plaque-growth inhibiting effect of chewing gum containing urea hydrogen peroxide. J Clin Periodontol 1991 May; 18(5): 337–40

  48. 48

    Emslie RD. Treatment of acute ulcerative gingivitis: a clinical trial using chewing gums containing metronidazole or penicillin. Br Dent J 1967 Apr 4; 122(7): 307–8

  49. 49

    Pedersen M, Rassing MR. Miconazole and miconazole nitrate chewing gum as drug delivery systems: practical application of solid dispersion technique. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1990; 16(1): 55–74

  50. 50

    Pedersen M, Rassing MR. Miconazole chewing gum as a drug delivery system: application of solid dispersion technique and lecithin. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1990; 16(13): 2015–30

  51. 51

    Pedersen M, Rassing MR. Miconazole chewing gum as a drug delivery system test of release promoting additives. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1991; 17(3): 411–20

  52. 52

    Rindum JL, Holmstrup P, Pedersen M, et al. Miconazole chewing gum for treatment of chronic oral candidosis. Scand J Dent Res 1993 Dec; 101(6): 386–90

  53. 53

    Pavelic RA. Use of an analgesic-antibiotic chewing troche (Orabiotic) in posttonsillectomy and adenoidectomy complications. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon 1960; 39: 644–5

  54. 54

    Rittenhouse EA. Prevention of secondary hemorrhage in tonsillectomy. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon 1957; 26: 406–8

  55. 55

    Wertalik F, Bonorden R. Salivary levels of antibiotics from use of neomycingramicidin chewing troches. J Pharm Sci 1968 Mar; 57(3): 530–1

  56. 56

    Andersen T, Gram HM, Pedersen M, et al. Chewing gum as a drug delivery system for nystatin: influence of solubilizing agents upon the release of water insoluble drugs. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1990; 16(13): 1985–94

  57. 57

    Ennever J, Sturzenberger OP. Inhibition of dental calculus formation by use of an enzymes chewing gum. J Periodontol 1961; 32: 331–3

  58. 58

    Emslie RD, Cross WG, Blake GC. A clinical trial of an ascorbic acid peroxide preparation and penicillin chewing gum in the treatment of acute ulcerative gingivitis. Br Dent J 1962; 112: 320–3

  59. 59

    Kimbrough C, Chun M, Dela-Roca G, et al. PYCNOGENOL chewing gum minimizes gingival bleeding and plaque formation. Phytomedicine 2002 Jul; 9(5): 410–3

  60. 60

    Glass RL. Effects on dental caries incidence of frequent ingestion of small amounts of sugars and stannous EDTA in chewing gum. Caries Res 1981; 15(3): 256–62

  61. 61

    Fox N, Kesel RG, Neary ER, et al. Effect of sulfathiazole in chewing gum in certain oropharyngeal infections. Arch Otolaryngol 1945; 41: 278–83

  62. 62

    Pfeiffer CC, Holland HH. Salivary sulfonamide levels after chewing paraffin and chicle vehicles. Am J Pharm 1945; 44: 695–9

  63. 63

    Imfeld T, Birkhed D, Lingstrom P. Effect of urea in sugar-free chewing gums on pH recovery in human dental plaque evaluated with three different methods. Caries Res 1995; 29(3): 172–80

  64. 64

    Kleber C, Putt M. Plaque removal by a chewing gum containing zirconium silicate. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1986 Oct; 7(9): 681–5

  65. 65

    Anderson GB, McLean TN, Caffesse RG, et al. Effects of a zirconium silicate chewing gum on plaque and gingivitis. Quintessence Int 1990; 21: 479–89

  66. 66

    Weatherell JA, Robinson C, Rathbone MJ. Site-specific differences in the salivary concentrations of substances in the oral cavity: implications for aetiology of oral disease and local drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1994; 13: 23–42

  67. 67

    Bonesvoll P, Lokken P, Rolla G, et al. Retention of chlorhexidine in the human oral cavity after mouth rinses. Arch Oral Biol 1974; 19: 209–12

  68. 68

    Christrup LL, Davis SS, Frier M, et al. Deposition of a model substance, 99mTc EHIDA, in the oral cavity after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets. Int J Pharm 1990 Dec 1; 66: 169–74

  69. 69

    Christrup L, Rasnmussen S, Rassing M. Chewing gum as a drug delivery system: IV. Excretion of ascorbic acid in urine after administration of chewing gum and chewing tablets. Farmaci Sci Ed 1988; 16: 44–7

  70. 70

    Woodford DW, Lesko LJ. Relative bioavailability of aspirin gum. J Pharm Sci 1981 Dec; 70(12): 1341–3

  71. 71

    Bousquet E, Tirendi S, Bonina FP, et al. Bioavailability of two formulations of acetylsalicylic acid gums. Pharmazie 1992 Aug; 47(8): 607–9

  72. 72

    Geisslinger G, Menzel S, Zoller O, et al. Absorption and distribution of ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid formulations. Drug Invest 1994; 7(1): 52–5

  73. 73

    Kamimori GH, Karyekar CS, Otterstetter R, et al. The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers. Int J Pharm 2002 Mar 2; 234(1–2): 159–67

  74. 74

    Jessen A, Toubro S, Astrup A. Effect of chewing gum containing nicotine and caffeine on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77(6): 1442–7

  75. 75

    Seibel K, Schaffler K, Reitmeir P. A randomised, placebo-controlled study comparing two formulations of dimenhydrinate with respect to efficacy in motion sickness and sedation. Arzneimittel Forschung 1902 Feb; 52(7): 529–36

  76. 76

    Christrup LL, Angelo HR, Bonde J, et al. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets. Acta Pharm Nord 1990; 2(2): 83–8

  77. 77

    Kristensen F, Christrup L, Angelo H, et al. Tyggegummi til stofmisbrugere. Farmaci 1991; 12: 366–7

  78. 78

    Russell MAH, Raw M, Jarvis MJ. Clinical use of nicotine chewing gum. BMJ 1980 Jun 28; 280 (Pt 4): 1599–602

  79. 79

    Jensen LN, Christrup LL, Menger N, et al. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine. Acta Pharm Nord 1991; 3(4): 219–22

  80. 80

    Christrup LL, Bonde J, Eriksen H, et al. Chewing gum as a drug delivery system: III. Bioavailability of salicylamide administered in tablets and chewing gum. Farmaci Sci Ed 1988; 16: 6–14

  81. 81

    Malcolm R, Currey HS, Mitchell MA, et al. Silver acetate gum as a deterrent to smoking. Chest 1986 Jul; 90(1): 107–11

  82. 82

    Jensen E, Schmidt E, Pedersen B, et al. Effect on smoking cessation of silver acetate, nicotine and ordinary chewing gum. Psychopharmacology 1991; 104: 470–4

  83. 83

    Jensen EJ, Rungby J, Hansen JC, et al. Serum concentrations and accumulation of silver in skin during three months treatment with an anti-smoking chewing gum containing silver acetate. Hum Toxicol 1988 Nov; 7(6): 535–40

  84. 84

    Christrup LL, Bonde J, Rasmussen SN, et al. Relative bioavailability of (+/−)-verapamil hydrochloride administered in tablets and chewing gum. Acta Pharm Nord 1990; 2(6): 371–6

  85. 85

    Kurosaki Y, Yano K, Kimura T. Perfusion cells for studying regional variation in oral-mucosal permeability in humans: I. Kinetic aspects on oral-mucosal absorption of alkylparabens. Pharm Res 1997; 14(9): 1241–5

  86. 86

    Beckett A, Triggs E. Buccal absorption of basic drugs and its application as an in vivo model of passive drug transfer through lipid membranes. J Pharm Pharmacol 1967; 19: 31S–41S

  87. 87

    Rathbone M, Hadgraft J. Absorption of drugs from the human oral cavity. Int J Pharm 1991; 74: 9–24

  88. 88

    Henry J, Ohashi K, Wadersworth J, et al. Drug recovery following buccal absorption of propranolol. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1980; 10: 61–5

  89. 89

    Beckett A, Boyes R, Triggs E. Kinetics of buccal absorption of amphetamines. J Pharm Pharmacol 1968; 20: 92–7

  90. 90

    Dearden J, Tomlinson E. A new buccal absorption model. J Pharm Pharmacol 1971; 23: 68S–72S

  91. 91

    Schürmann W, Turner P. A membrane model of the human oral mucosa as derived from buccal absorption performance and physicochemical properties of the beta-blocking drugs atenolol and propranolol. J Pharm Pharmacol 1978; 30: 137–47

  92. 92

    Barabolak R, Hoerman K, Kroll N, et al. Chewing gum profiles in the US population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1991; 19: 125–6

  93. 93

    Nemeth-Coslett R, Benowitz N, Robinson N, et al. Nicotine gum: chew rate, subjective effects and plasma nicotine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1988; 29: 747–51

  94. 94

    Puetter S, Szejtli J, inventors. Puetter Medice Chem Pharm, assignee. Chewing gum compositions. US patent EP0575977. 1993 Dec 29

  95. 95

    Jacobsen J, Bjerregaard S, Pedersen M. Cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of antimycotics intended to act in the oral cavity-drug supersaturation, toxicity on TR146 cells and release from a delivery system. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 1999; 48(3): 217–24

  96. 96

    Morella A, Lukas S, inventors. Faulding (FH) & Company Limited, assignee. Microcapsule composition and process. US patent CA 2,068,366. 1992

  97. 97

    Yang R, Randolph N, inventors. Werner-Lambert Company, assignee. Encapsulation composition for use with chewing gum and edible products. US patent 4,740,376. 1987 Jun 29

  98. 98

    Quirynen M, Zhao H, van Steenbergh D. Review of the treatment strategies for oral malodour. Clin Oral Invest 2002 Mar; 6(1): 1–10

  99. 99

    Claman HN. Mouth ulcers associated with prolonged chewing of gum containing aspirin. JAMA 1967 Nov 13; 202(7): 651–2

  100. 100

    Skofitsch G, Lembeck F. Serum levels of dimenhydrinate: determination by HPLC with UV detection after intake of dimenhydrinate in a coated chewing gum dragee. Arzneimittel Forschung 1983; 33(12): 1674–6

  101. 101

    Hodoba D. Chewing can relieve sleepiness in a night of sleep deprivation. Sleep Res Online 1999; 2(4): 101–5

  102. 102

    Moneret-Vautrin DA, Bene MC, Faure G. She should not have chewed [letter]. Lancet 1986 Mar 15; I(8481): 617

  103. 103

    Moneret-Vautrin DA, Faure G, Bene MC. Chewing-gum preservative induced toxidermic vasculitis. Allergy 1986 Sep; 41(7): 546–8

  104. 104

    Kerr DA, McClatchey KD, Regezi JA. Allergic gingivostomatitis (due to gum chewing). J Periodontol 1971 Nov; 42(11): 709–12

  105. 105

    Goldberg LD, Ditchek NT. Chewing gum diarrhea [letter]. Am J Dig Dis 1978; 23(6): 568

  106. 106

    Lingström P, Holm AK, Mejare I, et al. Dietary factors in the prevention of dental caries: a systematic review. Acta Odontal Scand 2003; 61(6): 331–40

  107. 107

    Mensch AR, Holden M. Nicotine overdose after a single piece of nicotine gum. Chest 1984; 86(5): 801–2

  108. 108

    Choragudi N, Aronow W, DeLuca A. Nicotine gum-induced atrial fibrillation. Heart Dis 2003; 5(2): 100–1

  109. 109

    Christen AG, Beiswanger BB, Mallatt ME, et al. Effects of nicotine-containing chewing gum on oral soft and hard tissues: a clinical study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1985; 59(1): 37–42

  110. 110

    Addy M, Roberts WR. Comparison of bisbiguanide antiseptics alexidine and chlorhexidine: II. Clinical and in vitro staining properties. J Clin Periodontol 1981; 8(3): 220–30

  111. 111

    Yankell SL, Emling RC. Efficacy of chewing gum in preventing extrinsic tooth staining. J Clin Periodontol 1997; 8(6): 169–72

  112. 112

    Marinone MG, Savoldi E. Chlorhexidine and taste: influence of mouthwashes concentration and of rinsing time. Minerva Stomatol 2000; 49(5): 221–6

  113. 113

    Frank ME, Gent JF, Hettinger TP. Effects of chlorhexidine on human taste perception. Physiol Behav 2001; 74(1-2): 85–99

  114. 114

    Hase JC, Attstrom R, Edwardsson S, et al. 6-month use of 0.2% delmopinol hydrochloride in camparison with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate and placebo: (I). Effect on plaque formation and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 1998; 25(9): 746–53

  115. 115

    Waaler MS, Rölla G, Skjörland KK, et al. Effects of oral rinsing with triclosan and sodium lauryl sulfate on dental plaque formation: a pilot study. J Dent Res 1993; 101: 192–5

  116. 116

    Fernö O. The development of a chewing gum containing nicotine and some comments on the role played by nicotine in the smoking habit. In: Steinfeld J, Griffiths W, Ball K, et al., editors. Smoking and health: proceedings of the Third World Conference on Smoking and Health; 1975 Jun 2–5; New York. Washington, DC: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1977: 569–73

  117. 117

    Munksgaard EC, Nolte J, Kristensen K. Adherence of chewing gum to dental restorative materials. Am J Dent 1995 Jun; 8(3): 137–9

  118. 118

    Christen AG, Young JM, Beiswanger BB, et al. Effects of nicotine chewing gum on complete dentures and their soft-tissue-bearing areas. Int J Prosthodont 1989; 2(2): 155–62

  119. 119

    Farella M, Bakke M, Michelotti A, et al. Effects of prolonged gum chewing on pain and fatigue in human jaw muscles. Eur J Oral Sci 2001 Apr; 109(2): 81–5

  120. 120

    Christensen LV, Tran KT, Mohamed SE. Gum chewing and jaw muscle fatigue and pains. J Oral Rehabil 1996 Jun; 23(6): 424–37

  121. 121

    Weil AT. Coca leaf as a therapeutic agent. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1978; 5(1): 75–86

  122. 122

    Mackert JR, Berglund A. Mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings: absorbed dose and the potential for adverse health effects. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1997; 8(4): 410–36

  123. 123

    Sällsten G, Thorén J, Barregård L, et al. Long-term use of nicotine chewing gum and mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings. J Dent Res 1996; 75(1): 594–8

  124. 124

    Dansk Farmaceutforening. Viagra tyggegummi [online]. Updated 2003 Jun 18. Available from URL: [Accessed 2003 Jul 7]

  125. 125

    Wilkinson L, Scholey A, Wesnes K. Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers. Appetite 2002; 38: 235–6

Download references


Fertin Pharma A/S, Vejle, Denmark is acknowledged for data on the amount of gum consumption.

Author information

Correspondence to Dr Jette Jacobsen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Jacobsen, J., Christrup, L.L. & Jensen, N. Medicated chewing gum. Am J Drug Deliv 2, 75–88 (2004).

Download citation


  • Nicotine
  • Oral Health
  • Active Ingredient
  • Motion Sickness
  • Salivary Flow Rate