- 271 Downloads
Promoting sunscreen use is an integral part of prevention programmes aimed at reducing ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin damage and skin cancers. Protection against both UVB and UVA radiation is advocated. Most sunscreens combine chemical UV absorbing sunscreens and physical inorganic sunscreens, which reflect UV, to provide broad-spectrum protection. Newer triazole and camphor-derivative based sunscreens, also provide broad-spectrum protection and are more cosmetically acceptable than many traditional agents. Currently licensed sunscreen ingredients in common use rarely cause allergic or photoallergic reactions. Vitamin D levels are not significantly affected by regular use of a sunscreen. Sunscreen use reduces both the development of precancerous solar keratosis and the recurrence of squamous cell carcinomas. Sunscreen use early in life may be important in prevention of basal cell carcinomas. Increased melanoma risk is influenced by the behaviour patterns of regular sunscreen users, as opposed to any direct effect of sunscreens. Sun protection factor (SPF) is affected by application density, water resistance and other factors. An adequate SPF for an individual should be balanced to skin phenotype and exposure habits. The correct use of sunscreens should be combined with the avoidance of midday sun and the wearing of protective clothing and glasses, as part of an overall sun protection regimen.
KeywordsBasal Cell Carcinoma Zinc Oxide Minimal Erythema Dose Oxybenzone Octyl Methoxycinnamate
There were no sources of funding or conflicts of interest in the preparation of this manuscript.
- 1.Schofield D. Who uses sunscreens? A comparison of the use of sunscreens with the use of prescribed pharmaceuticals. Canberra: NATSEM University of Canberra, 1996Google Scholar
- 4.Klein K. Sunscreen products: formulation and regulatory considerations. In: Lowe N.J., Shaath N.A., Pathak M.A., editors. Sunscreens: development, evaluation and regulatory aspects. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997: 299Google Scholar
- 5.Food and Drug Administration Sunscreen drug products for over-the counter human use; tentative final monograph. (Proposed Rule. 21 CFR Parts 352, 700 and 740, 58 , 28194-28302): 1993Google Scholar
- 6.Janousek A. Regulatory aspects of sunscreens in Europe. In: Lowe N.J., Shaath N.A., Pathak M.A., editors. Sunscreens: development, evaluation and regulatory aspects. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997: 218–22Google Scholar
- 12.Mitchell K., Mitchnick M.A. Visibly transparent UV sunblock agents and methods of making same. 1996. US Patent No. 5, 587, 148Google Scholar
- 15.Funk J.O., Dromgoole S.H., Maibach H.I. Sunscreen intolerance: contact sensitization and irritancy of sunscreen agents. Dermatol Clin 1995; 13: 475–81Google Scholar
- 16.Szezurko C., Dompmartin A., Michel M., et al. Photocontact allergy to oxybenzone: ten years of experience. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1994; 10: 144–7Google Scholar
- 42.U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare Sunscreen drug products for over-the-counter human use. Federal Register, 43: 38206–38269: 1978 and 1994Google Scholar
- 45.Gottleib A., Bourget T.D., Lowe N.J. Sunscreens: effects of amounts of application of sun protection factors. In: Lowe N.J., Shaath N.A., Pathak M.A., editors. Sunscreens: development, evaluation and regulatory aspects. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997: 583–8Google Scholar
- 53.Lowe N.J. Ultraviolet A claims and testing procedures for OTC sunscreens: a summary and review. In: Lowe N.J., Shaath N.A., Pathak M.A., editors. Sunscreens: development, evaluation and regulatory aspects. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997: 527–35Google Scholar
- 54.Gies H.P., Roy C.R., McLennan A. Textiles and sun protection. In: Volkmer B., Heller H., editors. Enviromnental UV-radiation, risk of skin cancer and primary prevention. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer, 1996: 213–34Google Scholar
- 56.Marks R. Skin cancer: childhood protection affords a lifetime protection. Aust Med J 1986; 147: 476Google Scholar