Disease Management & Health Outcomes

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 13–29

Poor Adherence to Medication in Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Reasons and Solutions
Review Article

Abstract

This review examines evidence on the prevalence of non-adherence to medication in adults with rheumatoid arthritis, the reasons for non-adherence, and the effectiveness of interventions to improve adherence. Medications for rheumatoid arthritis (NSAIDs, corticosteroids, disease-modifiers, and biologic agents) are not curative, but can reduce symptoms and slow progression of the disease. Evidence consistently suggests that adherence to medications for rheumatoid arthritis is low in adults, and is often <50%. These drugs can be associated with serious adverse effects. Evidence suggests that non-adherence in rheumatoid arthritis cannot be explained by gender or age. Other patient characteristics, such as educational level and socioeconomic status, may create literacy and financial barriers to adherence. The strongest associations are reported between adherence and views about rheumatoid arthritis as a disease; beliefs that disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs do not work and have too many adverse effects; unrealistic or uninformed patient expectations of risk; lack of self-efficacy; lack of social support; cost of prescription medications, and poor patient-provider relationships.

There have been few interventions designed specifically to improve medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Most interventions have been based on patient education and the teaching of self-management techniques. Educational interventions have had limited effectiveness in changing behavior because of the limited ability of changes in knowledge to produce lasting behavioral change. The effect of group therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy on medicine adherence is not clear. Those interventions that are effective tend to emphasize developing a daily routine of self-management activities, coping strategies, self-efficacy, and problem-solving.

Future work is required to develop evidence-based, pragmatic, patient-centered interventions to improve medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Practitioners require support and training in the communication of risk and incorporation of patients’ beliefs into the consultation process. Policy makers need to reduce barriers to access, such as the costs of drugs.

References

  1. 1.
    Sihvonen S, Korpela M, Laippala P, et al. Death rates and causes of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based study. Scand J Rheumatol 2004; 33(4): 221–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Keenan AM, Tennant A, Fear J, et al. Impact of multiple joint problems on daily living tasks in people in the community over age fifty-five. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 55: 757–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bjork M, Thyberg I, Haglund L, et al. Hand function in women and men with early rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study over three years (the Swedish TIRA project). Scand J Rheumatol 2006; 35(1): 15–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Verbrugge LM, Juarez L. Profile of arthritis disability: II. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(1): 102–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Song J, Chang RW, Dunlop DD. Population impact of arthritis on disability in older adults. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(2): 248–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mancuso CA, Rincon M, Sayles W, et al. Longitudinal study of negative workplace events among employed rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy controls. Arthritis Care Res 2005; 53(6): 958–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alamanos Y, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA. Incidence and prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis, based on the 1987 American College of Rheumatology Criteria: a systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2006; 36(3): 182–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Simonsson M, Bergman S, Jacobsson LT, et al. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden. Scand J Rheumatol 1999; 28(6): 340–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arthritis Research Campaign. The human cost of arthritis and related conditions [online]. Available from URL: http://www.arc.org.uk/about_arth/astats.htm [Accessed 2007 Jan 16]
  10. 10.
    Symmons D, Turner G, Webb R, et al. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the United Kingdom: new estimates for a new century. Rheumatology 2002; 41(7): 793–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Symmons DPM, Barrett EM, Bankhead CR, et al. The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in the United Kingdom: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33(8): 735–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yelin E, Cisternas MG, Pasta DJ, et al. Medical care expenditures and earnings losses of persons with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States in 1997: total and incremental estimates. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50(7): 2317–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kvien TK, Uhlig T. Quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 2005; 34(5): 333–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wolfe F, Michaud K, Pincus T. Development and validation of the health assessment questionnaire II: a revised version of the health assessment questionnaire. Arthritis Rheum 2004 Oct; 50(10): 3296–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meenan RF, Gertman PM, Mason JH. Measuring health status in arthritis: the arthritis impact measurement scales. Arthritis Rheum 1980 Feb; 23(2): 146–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meenan RF, Mason JH, Anderson JJ, et al. AIMS2: the content and properties of a revised and expanded Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales Health Status Questionnaire. Arthritis Rheum 1992 Jan; 35(1): 1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    de Jong Z, van der Heijde D, McKenna SP, et al. The reliability and construct validity of the RAQoL: a rheumatoid arthritis-specific quality of life instrument. Br J Rheumatol 1997 Aug; 36(8): 878–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Houssien DA, McKenna SP, Scott DL. The Nottingham Health Profile as a measure of disease activity and outcome in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1997 Jan; 36(1): 69–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ware Jr JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care 1992 Jun; 30(6): 473–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hurst NP, Kind P, Ruta D, et al. Measuring health-related quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis: validity, responsiveness and reliability of EuroQol (EQ-5D). Br J Rheumatol 1997 May; 36(5): 551–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kirwan J, Heiberg T, Hewlett S, et al. Outcomes from the patient perspective workshop at OMERACT 6. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 868–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Luqmani R, Hennell S, Birrell C, et al. British Society for Rheumatology and British Health Professionals in Rheumatology Guideline for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (the first 2 years). Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006; 45(9): 1167–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pisu M, James N, Sampsel S, et al. The cost of glucocorticoid-associated adverse events in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 2005; 44(6): 781–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Curtis JR, Westfall AO, Allison J, et al. Population-based assessment of adverse events associated with long-term glucocorticoid use. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(3): 420–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    van Jaarsveld CHM, Jacobs JWG, Van Der Veen MJ, et al. Aggressive treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59(6): 468–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Meenan RF. Use of short-term efficacy/toxicity tradeoffs to select second-line drugs in rheumatoid arthritis: a metaanalysis of published clinical trials. Arthritis Rheum 1992; 35(10): 1117–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moreland LW, Genovese MC, Sato R, et al. Effect of etanercept on fatigue in patients with recent or established rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(2): 287–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    van Jaarsveld CHM, Jahangier ZN, Jacobs JWG, et al. Toxicity of anti-rheumatic drugs in a randomized clinical trial of early rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 2000; 39(12): 1374–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    O’Dell JR, Haire CE, Erikson N, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate alone, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine, or a combination of all three medications. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 1287–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Strand V, Tugwell P, Bombardier C, et al. Function and health-related quality of life: results from a randomized controlled trial of leflunomide versus methotrexate or placebo in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42(9): 1870–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Larsen A, Kvien TK, Schattenkirchner M, et al. Slowing of disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients during long-term treatment with leflunomide or sulfasalazine. Scand J Rheumatol 2001; 30(3): 135–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Deane K, West S. The effectiveness and safety of RA therapies: from DMARDs to biologics. Drug Benefit Trends 2006; 18(8): 443–58Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ledingham J, Deighton C, on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology Standards, Guidelines and Audit Working Group. Update on the British Society for Rheumatology guidelines for prescribing TNFα blockers in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (update of previous guidelines of April 2001). Rheumatology 2005; 44(2): 157–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Rituximab for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (technology appraisal guidance no. 126) [online]. Available from URL: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/TA126quickrefguide.pdf [Accessed 2007 Nov 21]
  35. 35.
    Hetland ML, Unkerskov J, Ravn T, et al. Routine database registration of biological therapy increases the reporting of adverse events twentyfold in clinical practice: first results from the Danish Database (DANBIO). Scand J Rheumatol 2005; 34(1): 40–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yocum D. Effective use of TNF antagonists. Arthritis Res Ther 2004; 6 Suppl. 2: S24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hyrich KL, Symmons DPM, Watson KD, et al. Comparison of the response to infliximab or etanercept monotherapy with the response to cotherapy with methotrexate or another disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54(6): 1786–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Belcon MC, Haynes RB, Tugwell P. A critical review of compliance studies in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1984; 27(11): 1227–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Grove ML, Hasseil AB, Hay EM, et al. Adverse reactions to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in clinical practice. Q J Med 2001; 94(6): 309–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Viller F, Guillemin F, Briancon S, et al. Compliance to drug treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 3 year longitudinal study. J Rheumatol 1999; 26(10): 2114–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    DiMatteo MR, Giordani PJ, Lepper HS, et al. Patient adherence and medical treatment outcomes: a meta-analysis. Medical Care 2002; 40(9): 794–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dartnell JGA, Anderson RP, Chohan V, et al. Hospitalisation for adverse events related to drug therapy: incidence, avoidability and costs. Med J Aust 1996; 164: 659–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Psaty BM, Koepsell TD, Wagner EH, et al. The relative risk of incident coronary heart disease associated with recently stopping the use of beta-blockers. JAMA 1990; 263(12): 1653–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Weiden PJ, Olfson M. Cost of relapse in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1995; 21(3): 419–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lau DT, Nau DP. Oral antihypoglycaemic medication nonadherence and subsequent hospitalization among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 2149–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Balkrishnan R, Rajagopalan R, Camacho FT, et al. Predictors of medication adherence and associated health care costs in an older population with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a longitudinal cohort study. Clin Ther 2003; (11): 2958–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Task Force on Medicines Partnership and the National Collaborative Medicines Management Services Programme. Room for review: a guide to medication review. The agenda for patients, practitioners and managers. London: Medicines Partnership, 2002Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Donovan J, Blake DR. Patient non-compliance: deviance or reasoned decision-making. Soc Sci Med 1992; 34: 507–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Horne R. Treatment perceptions and self regulation. In: Cameron D, Leventhal H, editors. The self-regulation of health and illness behaviour. London: Routledge, 2003: 138–53Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Horne R, Weinman J. Patients’ beliefs about prescribed medicines and their role in adherence to treatment in chronic physical illness. J Psychosom Res 1999; 47(6): 555–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Myers LB, Midence K. Methodological and conceptual issues in adherence. In: Myers LB, Midence K, editors. Adherence to treatment in medical conditions. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998: 1–24Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    DiMatteo MR. Variations in patients’ adherence to medical recommendations: a quantitative review of 50 years of research. Med Care 2004; 42: 200–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Choo PW, Rand CS, Inui TS, et al. Validation of patient reports, automated pharmacy records, and pill counts with electronic monitoring of adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Med Care 1999; 37: 846–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    World Health Organization. Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action [online]. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/chronic_conditions/adherencereport/en/ [Accessed 2005 May 7]
  55. 55.
    Bradley LA. Adherence with treatment regimens among adult rheumatoid arthritis patients: current status and future directions. Arthritis Care Res 1989; 2 Suppl.: S33–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lee P, Tan LJ. Drag compliance in outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis. Aust N Z J Med 1979; 9: 274–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Brus H, Van de LM, Taal E, et al. Determinants of compliance with medication in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the importance of self-efficacy expectations. Patient Educ Couns 1999; 36(1): 57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Park DC, Hertzog C, Leventhal H, et al. Medication adherence in rheumatoid arthritis patients: older is wiser. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 172–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Liu LL, Park DC. Aging and medical adherence: the use of automatic processes to achieve effortful things. Psychol Aging 2004; 19(2): 318–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Spiers MV, Kutzik DM, Lamar M. Variation in medication understanding among the elderly. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004; 61: 373–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vik SA, Maxwell CJ, Hogan DB. Measurement, correlates and health outcomes of medication adherence among seniors. Ann Pharmacother 2004; 38: 303–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kazis LE, Friedman RH. Improving medication compliance in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1988; 36: 1161–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gignac MAM, Sutton D, Badley EM. Reexamining the arthritis-employment interface: perceptions of arthritis-work spillover among employed adults. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(2): 233–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ratcliffe J, Buxton M, McGarry T, et al. Patients’ preferences for characteristics associated with treatments for osteoarthritis. Rheumatology 2004; 43(3): 337–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pincus T. Formal education level: a marker for the importance of behavioral variables in the pathogenesis, morbidity and mortality of most diseases? J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 1457–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pincus T, Callahan LF. Formal education as a marker for increased morbidity and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. J Chronic Dis 1985; 38: 973–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Callahan LF, Pincus T. Formal education level as a significant marker of clinical status in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 1346–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Beck NC, Parker JC, Frank RG, et al. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis at high risk for noncompliance with salicylate treatment regimens. J Rheumatol 1988; 15(7): 1081–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lorish CD, Richards B, Brown S. Missed medication doses in rheumatic arthritis patients: intentional and unintentional reasons. Arthritis Care Res 1989; 2(1): 3–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gordon MM, Hampson R, Capell HA, et al. Illiteracy in rheumatoid arthritis patients as determined by the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) score. Rheumatology 2002; 41(7): 750–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Iren UT, Walker MS, Hochman E, et al. A pilot study to determine whether disability and disease activity are different in African-American and Caucasian patients with rheumatoid arthritis in St Louis, Missouri, USA. J Rheumatol 2005; 32(4): 602–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Minnock P, FitzGerald O, Bresnihan B. Quality of life, social support, and knowledge of disease in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 2003; 49(2): 221–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Stating MMH, Suurmeijer TPBM, Van Schuur WH. Disability, social support, and distress in rheumatoid arthritis: results from a thirteen-year prospective study. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(5): 736–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    DiMatteo MR. Social support and patient adherence to medical treatment: a meta-analysis. Health Psychol 2004; (2): 207–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ferguson K, Bole GG. Family support, health beliefs, and therapeutic compliance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patient Couns Health Educ 1979; 1: 101–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Treharne GJ, Lyons AC, Kitas GD. Medication adherence in rheumatoid arthritis: effects of psychosocial factors. Psychol Health Med 2004; 9(3): 337–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bartlett SJ, Krishnan JA, Riekert KA, et al. Maternal depressive symptoms and adherence to therapy in inner-city children with asthma. Pediatrics 2004; 113: 229–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bane C, Hughes CM, McElnay JC. Determinants of medication adherence in hypertensive patients: an application of self-efficacy and the theory of planned behaviour. Int J Pharm Pract 2006; 14(3): 197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Soderlin MK, Hakala M, Nieminen P. Anxiety and depression in a community-based rheumatoid arthritis population. Scand J Rheumatol 2000; 29(3): 177–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pincus T, Griffith J, Pearce S, et al. Prevalence of self-reported depression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1996; 35(9): 879–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Barlow JH, Cullen LA, Rowe IF. Comparison of knowledge and psychological well-being between patients with a short disease duration (≤1 year) and patients with more established rheumatoid arthritis (≥10 years duration). Patient Educ Couns 1999; 38(3): 195–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Smedstad LM, Vaglum P, Moum T, et al. The relationship between psychological distress and traditional clinical variables: a 2 year prospective study of 216 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1997; 36(12): 1304–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rupp I, Boshuizen HC, Dinant HJ, et al. Disability and health-related quality of life among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: association with radiographic joint damage, disease activity, pain, and depressive symptoms. Scand J Rheumatol 2006; 35(3): 175–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nagyova I, Stewart RE, Macejova Z, et al. The impact of pain on psychological well-being in rheumatoid arthritis: the mediating effects of self-esteem and adjustment to disease. Patient Educ Couns 2005; 58(1): 55–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Persson L-O, Larsson B-M, Nived K, et al. The development of emotional distress in 158 patients with recently diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective 5-year follow-up study. Scand J Rheumatol 2005; 34(3): 191–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Maiden NL, Hurst NP, Lochhead A, et al. Quantifying the burden of emotional ill-health amongst patients referred to a specialist rheumatology service. Rheumatology 2003; 42: 750–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Davis P, Busch AJ, Lowe JC, et al. Evaluation of a rheumatoid arthritis patient education program: impact on knowledge and self-efficacy. Patient Educ Couns 1994; 24(1): 55–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Abraido-Lanza AF, Revenson TA. Illness intrusion and psychological adjustment to rheumatic diseases: a social identity framework. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(2): 224–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Devins GM. Psychologically meaningful activity, illness intrusiveness, and quality of life in rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(2): 172–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Neame R, Hammond A. Beliefs about medications: a questionnaire survey of people with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 2005; 44(6): 762–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lin EHB, Katon W, von Korff M, et al. Effect of improving depression care on pain and functional outcomes among older adults with arthritis. JAMA 2003; 290: 2428–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Curtis R, Groarke A, Coughlan R, et al. Psychological stress as a predictor of psychological adjustment and health status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patient Educ Couns 2005; 59(2): 192–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Crisson JE, Keefe FJ. The relationship of locus of control to pain coping strategies and psychological distress in chronic pain patients. Pain 1988; 35: 147–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gustafsson M, Gaston-Johansson F. Pain intensity and health locus of control: a comparison of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis. Patient Educ Couns 1996; 29(2): 179–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Keefe FJ, Lefebvre JC, Maixner W, et al. Self-efficacy for arthritis pain: relationship to perception of thermal laboratory pain stimuli. Arthritis Care Res 1997; 10(3): 177–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gustafsson M, Gaston-Johansson F, Aschenbrenner D, et al. Pain, coping and analgesic medication usage in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Patient Educ Couns 1999; 37(1): 33–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Taal E, Rasker JJ, Seydel ER, et al. Health status, adherence with health recommendations, self-efficacy and social support in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patient Educ Couns 1993; 20(2-3): 63–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Brus HLM, van de Laar MAFJ, Taal E, et al. Effects of patient education on compliance with basic treatment regimens and health in recent onset active rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1998; 57(3): 146–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Owen SG, Friesen WT, Roberts MS, et al. Determinants of compliance in rheumatoid arthritic patients assessed in their home environment. Br J Rheumatol 1985; 24(4): 313–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ho M, Lavery B, Pullar T. The risk of treatment: a study of rheumatoid arthritis patients’ attitudes. Rheumatology 1998; 37(4): 459–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sale JEM, Gignac MAM, Hawker G. How “bad” does the pain have to be? A qualitative study examining adherence to pain medication in older adults with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 55: 272–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tubach F, Dougados M, Falissard B, et al. Feeling good rather than feeling better matters more to patients. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(4): 526–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Morrison E, Crosbie D, Capell HA. Attitude of rheumatoid arthritis patients to treatment with oral corticosteroids. Rheumatology 2003; 42(10): 1247–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Arluke R. Judging drugs: patients’ conceptions of therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of arthritis. Hum Org 1980; 39: 84–7Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dowell J, Hudson H. A qualitative study of medicine-taking behaviour in primary care. Fam Pract 1997; 14: 369–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Pound P, Britten N, Morgan M, et al. Resisting medicines: a synthesis of qualitative studies of medicine taking. Soc Sci Med 2005; 61: 133–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Garcia Popa-Lisseanu MG, Greisinger A, Richardson M, et al. Determinants of treatment adherence in ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged patients with rheumatic disease. J Rheumatol 2005; 32(5): 913–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    O’Brien BJ, Elswood J, Calin A. Perception of prescription drug risks: a survey of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 1990; 17(4): 503–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fraenkel L, Bogardus S, Concato J, et al. Unwillingness of rheumatoid arthritis patients to risk adverse effects. Rheumatology 2002; 41(3): 253–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mahmud T, Comer M, Roberts K, et al. Clinical implications of patients’ knowledge. Clinical Rheumatology 1995; 14(6): 627–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Fraenkel L, Bogardus S, Concato J, et al. Preference for disclosure of information among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 2001; 45(2): 136–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Goodacre LJ, Goodacre JA. Factors influencing the beliefs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis regarding disease-modifying medication. Rheumatology 2004; 43(5): 583–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Berry D, Bradlow A, Bersellini E. Perceptions of the risks and benefits of medicines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other painful musculoskeletal conditions. Rheumatology 2004; 43(7): 901–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Capell HA, Rennie JA, Rooney PJ, et al. Patient compliance: a novel method of testing non-steroidal antiinflammatory analgesics in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1979; 6: 584–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kahneman D. Experienced utility and objective happiness: a moment-based approach. In: Kahneman D, Tversky A, editors. Choices, values and frames. New York: Cambridge University Press and Russell Sage Foundation, 2000: 673–92Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    O’Brien BJ, Eiswood J, Calin A. Willingness to accept risk in the treatment of rheumatic disease. J Epidemiol Community Health 1990; 44(3): 249–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Snowden JA, Nivison-Smith I, Biggs JC, et al. Risk taking in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: are the risks of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation acceptable?. Rheumatology 1999; 38(4): 321–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Horne R, Weinman J, Hankins M. The beliefs about medicines questionnaire: the development of and evaluation of a new method for assessing the cognitive representation of medication. Psychol Health 1999; 14: 1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Suissa S, Bernatsky S, Hudson M. Antirheumatic drug use and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(4): 531–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Murphy DJ, Gahm GJ, Santilli S, et al. Seniors’ preferences for cancer screening and medication use based on absolute risk reduction. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002; 57(2): M100–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hawker GA, Katz JN, Solomon DH. The patient’s perspective on the recall of Vioxx. J Rheumatol 2006; 33(6): 1082–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bresalier RS, Sandier RS, Quan H, et al. Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(11): 1092–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Schapira MM, Davids SL, McAuliffe TL, et al. Agreement between scales in the measurement of breast cancer risk perceptions. Risk Anal 2004; 24(3): 665–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Frijling BD, Lobo CM, Keus IM, et al. Perceptions of cardiovascular risk among patients with hypertension or diabetes. Patient Educ Couns 2004; 52(1): 47–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lipkus IM, McBride CM, Pollak KI, et al. Interpretation of genetic risk feedback among African American smokers with low socioeconomic status. Health Psychol 2004; 23(2): 178–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lipkus IM, Samsa G, Rimer BK. General performance on a numeracy scale among highly educated samples. Med Decis Making 2001; 21(1): 37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Yamagishi K. When a 12.86% mortality is more dangerous than 24.14%: implications for risk communication. Appl Cognit Psychol 1997; 11: 495–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Dudley N. Importance of risk communication and decision making in cardiovascular conditions in older patients: a discussion paper. Qual Health Care 2001; 10 Suppl. 1: i19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Pullar T, Wright V, Feely M. What do patients and rheumatologists regard as an ‘acceptable’ risk in the treatment of rheumatic disease?. Br J Rheumatol 1990; 29(3): 215–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lipkus IM, Klein WMP, Rimer BK. Communicating breast cancer risks to women using different formats. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10(8): 895–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Bucher HC, Weinbacher M, Gyr K. Influence of method of reporting study results on decision of physicians to prescribe drugs to lower cholesterol concentration. BMJ 1994; 309(6957): 761–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Deyo RA, Inui TS, Sullivan B. Noncompliance with arthritis drugs: magnitude, correlates, and clinical implications. J Rheumatol 1981; 8(6): 931–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Greenberg RN. Overview of patient compliance with medication dosing: a literature review. Clin Ther 1984; 6: 592–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Fraenkel L, Gulanski B, Wittink D. Patient treatment preferences for osteoporosis. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(5): 729–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Darnell JC, Murray MD, Martz BL, et al. Medication use by ambulatory elderly: an in-home survey. J Am Geriatr Soc 1986; 34: 1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    McElnay JC, McCallion CR, al Deagi F, et al. Self-reported medication non-compliance in the elderly. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 53: 171–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Coons SJ, Sheahan SL, Martin SS, et al. Predictors of medication noncompliance in a sample of older adults. Clin Ther 1994; 16: 110–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Avorn J, Monette J, Lacour A, et al. Persistence of use of lipid-lowering medications: a cross-national study. JAMA 1998; 279: 1458–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Gurwitz JH, Glynn RJ, Monane M, et al. Treatment for glaucoma: adherence by the elderly. Am J Public Health 1993; 83: 711–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Monane M, Bohn RL, Gurwitz JH, et al. The effects of initial drug choice and comorbidity on antihypertensive therapy compliance: results from a population-based study in the elderly. Am J Hypertens 1997; 10: 697–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cox ER, Henderson RR. Prescription use behaviour among Medicare beneficiaries with capped prescription benefits. J Manag Care Pharm 2002; 8: 360–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Fortess EE, Soumerai SB, McLaughlin TJ, et al. Utilization of essential medications by vulnerable older people after a drug benefit cap: importance of mental disorders, chronic pain and practice setting. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001; 49: 793–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Piette JD, Heisler M, Wagner TH. Cost-related medication underuse: do patients with chronic illnesses tell their doctors? Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 1749–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Schafheutle EI, Hasseil K, Noyce PR, et al. Access to medicines: cost as an influence on the views and behaviour of patients. Health Soc Care Community 2002; 10: 187–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Soumerai SB. Unintended outcomes of Medicaid drug cost-containment policies on the chronically mentally ill. J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64 Suppl. 17: 19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Van WP, Dequeker J. Compliance and long-term effect of azathioprine in 65 rheumatoid arthritis cases. Ann Rheum Dis 1982; 41 Suppl. 1: 40–3Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Soumerai SB, Avorn J, Ross-Degnan D, et al. Payment restrictions for prescription drugs under Medicaid: effects on therapy, cost, and equity. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 550–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tamblyn R, Laprise R, Hanley JA, et al. Adverse events associated with prescription drug cost-sharing among poor and elderly persons. JAMA 2001; 285: 421–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Strickland WJ, Hanson CM. Coping with the cost of prescription drugs. J Health Care Poor Underserved 1996; 7: 50–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Schafheutle EI, Hassell K, Seston EM, et al. Non-dispensing of NHS prescriptions in community pharmacies. Int J Pharm Pract 2002; 10: 11–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Safran DG, Taira DA, Rogers WH, et al. Linking primary care performance to outcomes of care. J Family Pract 1998; 47: 213–20Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Feinberg J. The effect of patient-practitioner interaction on compliance: a review of the literature and application in rheumatoid arthritis. Patient Educ Couns 1988; 11(3): 171–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Haugli L, Strand E, Finset A. How do patients with rheumatic disease experience their relationship with their doctors? A qualitative study of experiences of stress and support in the doctor-patient relationship. Patient Educ Couns 2004; 52(2): 169–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ishikawa H, Hashimoto H, Yano E. Patients’ preferences for decision making and the feeling of being understood in the medical encounter among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55: 878–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kjeken I, Dagfinrud H, Mowinckel P, et al. Rheumatology care: involvement in medical decisions, received information, satisfaction with care, and unmet health care needs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 55: 394–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Berrios-Rivera JP, Street Jr RL, Popa-Lisseanu MGG, et al. Trust in physicians and elements of the medical interaction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(3): 385–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Squier RW. A model of empathic understanding and adherence to treatment regimens in practitioner-patient relationships. Soc Sci Med 1990; 30: 325–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hall MA, Camacho F, Dugan E, et al. Trust in the medical profession: conceptual and measurement issues. Health Serv Res 2002; 37(5): 1419–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hirano PC, Laurent DD, Lorig K. Arthritis patient education studies, 1987–1991: a review of the literature. Patient Educ Couns 1994; 24(1): 9–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Niedermann K, Fransen J, Knols R, et al. Gap between short- and long-term effects of patient education in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a systematic review. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 388–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Mahowald ML, Steveken ME, Young M, et al. The Minnesota Arthritis Training Program: emphasis on self-management, not compliance. Patient Educ Couns 1988; 11(3): 235–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Haynes RB, Yao X, Degani A, et al. Interventions for enhancing medication adherence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; (4): CD000011Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hill J, Bird H, Johnson S. Effect of patient education on adherence to drug treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60(9): 869–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lorig K, Konkol L, Gonzalez V. Arthritis patient education: a review of the literature. Patient Educ Couns 1987; 10(3): 207–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Keefe FJ, Van HY. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of rheumatoid arthritis pain: maintaining treatment gains. Arthritis Care Res 1993; 6(4): 213–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Lanza AF, Revenson TA. Social support interventions for rheumatoid arthritis patients: the cart before the horse? Health Educ Q 1993; 20: 97–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Lorig K, Holman H. Arthritis self-management studies: a 12 year review. Health Educ Q 1993; 20: 17–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Parker JC, Frank RG, Beck NC, et al. Pain management in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a cognitive-behavioral approach. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31(5): 593–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hawley DJ. Psycho-educational interventions in the treatment of arthritis. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1995; 9(4): 803–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Superio-Cabuslay E, Ward MM, Lorig KR. Patient education interventions in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analytic comparison with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug treatment. Arthritis Care Res 1996; 9(4): 292–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Donovan J, Blake DR, Fleming WG. The patient is not a blank sheet: lay beliefs and their relevance to patient education. Rheumatology 1989; 28(1): 58–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Laborde JM, Powers MJ. Evaluation of educational interventions for osteoarthritis. Multiple Linear Regression Viewpoint 1983; 12: 12–37Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lehew 3rd JL. The use of hypnosis in the treatment of musculo-skeletal disorders. Am J Clin Hypn 1970; 13(2): 131–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Varni JW. Behavioral medicine in hemophilia arthritic pain management: two case studies. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1981 Apr; 62(4): 183–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Lindroth Y, Bauman A, Barnes C, et al. A controlled evaluation of arthritis education. Rheumatology 1989; 28(1): 7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Helliwell PS, O’Hara M, Holdsworth J, et al. A 12-month randomized controlled trial of patient education on radiographic changes and quality of life in early rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 1999; 38(4): 303–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Daltroy LH, Liang MH. Patient education in the rheumatic diseases: a research agenda. Arthritis Care Res 1987; 1: 161–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Barlow JH, Pennington DC, Bishop PE. Patient education leaflets for people with rheumatoid arthritis: a controlled study. Psychol Health Med 1997; 2(3): 221–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Bradley LA, Alberts KR. Psychological and behavioral approaches to pain management for patients with rheumatic disease. Rheum Dis Clin N Am 1999; 25(1): 215–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Appelbaum KA, Blanchard EB, Hickling EJ, et al. Cognitive behavioral treatment of a veteran population with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis. Behavior Therapy 1988; 19: 489–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Blalock SJ, deVellis BM, deVellis RF, et al. Self-evaluation processes and adjustment to rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 1245–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Bradley L A, Young LD, Anderson KO, et al. Effects of psychological therapy on pain behavior of rheumatoid arthritis patients: treatment outcome and six-month followup. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 1105–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Bruce JR, Riggin CS, Parker JC, et al. Pain management in rheumatoid arthritis: cognitive behavior modification and transcutaneous neural stimulation. Arthritis Care Res 1988; 1: 78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    O’Leary A, Shoor S, Lorig K, et al. A cognitive-behavioral treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Health Psychology 1988; 7: 527–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Katz PP. Use of self-management behaviors to cope with rheumatoid arthritis Stressors. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 53: 939–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Stating MMH, Van Schuur WH, Suurmeijer TPBM. Contribution of partner support in self-management of rheumatoid arthritis patients: an application of the theory of planned behavior. J Behav Med 2006; 29(1): 51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    McEvoy DB, Blalock SJ, Hahn PM, et al. Evaluation of a problem-solving intervention for patients with arthritis. Patient Educ Couns 1988; 11(1): 29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Lorig K, Ritter PL, Plant K. A disease-specific self-help program compared with a generalized chronic disease self-help program for arthritis patients. Arthritis Care Res 2005; 53(6): 950–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Lorig KR, Mazonson PD, Holman HR. Evidence suggesting that health education for self-management in patients with chronic arthritis has sustained health benefits while reducing health care costs. Arthritis Rheum 1993; 36(4): 439–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Barlow JH, Williams B, Wright CC. Improving arthritis self-management among older adults: ‘just what the doctor didn’t order’. Br J Health Psychol 1997; 2(2): 175–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Taal E, Riemsma RP, Brus HLM, et al. Group education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patient Educ Couns 1993; 20(2–3): 177–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Lorig K, Gonzalez VM, Laurent DD, et al. Arthritis self-management program variations: three studies. Arthritis Care Res 1998; 11(6): 448–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Reich JW, Olmsted ME, Van Puymbroeck CM. Illness uncertainty, partner caregiver burden and support, and relationship satisfaction in fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis patients. Arthritis Care Res 2006; 55(1): 86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Weinberger M, Tierney WM, Booher P, et al. Can the provision of information to patients with osteoarthritis improve functional status? A randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32(12): 1577–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Hussain SA, George E, Kennedy TD. A comparison of patient information sheets for methotrexate. Rheumatology 2003; 42(1): 194–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Alaszewski A, Horlick-Jones T. How can doctors communicate information about risk more effectively?. BMJ 2003; 327(7417): 728–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Silvers IJ, Hovell MF, Weisman MH, et al. Assessing physician/patient perceptions in rheumatoid arthritis: a vital component in patient education. Arthritis Rheum 1985; 28(3): 300–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PharmacyThe University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations