Advertisement

BioDrugs

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 19–35 | Cite as

Chlamydia Vaccines

Strategies and Status
  • Joseph U. IgietsemeEmail author
  • Carolyn M. Black
  • Harlan D. Caldwell
Drug Development

Abstract

The ultimate goal of current chlamydial vaccine efforts is to utilise either conventional or modern vaccinology approaches to produce a suitable immunisation regimen capable of inducing a sterilising, long-lived heterotypic protective immunity at mucosal sites of infection to curb the severe morbidity and worldwide prevalence of chlamydial infections. This lofty goal poses tremendous challenges that include the need to clearly define the relevant effectors mediating immunity, the antigens responsible for inducing these effectors, the anti-chlamydial action(s) of effectors, and establishment of the most effective method of vaccine delivery. Tackling these challenges is further compounded by the biological complexity of chlamydia, the existence of multiple serovariants, the capacity to induce both protective and deleterious immune effectors, and the occurrence of asymptomatic and persistent infections. Thus, novel molecular, immunological and genetic approaches are urgently needed to extend the frontiers of current knowledge, and develop new paradigms to guide the production of an effective vaccine regimen. Progress made in the last 15 years has culminated in various paradigm shifts in the approaches to designing chlamydial vaccines. The dawn of the current immunological paradigm for antichlamydial vaccine design has its antecedence in the recognition that chlamydial immunity is mediated primarily by a T helper type1 (Th1) response, requiring the induction and recruitment of specific T cells into the mucosal microenvironment. Additionally, the ancillary role of humoral immune response in complementing the Th1-driven protective immunity, through ensuring adequate memory and optimal Th1 response during a reinfection, has been recognised. With continued progress in chlamydial genomics and proteomics, select chlamydial proteins, including structural, membrane and secretory proteins, are being targeted as potential subunit vaccine candidates. However, the development of an effective adjuvant, delivery vehicle or system for a potential subunit vaccine is still an elusive objective in these efforts. Promising delivery vehicles include DNA and virus vectors, bacterial ghosts and dendritic cells. Finally, a vaccine still represents the best approach to protect the greatest number of people against the ocular, pulmonary and genital diseases caused by chlamydial infections. Therefore, considering the urgency and the enormity of these challenges, a partially protective vaccine preventing certain severe sequelae would constitute an acceptable short-term goal to control Chlamydia. However, more research efforts and support are needed to achieve the worthy goal of protecting a significant number of the world’s population from the devastating consequences of chlamydial invasion of the human mucosal epithelia.

Keywords

Protective Immunity Chlamydial Infection Subunit Vaccine Protective Antigen Trachoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to Francis O. Eko, Deborah Lyn and Godwin Ananaba for their thoughtful reviews of the manuscript. Experimental studies in our laboratories have been supported by a research support from Pasteur Merieux Connaught, Canada and by PHS grants AI41231, RR03034 and GM08248 (JUI), and by institutional research support from NCID/CDC (CMB) and Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID/NIH (HDC).

References

  1. 1.
    Schachter J, Grayston JT. Epidemiology of human chlamydial infections. In: Stephens RS, Byrne GI, Christiansen G, et al., editors. Chlamydial Infections. ICS Berkeley, San Francisco (CA), 1998: 3–10Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paavonen J, Wolner-Hanssen P. Chlamydia trachomatis: a major threat to reproduction. Hum Reprod 1989; 4: 111–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grayston JT. Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR pneumonia. Annu Rev Med 1992; 43: 317–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kuo CC, Jackson LA, Campbell LA, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR). Clin Microbiol Rev 1995; 8: 451–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Saikku P, Wang SP, Kleemola M, et al. An epidemic of mild pneumonia due to an unusual strain of Chlamydia psittaci. J Infect Dis 1985; 151: 832–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Black C. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 1997; 10: 160–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schachter J. Diagnosis of human chlamydial infections. In: Stephens RS, Byrne GI, Christiansen G, et al., editors. Chlamydial infections. ICS Berkeley, San Francisco (CA), 1998: 577–586Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cohen CR, Brunham RC. Pathogenesis of Chlamydia induced pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Transm Infect 1999; 75: 21–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Everett KD, Bush RM, Andersen AA. Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of family Chlamydiaceae, including new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1999; 49: 415–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bush RM, Everett KD. Molecular evolution of Chlamydiaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2001; 51: 203–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schachter J, Stephens RS, Timms P, et al. Radical changes to chlamydial taxonomy are not necessary just yet. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2001; 51: 251–3Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    World Health Organization (WHO). Global prevalence and incidence of selected curable sexually transmitted diseases: overview and estimates. Geneva: WHO, 1996Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grayston JT. Background and current knowledge of Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. J Infect Dis 2000; 181: S402–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grayston JT, Campbell LA. The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerosis. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 28: 993–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saikku P, Leinonen M, Mattila K, et al. Serological evidence of an association of a novel Chlamydia, TWAR, with chronic coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1988; 2: 983–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saikku P, Leinonen M, Tenkanen L, et al. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. Ann Intern Med 1992; 116: 273–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grayston JT, Aldous MB, Easton A, et al. Evidence that Chlamydia pneumoniae causes pneumonia and bronchitis. J Infect Dis 1993; 168: 1231–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hahn DL, Dodge RW, Golubjatnikov R. Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae (strain TWAR) infection with wheezing, asthmatic bronchitis, and adult-onset asthma. JAMA 1991; 266: 225–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Balin BJ, Gerard HC, Arking EJ, et al. Identification and localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer’s brain. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 1998; 187: 23–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sriram S, Stratton CW, Yao S, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1999; 46: 6–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    De la Maza MA, De la Maza LM. A new computer model for estimating the impact of vaccination protocols and its application to the study of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections. Vaccine 1995; 13: 119–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Richey CM, Macaluso M, Hook EW. Determinants of reinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Sex Transm Dis 1999; 26: 4–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stern JE, Gardner S, Quirk D, et al. Secretory immune system of the male reproductive tract: effects of dihydrotestosterone and estradiol on IgA and secretory component levels. J Reprod Immunol 1992; 22: 73–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grayston JT, Wang SP. New knowledge of chlamydiae and the diseases they cause. J Infect Dis 1975; 132: 87–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stephens RS. Chlamydial genomics and vaccine antigen discovery. J Infect Dis 2000; 181: S521–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rockey DD, Stephens RS. Genome sequencing and our understanding of chlamydiae. Infect Immun 2000; 68: 5473–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brunham RC, Peeling RW. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens: role in immunity and pathogenesis. Infect Agents Dis 1994; 3: 218–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Grayston JT, Wang SP, Yeh LJ, et al. Importance of reinfection in the pathogenesis of trachoma. Rev Infect Dis 1985; 7: 717–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Morrison RP. Immune responses to chlamydia are protective and pathogenic. In: Bowie WR, editors. Chlamydial Infections. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990: 163–172Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Katz BP, Batteiger BE, Jones RB. Effect of prior sexually transmitted disease on the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis. Sex Transm Dis 1987; 14: 160–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Parks KS, Dixon PB, Richey CM, et al. Spontaneous clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in untreated patients. Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24: 229–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Byrne GI. Immunity to Chlamydia. In: Stephens RI, Byrne GI, Christainsen G, et al., editors. Chlamydial infections. 1998 ed. ICS Berkley, San Francisco (CA); 1998: 365–374Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Grayston JT, Wang SP. The potential for vaccine against infection of the genital tract with Chlamydia trachomatis. Sex Transm Dis 1978; 5: 73–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grayston JT, Wang SP, Yang YF, et al. The effect of trachoma virus vaccine on the course of experimental trachoma infection in blind human volunteers. J Exp Med 1962; 115: 1009–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bailey R, Duong T, Carpenter R, et al. The duration of human ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection is age dependent. Epidemiol Infect 1999; 123: 479–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cotter TW, Ramsey KH, Miranpuri GS, et al. Dissemination of Chlamydia trachomatis chronic genital tract infection in gamma interferon gene knockout mice. Infect Immun 1997; 65: 2145–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Igietseme JU, Ramsey KH, Magee DM, et al. Resolution of murine chlamydial genital infection by the adoptive transfer of a biovar-specific, Th1 lymphocyte clone. Reg Immunol 1993; 5: 317–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Igietseme JU, Uriri IM, Kumar SN, et al. Route of infection that induces a high intensity of gamma interferon-secreting T cells in the genital tract produces optimal protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Mice. Infect Immun 1998; 66: 4030–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Johansson M, Schon K, Ward M, et al. Genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis fails to induce protective immunity in gamma interferon receptor-deficient mice despite a strong local immunoglobulin A response. Infect Immun 1997; 65: 1032–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Johansson M, Schon K, Ward M, et al. Studies in knockout mice reveal that anti-chlamydial protection requires TH1 cells producing IFN-gamma: is this true for human? Scand J Immunol 1997; 46: 546–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Patton DL, Rank RG. Animal models for the study of pelvic inflammatory disease. In: Quinn TC, editor. Sexually transmitted diseases. New York: Raven Press Ltd., 1992:85–111Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Perry LL, Feilzer K, Caldwell HD. Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis is mediated by T helper 1 Cells through IFN-gamma-dependent and -independent pathways. J Immunol 1997; 158: 3344–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stagg AJ, Tuffrey M, Woods C, et al. Protection against ascending infection of the genital tract by Chlamydia trachomatis is associated with recruitment of major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-presenting cells into uterine tissue. Infect Immun 1998; 66: 3535–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Su H, Caldwell HD. CD4+ T cells play a significant role in adoptive immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the mouse genital tract. Infect Immun 1995; 63: 3302–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yang X, Brunham RC. T lymphocyte immunity in host defense against. Can J Infect Dis 1998; 9: 99–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bailey RL, Kajbaf M, Whittle HC, et al. The influence of local antichlamydial antibody on the acquisition and persistence of human ocular chlamydial infection: IgG antibodies are not protective. Epidemiol Infect 1993; 111: 315–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cotter TW, Meng Q, Shen Z-L, et al. Protective efficacy of outer membrane protein-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG monoclonal antibodies in a murine model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection. Infect Immun 1995; 63: 4704–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Morrison RP, Feilzer K, Tumas DB. Gene knockout mice establish a primary protective role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted responses in Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection. Infect Immun 1995; 63: 4661–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Morrison SG, Morrison RP. Resolution of secondary Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection in immune mice with depletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Infect Immun 1995; 69: 2643–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Su H, Feilzer K, Caldwell HD, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract Infection of antibody-deficient gene knockout mice. Infect Immun 1997; 65:1993–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yang X, Brunham RC. Gene knockout B cell-deficient mice demonstrate that B cells play an important role in the initiation of T cell responses to Chlamydia trachomatis (mouse pneumonitis) lung infection. J. Immunol 1998; 161:1439–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ojcius DM, Bravo de Alba Y, Kanellopoulos JM, et al. Internalization of Chlamydia by dendritic cells and stimulation of Chlamydia-specific T cells. J Immunol 1998; 160: 12970–1303Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stagg AJ, Stackpoole A, Elsley WJ, et al. Acquisition of chlamydial antigen by dendritic cells and monocytes. Adv Exp Med Biol 1993; 329: 581–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Neutra MR, Pringault E, Kraehenbuhl J-P. Antigen sampling across epithelial barriers and induction of mucosal immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 1996; 14: 275–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Su H, Caldwell HD. Kinetics of chlamydial antigen processing and presentation to T cells by paraformaldehyde-fixed murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Infect Immun 1995; 3: 946–53Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Su H, Messer R, Whitmire W, et al. Vaccination against chlamydial genital tract infection after immunization with dendritic cells pulsed ex vivo with nonviable chlamydiae. J Exp Med. 1998; 188: 809–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Heufler C, Koch F, Stanzl U, et al. Interleukin-12 is produced by dendritic cells and mediates T helper 1 development as well as interferon-gamma production by T helper 1 cells. Eur J Immunol 1996; 26: 659–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Macatonia SE, Hosken NA, Litton M, et al. Dendritic cells produce IL-12 and direct the development of Th1 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. J Immunol 1995; 154: 5071–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Steinman RM. The dendritic cell system and its role in immunogenicity. Annu Rev Immunol 1991; 9: 271–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jenkins MK, DeSilva DR, Johnson JG, et al. Costimulating factors and signals relevant for antigen presenting cell function. Adv Exp Med Biol 1993; 329: 87–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    King PD, Ibrahim MAA, Katz DR. Adhesion molecules: co-stimulators and co-mitogens in dentritic cell-T cell interaction. Adv Exp Med Biol 1993; 329: 53–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Igietseme JU, Murdin A. Induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection by a vaccine based on major outer membrane protein-lipophilic immune response-stimulating complexes. Infect Immun 2000; 68: 6798–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cohen CR, Nguti R, Bukusi EA, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 -infected women exhibit reduced interferon-gamma after Chlamydia trachomatis stimulation of peripheral lymphocytes. J Infect Dis 2000; 182: 1672–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Stagg AJ. Vaccines against Chlamydia: approaches and progress. Mol Med Today 1998; 4: 166–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dong-Ji Z, Yang X, Shen C, et al. Priming with Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) DNA followed by MOMP-ISCOM boosting enhances protection and is associated with increased immunoglobulin A and Thl cellular immune responses. Infect Immun 2000; 68: 3074–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pal S, Peterson EM, de la Maza LM. Intranasal immunization induces long-term protection in mice against a Chlamydia trachomatis genital challenge. Infect Immun 1996; 64: 5341–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zhang DJ, Yang X, Shen C, et al. Characterization of immune responses following intramuscular DNA immunization with the MOMP gene of Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis strain. Immunology 1999; 96: 314–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Buzoni-Gatel D, Guilloteau L, Bernard F, et al. Protection against Chlamydia psittaciin mice conferred by Lyt2+ T cells. Immunology 1992; 77: 284–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Starnbach MN, Bevan MJ, Lampe MF. Protective cytotoxic T lymphocytes are induced during murine infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. J Immunol 1994; 153: 5183–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lampe MF, Wilson CB, Bevan MJ, et al. Gamma interferon production by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is required for resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Infect Immun 1998; 66: 5457–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Morrison SG, Su H, Caldwell HD, et al. Immunity to murine Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract reinfection involves B cells and CD4+ T cells but not CD8+ T cells. Infect Immun 2000; 68: 6979–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Igietseme JU, Ananaba GA, Bolier J, et al. Suppression of endogenous IL-10 gene expression in dendritic cells enhances antigen presentation for enhanced specific Thl induction: potential for cellular vaccine development. J Immunol 2000; 164: 4212–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yang X, Gartner J, Zhu L, et al. IL-10 gene knockout mice show enhanced Th1-like protective immunity and absent granuloma formation following Chlamydia trachomatis lung infection. J Immunol 1999; 162: 1010–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wang S, Fan Y, Brunham RC, et al. IFN-gamma knockout mice show Th2-associated delayed-type hypersensitivity and the inflammatory cells fail to localize and control chlamydial infection. Eur J Immunol 1999; 29: 3782–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Igietseme JU, Ananaba GA, Bolier J, et al. The intercellular adhesion molecule type-1 is required for rapid activation of T helper type 1 (Thl) lymphocytes that control early acute phase of genital chlamydial infection in mice. Immunology 1999; 98: 510–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fan T, Lu H, Hu H, et al. Inhibition of apoptosis in chlamydia-infected cells: blockade of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase activation. J Exp Med 1998; 187: 487–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rodolaki A, Salinas J, Papp J. Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion. Vet Rec 1998; 29: 275–88Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zhong G, Liu L, Fan T, et al. Degradation of transcription factor RFX5 during the inhibition of both constitutive and interferon gamma-inducible major histocompatibility complex class I expression in chlamydia-infected cells. J Exp Med 2000; 191: 1525–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Holmgren J, Czerkinsky C, Lycke N, et al. Mucosal immunity: implications for vaccine development. Immunobiology 1992; 184: 157–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    McGhee JR, Mestecky J, Dertzbaugh MT, et al. The mucosal immune system: from fundamental concepts to vaccine development. Vaccine 1992; 10:75–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mestecky J, Jackson S. Reassessment of the impact of mucosal immunity in infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and design of relevant vaccines. J Clin Immunol 1994; 14: 259–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Moldoveanu Z, Russell MW, Wu H-Y, et al. Compartmentalization within the common mucosal immune system. Adv Exp Med Biol 1995; 371: 97–101Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wu H-Y, Russell MW. Nasal lymphoid tissue, intranasal immunization, and compartmentalization of the common mucosal immune system. Immunol Res 1997; 16:187–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kelly KA, Robinson EA, Rank RG. Initial route of antigen administration alters the T-cell cytokine profile produced in response to the mouse pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis following genital infection. Infect Immun 1996; 64: 4976–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wu H-Y, Nikolova EB, Beagley KW, et al. Induction of antibody-secreting cells and T-helper and memory cells in murine nasal lymphoid tissue. Immunology 1996; 88: 493–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gallichan WS, Rosenthal KL. Specific secretory immune responses in the female genital tract following intranasal immunization with a recombinant adenovirus expressing glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus. Vaccine 1995; 13: 1589–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Staats HF, Montgomery SP, Palker TJ. Intranasal immunization is superior to vaginal, gastric, or rectal immunization for induction of systemic and mucosal anti-HIV antibody responses. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1997; 13: 945–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pal S, Fielder TJ, Peterson EM, et al. Protection against infertility in a BALB/c mouse salpingitis model by intranasal immunization with a mouse pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun 1994; 62: 3354–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pal S, Theodor I, Peterson EM, et al. Immunization with an acellular vaccine consisting of the outer membrane complex of Chlamydia trachomatis induces protection against a genital challenge. Infect Immun 1997; 65: 3361–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Svanholm C, Bandholtz L, Castanos-Velez E, et al. Protective DNA immunization against Chlamydia pneumoniae. Scand J Immunol 2000; 51: 345–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bonecchi R, Bianchi G, Bordignon PP, et al. Differential expression of chemokine receptors and chemotactic responsiveness of type 1 T helper cells (This) and Th2s. J Exp Med 1998; 187: 129–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fresno M, Kopf M, Rivas L. Cytokines and infectious diseases. Immunol Today 1997; 18:56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Igietseme JU, Portis JL, Perry LL. Inflammation and clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis in enteric and nonenteric mucosae. Infect Immun 2001; 69:1832–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kelly KA, Rank RG. Identification of homing receptors that mediate the recruitment of CD4 T cells to the genital tract following intravaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun 1997; 65: 5198–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Perry LL, Feilzer K, Portis JL, et al. Distinct homing pathways direct T lymphocytes to the genital and intestinal mucosae in Chlamydia-infected mice. J Immunol 1998; 160: 2905–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Igietseme JU, Uriri IM, Hawkins R, et al. Integrin-mediated epithelial-T cell interaction enhances nitric oxide production and increased intracellular inhibition of Chlamydia. J Leukoc Biol 1996; 59: 656–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Igietseme JU, Rank RG. Susceptibility to reinfection after a primary chlamydial genital infection is associated with a decrease of antigen-specific T cells in the genital tract. Infect Immun 1991; 59: 1346–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Brunham RC, Zhang DJ. Transgene as vaccine for Chlamydia. Am Heart J 1999; 138: S519–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Brunham RC, Zhang DJ, Yang X, et al. The potential for vaccine development against chlamydial infection and disease. J Infect Dis 2000; 181: S538–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Liu MA. Vaccine developments (vaccine supplement). Nat Med 1998; 4: 515–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zhang DJ, Yang X, Berry J, et al. DNA vaccination with the outer membrane protein gene induces acquired immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis (mouse pneumonitis) infection. J Infect Dis 1997; 176: 1035–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pal S, Barnhart KM, Wei Q, et al. Vaccination of mice with DNA plasmids coding for the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein elicits an immune response but fails to protect against genital challenge. Vaccine 1999; 17: 459–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Byrne GI, Krueger DA. Lymphokine-mediated inhibition of Chlamydia replication in mouse fibroblasts is neutralized by anti-gamma interferon immunoglobulin. Infect Immun 1983; 42: 1152–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Holtmann H, Shemer-Avni Y, Wessel K, et al. Inhibition of growth of Chlamydia trachomatis by tumor necrosis factor is accompanied by increased prostaglandin synthesis. Infect Immun 1990; 58: 3168–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rank RG, Ramsey KH, Pack EA, et al. Effect of gamma interferon on resolution of murine chlamydial genital infection. Infect Immun 1992; 60: 4427–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Shemer Y, Kol R, Sarov I. Tryptophan reversal of recombinant human gamma-interferon inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis growth. Curr Microbiol 1987; 16: 9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Shemer Y, Sarov I. Inhibition of growth of Chlamydia trachomatis by human gamma interferon. Infect Immun 1985; 48: 592–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shemer-Avni Y, Wallach D, Sarov I. Inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis growth by recombinant tumor necrosis factor. Infect Immun 1988; 56: 2503–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Shemer-Avni Y, Wallach D, Sarov I. Reversion of the antichlamydial effect of tumor necrosis factor by tryptophan and antibodies to beta interferon. Infect Immun 1989; 57: 3484–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Woods ML, Mayer J, Evans TG, et al. Antiparasitic effects of nitric oxide in an in vitro murine model of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and an in vivo model of Leishmania major infection. Immunol Ser 1994; 60: 179–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kordova N, Wilt JC. Phagocytic and chlamydiae inhibiting activities of stimulated and nonstimulated peritoneal mouse macrophages. Can J Microbiol 1976; 22: 1169–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Zhong G, de la Maza LM. Activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro or in vivo by recombinant murine gamma interferon inhibits the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar LI. Infect Immun 1988; 56: 3322–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Byrne GI, Lehmann LK, Landry GJ. Induction of tryptophan catabolism is the mechanism for gamma interferon-mediated inhibition of intracellular Chlamydia psittacireplication in T24 cells. Infect Immun 1986; 53: 347–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gupta SL, Carlin JM, Pyati P, et al. Antiparasitic and antiproliferative effects of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme expression in human fibroblasts. Infect Immun 1994; 62: 2277–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Murray HW, Szuro-Sudol A, Wellner D, et al. Role of tryptophan degradation in respiratory burst-independent antimicrobial activity of gamma interferon-stimulated human macrophages. Infect Immun 1989; 57: 845–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chen B, Stout R, Campbell WF. Nitric oxide production: a mechanism of Chlamydia trachomatis inhibition in interferon-gamma-treated RAW264.7 cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1996; 14: 109–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Igietseme JU. The molecular mechanism of T cell control of Chlamydia in mice: role of nitric oxide. Immunology 1996; 87: 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Igietseme JU, Ananaba GA, Candal DH, et al. Immune control of chlamydial growth in the human epithelial cell line RT4 involves multiple mechanisms that include nitric oxide induction, tryptophan catabolism and iron deprivation. Microbiol Immunol 1998; 42: 617–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Igietseme JU, Perry LL, Ananaba GA, et al. Chlamydial infection in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice. Infect Immun 1998; 66: 1282–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Igietseme JU, Uriri MI, Chow M, et al. Inhibition of intracellular multiplication of human strains of Chlamydia trachomatis by nitric oxide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997; 232: 595–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Byrd TF, Horwitz MA. Regulation of transferrin receptor expression and ferritin content in human mononuclear phagocytes. Coordinate upregulation by iron transferrin and downregulation by interferon gamma. J Clin Invest 1993; 91: 969–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Freidank HM, Billing H, Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad M. Influence of iron restriction on Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. J Med Microbiol 2001; 50: 223–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Raulston JW. Response of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E to iron restriction in vitro and evidence for iron-regulated chlamydial proteins. Infect Immun 1997; 65: 4539–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Peterson EM, Zhong G, Carlson E, et al. Protective role of magnesium in the neutralization by antibodies of Chlamydia trachomatis infectivity. Infect Immun 1988; 56: 885–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Zhang YX, Stewart S, Joseph T, et al. Protective monoclonal antibodies recognize epitopes located on the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Immunol 1987; 138: 575–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zhang Y-X, Stewart SJ, Caldwell HD. Protective monoclonal antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis serovar- and serogroup-specific major outer membrane protein determinants. Infect Immun 1989; 57: 636–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Moore T, Ananaba GA, Bolier J, et al. Fc receptor regulation of protective immunity against C. trachomatis. Immunology 2002; In pressGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Perry LL, Feilzer K, Hughes S, et al. Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. Infect Immun 1999; 67: 1379–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Dhir SP, Agarwal LP, Detels R, et al. Field trial of two bivalent trachoma vaccines in children of Punjab Indian villages. Am J Ophthalmol 1967; 63: 1639–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Grayston JT, Woolridge RL, Wang S, et al. Field studies of protection from infection by experimental trachoma virus vaccine in preschool-aged children on Taiwan. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1963; 112: 589–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Woolridge RL, Grayston JT, Chang IH, et al. Long-term follow-up of the initial (1959–1960) trachoma vaccine field trial on Taiwan. Am J Ophthalmol 1967; 63: 1650–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lagrange PH, Hurtrel B, Stach JL. Vaccines against mycobacteria and other intracellular bacteria. Ann Inst Pasteur Immunol 1985; 136D: 151–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Su H, Messer R, Whitmire W, et al. Subclinical chlamydial infection of the female mouse genital tract generates a potent protective immune response: implications for development of live attenuated chlamydial vaccine strains. Infect Immun 2000; 68: 192–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    O’Connell CMC, Maurelli AT, editors. Introduction of foreign DNA into Chlamydia and stable expression of chloramphenicol resistance. ICS Berkeley, San Francisco (CA), 1998Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Tarn JE, Davis CH, Wyrick PB. Expression of recombinant DNA introduced into Chlamydia trachomatis by electroporation. Can J Microbiol 1994; 40: 583–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wylie JL, Wang LL, Tipples G, et al. A single point mutation in CTP synthetase of Chlamydia trachomatis confers resistance to cyclopentenyl cytosine. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 15393–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Chalmers WS, Simpson J, Lee SJ, et al. Use of a live chlamydial vaccine to prevent ovine enzootic abortion. Vet Rec 1997; 141: 63–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Rodolakis A, Bernard F. Vaccination with temperature-sensitive mutant of Chlamydia psittaciagainst enzootic abortion of ewes. Vet Rec 1984; 114:193–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kaiman S, Mitchell W, Marathe R, et al. Comparative genomes of Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. Nat Genet 1999; 21: 385–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Read TD, Brunham RC, Shen C, et al. Genome sequence of Chlamydia trachomatis MoPn and Chlamydia pneumoniae AR39. Nucleic Acids Res 2000; 28: 1397–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Stephens RS, Kaiman S, Lammel C, et al. Genome sequence of an obligate intracellular pathogen of humans: Chlamydia trachomatis. Science 1998; 282: 754–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Brunham RC, Peeling R, Maclean I, et al. Postabortal Chlamydia trachomatis salpingitis: correlating risk with antigen-specific serological responses and with neutralization. J Infect Dis 1987; 155: 749–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Jones RB, Batteiger BE. Human immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis infections. In: Oriel J, Ridgway G, Schachter J, et al., editors. Chlamydial infections. London: Cambridge University Press, 1986: 423–432Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ward ME. Chlamydial vaccine — future trends. J Infect 1992; Suppl. 1: 11-26Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Caldwell HD, Kromhout J, Schachter J. Purification and partial characterization of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun 1981; 31: 1161–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Bavoil P, Ohlin A, Schachter J. Role of disulfide bonding in outer membrane structure and permeability in Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun 1984; 44: 479–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wyllie S, Ashley RH, Longbottom D, et al. The major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia psittacifunctions as a porin-like ion channel. Infect Immun 1998; 66: 5202–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Wyllie S, Longbottom D, Herring AJ, et al. Single channel analysis of recombinant major outer membrane protein porins from Chlamydia psittaciand Chlamydia pneumoniae. FEBS Lett 1999; 445: 192–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Su H, Watkins NG, Zhang Y-X, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis-host cell interactions: Role of the chlamydial major outer membrane protein as an adhesin. Infect Immun 1990; 58: 1017–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Stephens RS, Mullenbach G, Sanchez-Pescador R, et al. Sequence analysis of the major outer membrane protein gene from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2. J Bacteriol 1986; 168: 1277–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Stephens RS, Wagar EA, Edman U. Developmental regulation of tandem promoters for the major outer membrane protein gene of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Bacteriol 1988; 170: 744–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Baehr W, Zhang Y-X, Joseph T, et al. Mapping antigenic domains expressed by Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85: 4000–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Fitch WM, Peterson EM, de la Maza LM. Phylogenetic analysis of the outer membrane protein gene of Chlamydiae, and its implication for vaccine development. Mol Biol Evol 1993; 10: 892–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kaltenboeck B, Kousoulas KG, Storz J. Structures of and allelic diversity and relationships among the major outer membrane protein (ompA) genes of the four chlamydial species. J Bacteriol 1993; 175: 487–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Yuuki H, Yoshikai Y, Kishihara K, et al. Deletion of self-reactive T cells in nude mice grafted with neonatal allogeneic thymus. J Immunol 1990; 144: 474–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Batteiger BE, Rank RG, Bavoil PM, et al. Partial protection against genital reinfection by immunization of guinea-pigs with isolated outer-membrane proteins of the chlamydial agent of guinea-pig inclusion conjunctivitis. J Gen Microbiol 1993; 139: 2965–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Campos M, Pal S, O’Brian TP, et al. A chlamydial maj or outer membrane protein extract as a trachoma vaccine candidate. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1995; 36: 1477–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Conlan JW, Ferris S, Clarke IN, et al. Isolation of recombinant fragments of the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis: their potential as subunit vaccines. J Gen Microbiol 1990; 136: 2013–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hayes LJ, Conlan JW, Everson JS, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein epitopes expressed as fusions with LamB in an attenuated aroA strain of Salmonella typhimurium: their application as potential immunogens. J Gen Microbiol 1991; 137: 1557–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Knight SC, Iqball S, Woods C, et al. A peptide of Chlamydia trachomatis shown to be a primary T-cell epitope in vitro induces cell-mediated immunity in vivo. Immunology 1995; 85: 8–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Murdin AD, Su H, Manning DS, et al. Apoliovirus hybrid expressing a neutralization epitope from the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis is highly immunogenic. Infect Immun 1993; 61: 4404–14Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Su H, Parnell M, Caldwell H. Protective efficacy of a parenterally administered MOMP-derived synthetic oligopeptide vaccine in a murine model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: serum neutralizing IgG antibodies do not protect against genital tract infection. Vaccine 1995; 13: 1023–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Tan T-W, Herring AJ, Anderson IE, et al. Protection of sheep against Chlamydia psittaci infection with a subcellular vaccine containing the major outer membrane protein. Infect Immun 1990; 58: 3101–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Taylor HR, Whittum-Hudson J, Schachter J, et al. Oral immunization with chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1988; 29: 1847–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Tuffrey M, Alexander I, Conlan W, et al. Heterotypic protection of mice against chlamydial salpingitis and colonization of the lower genital tract with a human serovar F isolate of C. trachomatis by prior immunization with recombinant serovar L1 major outer membrane protein. Eur J Immunol 1992; 23: 1169–72Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Zhong G, Smith GP, Berry J, et al. Conformational mimicry of a chlamydial neutralization epitope on filamentous phage. J Biol Chem 1994; 269: 24183–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Jackson JW, Maisonneuve J, Taylor RB, et al. Immunization with a high molecular weight protein (pmpG) from Chlamydia trachomatis confers heterotypic protection against infertility [abstract]. Proceedings of the 101st General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM); 2001 May 20–24; Orlando (FL)Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Jen SS, Stromberg EJ, Probst P, et al. Discovery of new vaccine candidates for prevention and treatment of Chlamydia [abstract]. Proceedings of the 101st General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM); 2001 May 20–24; Orlando (FL), 2001: 343Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Murdin AD, Dunn P, Sodoyer R, et al. Use of a mouse lung challenge model to identify antigens protective against Chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection. J Infect Dis 2000; 181Suppl. 3: S544–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Bachmaier K, Neu N, de la Maza LM, et al. Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. Science 1999; 283: 1335–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Prabhala RH, Wira CR. Sex hormone and IL-6 regulation of antigen presentation in the female reprodutive mucosal tissues. J Immunol 1995; 155: 5566–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Macadam AJ, Pollard SR, Ferguson G, et al. Genetic basis of attenuation of the Sabin type 2 strain of poliovirus in primates. Virology 1993; 192: 18–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Minor PD. Attenuation and reversion of the Sabin vaccine strains of poliovirus. Dev Biol Stand 1993; 78: 17–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Minor PD. The molecular biology of poliovaccines. J Gen Virol 1992; 73:3065–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Pedersen NC, Johnson L, Birch D, et al. Possible immunoenhancement of persistent viremia by feline leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein vaccines in challenge-exposure situations where whole inactivated virus vaccines were protective. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1986; 11: 123–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Fulginiti VA, Eller JJ, Downie AW, et al. Altered reactivity to measles virus: atypical measles in children previously immunized with inactivated measles virus vaccines. JAMA 1967; 202: 1075–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Gurunathan S, Klinman DM, Seder RA. DNA vaccines: immunology, application, and optimization. Annu Rev Immunol 2000; 18: 927–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Gurunathan S, Wu CY, Freidag BL, et al. DNA vaccines: a key for inducing long-term cellular immunity. Curr Opin Immunol 2000; 12: 442–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Seder RA, Gurunathan S. DNA vaccine — designer vaccines for the 21st century. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 277–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Ramshaw IA, Ramsay AJ. The prime-boost strategy: exciting prospects for improved vaccination. Immunol Today 2000; 21: 163–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Fletcher MA. Vaccine candidate in STD. Int J STD AIDS 2001; 12: 419–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Hess J, Schaible U, Raupach B, et al. Exploiting the immune system: toward new vaccines against intracellular bacteria. Adv Immunol 2000; 75: 1–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Seder RA, Hill AV. Vaccines against intracellular infections requiring cellular immunity. Nature 2000; 406: 793–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Chu RS, Targoni OS, Krieg AM, et al. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides acts as adjuvants that switch on T helper 1 (Th 1) immunity. JExp Med 1997; 186:1623–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Klinman DM, Barnhart KM, Conover J. CpG motifs as immune adjuvants. Vaccine 1999; 17: 19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Iwasaki A, Stiernholm BJ, Chan AK, et al. Enhanced CTL responses mediated by plasmid DNA immunogens encoding costimulatory molecules and cytokines. J Immunol 1997; 158: 4591–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Gurunathan S, Irvine KR, Wu CY, et al. CD40 ligand/trimer DNA enhances both humoral and cellular immune responses and induces protective immunity to infectious and tumor challenge. J Immunol 1998; 161: 4563–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Murdin AD, Su H, Klein MH, et al. Poliovirus hybrids expressing neutralization epitopes from variable domains I and IV of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis elicit broadly cross-reactive C. trachomatis-neutralizing antibodies. Infect Immun 1995; 63: 1116–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Babiuk LA, Tikoo SK. Adenoviruses as vectors for delivering vaccines to mucosal surfaces. J Biotechnol 2000; 83: 105–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Hewson R. RNA viruses: emerging vectors for vaccination and gene therapy. Mol Med Today 2000; 6: 28–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Tartaglia J, Excler JL, El Habib R, et al. Canarypox-virus-based vaccines: prime-boost strategies to induce cell-mediated and humoral immunity against HIV. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1998; 3: S291–8Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Bennink JR, Yewdell JW. Recombinant vaccinia viruses as vectors for studying T lymphocyte specificity and function. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1990; 163: 153–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Lawson CM, Bennink JR, Restifo NP, et al. Primary pulmonary cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by immunization with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing influenza A virus nucleoprotein peptide do not protect mice against challenge. J Virol 1994; 68: 3505–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Davis NL, Caley IJ, Brown KW, et al. Vaccination of macaques against pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus with Venezuelan encephalitis virus replicon particles. J Virol 2000; 74: 371–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Schlesinger S, Dubensky TW. Alphavirus vectors for gene expression and vaccine. Curr Opin Biotechnol 1999; 10: 434–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Schultz-Cherry S, Dybing JK, Davis NL, et al. Influenza virus (A/HK/156/97) hemagglutinin expressed by an alphavirus replicon system protects chickens against lethal infection with Hong Kong-origin H5N1 viruses. Virology 2000; 278: 55–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Singh M, O’Hagan D. Advances in vaccine adjuvants. Nat Biotechnol 1999; 17: 1075–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Bartholeyns J, Romet-Lemonne JL, Chokri M, et al. Cellular vaccines. Res Immunol 1998; 149: 647–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Gilboa E, Nair SK, Lyerly HK. Immunotherapy of cancer with dendritic-cell-based vaccines. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1998; 46: 82–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Hoffman DM, Gitlitz BJ, Belldegrun A, et al. Adoptive cellular therapy. Semin Oncol 2000; 27: 221–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Gerritse K, Posno M, Schellekens MM, et al. Oral administration of TNP-Lactobacillus conjugates in mice: a model for evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses and memory formation elicited by transformed lactobacilli. Res Microbiol 1990; 141: 955–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Turner MS, Giffard PM. Expression of Chlamydia psittaci- and human immunodeficiency virus-derived antigens on the cell surface of Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 as fusion to bspA. Infect Immun 1999; 67: 5486–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Gentschev I, Dietrich G, Spreng S, et al. Delivery of protein antigens and DNA by virulence-attenuated strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. J Biotechnol 2000; 83: 19–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Eko FO, Witte A, Huter V, et al. New strategies for combination vaccines based on the extended recombinant bacterial ghost system. Vaccine 1999; 17:1643–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Eko FO, Lubitz W, Igietseme JU. Immunogenicity of a novel recombinant subunit candidate vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis [abstract]. Proceedings of the 101st General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM); 2001 May 20–24; Orlando (FL); 2001: 341Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hajek R, Butch AW. Dendritic cell biology and the application of dendritic cells to immunotherapy of multiple myeloma. Med Oncol 2000; 17: 2–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Rank RG. Models of immunity. In: Stephens RS, editor. Chlamydia: intracellular biology, pathogenesis and immunity. Washington (DC): ASM Press, 1999: 239–295Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Whittum-Hudson JA, Ann LL, Saltzman WM, et al. Oral immunization with an anti-idiotypic antibody to the exoglycolipid antigen protects against experimental Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Nat Med 1996; 2: 1116–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Colaco CA. Why are dendritic cells central to cancer immunotherapy? Mol Med Today 1999; 5: 14–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Reid CDL. The biology and clinical applications of dendritic cells. Transfus Med 1998; 8:77–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph U. Igietseme
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Carolyn M. Black
    • 2
  • Harlan D. Caldwell
    • 3
  1. 1.Microbiology & ImmunologyMorehouse School of Medicine, S.W.AtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Scientific Resources ProgramNCID/CDCAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.The Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites, Rocky Mountain LaboratoriesNIAID/NIHHamiltonUSA

Personalised recommendations