CNS Drugs

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 121–137 | Cite as

Antiepileptic Drug-Induced Cognitive Adverse Effects

Potential Mechanisms and Contributing Factors
  • Marco Mula
  • Michael R. Trimble
Review Article


Cognitive dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with epilepsy and represents an important challenge in the management of patients with this disorder. In this respect, the relative contribution of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is of relevance. The fact that a considerable number of patients require AED therapy for many years, or perhaps even a lifetime, emphasizes the need to focus on the long-term adverse effects of these drugs on cognition.

The most prevalent of the CNS adverse effects observed during AED therapy are sedation, somnolence, distractibility, insomnia and dizziness. Sedation, in particular, is associated with most of the commonly used AED therapies. Nevertheless, cognitive function in individuals with epilepsy may also be influenced by several factors, of which AEDs constitute only one of many putative causes.

In general terms, most studies agree that some differences exist among the older AEDs with regard to the effects on cognition, and some newer generation molecules may have a better cognitive profile than older AEDs. The mechanisms of action are an obvious determinant; however, there is still a lack of evidence for differentiation between available drugs with regard to cognitive effects. Some authors have suggested that there may be different cognitive effects associated with individual drugs; however, the question as to whether there are more specific deficits related to the action of individual drugs remains unsolved.

There seems to be agreement that polytherapy and high-dose treatment can produce cognitive adverse effects and when high dosages or adjunctive polytherapy is needed, the balance between benefits and disadvantages may be negatively biased against drug treatment. Thus, drug treatment requires careful balancing in the attempt to reach maximal seizure control while avoiding neurotoxic adverse effects.

Finally, the mood status of the patient and clinical relevance of the information obtained by neuropsychological testing represent important variables that need to be taken into account when discussing cognitive adverse effects of AEDs.


Carbamazepine Valproate Lamotrigine Topiramate Pregabalin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have received travel grants or consultancy fees from various pharmaceutical companies, including Novartis, Pfizer, UCB, Eisai, Schwarz Pharma, Janssen-Cilag, sanofi-aventis and GlaxoSmithKline, involved in the manufacture of antiepileptic drugs.


  1. 1.
    Meador KJ. Cognitive and memory effects of the new anti-epileptic drugs. Epilepsy Res 2006; 68: 63–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Trimble MR, Dodson WE. Epilepsy and quality of life. New York: (Raven Press, 1994Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Perucca E. Withdrawing antiepileptic drugs in seizure-free patients: what are the cognitive benefits? Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2007; 3: 194–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thompson PJ, Trimble MR. Further studies on anticonvulsant drugs and seizures. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 1981; 89: 51–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thompson PJ, Trimble MR. Sodium valproate and cognitive functioning in normal volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1981; 12: 819–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aldenkamp AP. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on cognition. Epilepsia 2001; 42Suppl. 1: 46–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brunbech L, Sabers A. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on cognitive function in individuals with epilepsy: a comparative review of newer versus older agents. Drugs 2002; 62: 593–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ortinski P, Meador KJ. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy Beha 2004; 5Suppl. 1: S60–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aldenkamp AP. Antiepileptic drug treatment and epileptic seizures: effects on cognitive function. In: Trimble MR, Schmitz B, editors. The neuropsychiatry of epilepsy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002: 256–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacLeod CM, Dekabian AS, Hunt E. Memory impairment in epileptic patients: selective effects of phenobarbital concentration. Science 1978; 202: 1102–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gallassi R, Morreale A, Di Sarro R, et al. Cognitive effects of antiepileptic drug discontinuation. Epilepsia 1992; 33Suppl. 6: S41–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vining EP, Mellitis ED, Dorsen MM, et al. Psychologic and behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs in children: a double-blind comparison between phenobarbital and valproic acid. Pediatrics 1987; 80: 165–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Calandre EP, Dominguez-Granados R, Gomez-Rubio M, et al. Cognitive effects of long-term treatment with phenobarbital and valproic acid in school children. Acta Neurol Scand 1990; 81: 504–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meador KJ, Loring DW, Huh K, et al. Comparative cognitive effects of anticonvulsants. Neurology 1990; 40: 391–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smith WL, Lowrey JB. Effects of diphenylhydantoin on mental abilities in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1975; 23: 207–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thompson P, Huppert F, Trimble M. Anticonvulsant drugs, cognitive function and memory. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 1980; 80: 75–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thompson P, Huppert FA, Trimble M. Phenytoin and cognitive function: effects on normal volunteers and implications for epilepsy. Br J Clin Psychol 1981; 20: 155–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Meador KJ, Loring DW, Allen ME, et al. Comparative cognitive effects of carbamazepine and phenytoin in healthy adults. Neurology 1991; 41: 1537–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meador KJ, Loring DW, Abney OL, et al. Effects of carbamazepine and phenytoin on EEG and memory in healthy adults. Epilepsia 1993; 34: 153–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Forsythe I, Butler R, Berg I, et al. Cognitive impairment in new cases of epilepsy randomly assigned to carbamazepine, phenytoin and sodium valproate. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991; 33: 524–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thompson PJ, Trimble MR. Anticonvulsant drugs and cognitive functions. Epilepsia 1982; 23: 531–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Craig I, Tallis R. Impact of valproate and phenytoin on cognitive function in elderly patients: results of a single-blind randomized comparative study. Epilepsia 1994; 35: 381–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Prevey ML, Delaney RC, Cramer JA, et al. Effect of valproate on cognitive functioning: comparison with carbamazepine. The Department of Veterans Affairs Epilepsy Cooperative Study 264 Group. Arch Neurol 1996; 53: 1008–16Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meador KJ, Loring DW, Hulihan JF, et al. Differential cognitive and behavioral effects of topiramate and valproate. Neurology 2003; 60: 1483–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Remy C, Beaumont D. Efficacy and safety of vigabatrin in the long-term treatment of refractory epilepsy. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 27Suppl. 1: 125–9SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tartara A, Manni R, Galimberti CA, et al. Vigabatrin in the treatment of epilepsy: a long-term follow-up study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989; 52: 467–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ylinen A, Kalviainen R, Riekkinen Sr SJ. Long-term efficacy and cognitive effects of vigabatrin. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 1995; 162: 47–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McGuire AM, Duncan JS, Trimble MR. Effects of vigabatrin on cognitive function and mood when used as addon therapy in patients with intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia 1992; 33: 128–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gillham RA, Blacklaw J, McKee PJ, et al. Effect of vigabatrin on sedation and cognitive function in patients with refractory epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1993; 56: 1271–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dodrill CB, Arnett JL, Sommerville KW, et al. Evaluation of the effects of vigabatrin on cognitive abilities and quality of life in epilepsy. Neurology 1993; 43: 2501–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Provinciali L, Bartolini M, Mari F, et al. Influence of vigabatrin on cognitive performances and behaviour in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 1996; 94: 12–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Monaco F, Torta R, Cicolin A, et al. Lack of association between vigabatrin and impaired cognition. J Int Med Res 1997; 25: 296–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dodrill CB, Arnett JL, Sommerville KW, et al. Effects of differing dosages of vigabatrin (Sabril) on cognitive abilities and quality of life in epilepsy. Epilepsia 1995; 36: 164–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kalviainen R, Aikia M, Saukkonen AM, et al. Vigabatrin vs carbamazepine monotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy: a randomized, controlled study. Arch Neurol 1995; 52: 989–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aikia M, Kalviainen R, Sivenius J, et al. Cognitive effects of oxcarbazepine and phenytoin monotherapy in newly diagnosed epilepsy: one year follow-up. Epilepsy Res 1992; 11: 199–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sabers A, Moller A, Dam M, et al. Cognitive function and anticonvulsant therapy: effect of monotherapy in epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 1995; 92: 19–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Banks GK, Beran RG. Neuropsychological assessment in lamotrigine treated epileptic patients. Clin Exp Neurol 1991; 28: 230–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Placidi F, Marciani MG, Diomedi M, et al. Effects of lamotrigine on nocturnal sleep, daytime somnolence and cognitive functions in focal epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 2000; 102: 81–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Blum D, Meador K, Biton V, et al. Cognitive effects of lamotrigine compared with topiramate in patients with epilepsy. Neurology 2006; 67: 400–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Leach JP, Girvan J, Paul A, et al. Gabapentin and cognition: a double blind, dose ranging, placebo controlled study in refractory epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997; 62: 372–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dodrill CB, Arnett JL, Hayes AG, et al. Cognitive abilities and adjustment with gabapentin: results of a multisite study. Epilepsy Res 1999; 35: 109–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sveinbjornsdottir S, Sander JW, Patsalos PN, et al. Neuropsychological effects of tiagabine, a potential new anti-epileptic drug. Seizure 1994; 3: 29–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kalviainen R, Aikia M, Mervaala E, et al. Long-term cognitive and EEG effects of tiagabine in drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1996; 25: 291–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dodrill CB, Arnett JL, Sommerville KW, et al. Cognitive and quality of life effects of differing dosages of tiagabine in epilepsy. Neurology 1997; 48: 1025–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dodrill CB, Arnett JL, Shu V, et al. Effects of tiagabine monotherapy on abilities, adjustment, and mood. Epilepsia 1998; 39: 33–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dodrill CB, Arnett JL, Deaton R, et al. Tiagabine versus phenytoin and carbamazepine as add-on therapies: effects on abilities, adjustment, and mood. Epilepsy Res 2000; 42: 123–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fritz N, Glogau S, Hoffmann J, et al. Efficacy and cognitive side effects of tiagabine and topiramate in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2005; 6: 373–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Burton LA, Harden C. Effect of topiramate on attention. Epilepsy Res 1997; 27: 29–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thompson PJ, Baxendale SA, Duncan JS, et al. Effects of topiramate on cognitive function. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000; 69: 636–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lee HW, Jung DK, Suh CK, et al. Cognitive effects of low-dose topiramate monotherapy in epilepsy patients: a 1-year follow-up. Epilepsy Behav 2006; 8: 736–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Aldenkamp AP, Baker G, Mulder OG, et al. A multicenter, randomized clinical study to evaluate the effect on cognitive function of topiramate compared with valproate as add-on therapy to carbamazepine in patients with partial-onset seizures. Epilepsia 2000; 41: 1167–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Neyens LG, Alpherts WC, Aldenkamp AP. Cognitive effects of a new pyrrolidine derivative (levetiracetam) in patients with epilepsy. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1995; 19: 411–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gomer B, Wagner K, Frings L, et al. The influence of anti-epileptic drugs on cognition: a comparison of levetiracetam with topiramate. Epilepsy Behav 2007; 10: 486–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Berent S, Sackellares JC, Giordani B, et al. Zonisamide (CI-912) and cognition: results from preliminary study. Epilepsia 1987; 28: 61–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Park SP, Hwang YH, Lee HW, et al. Long-term cognitive and mood effects of zonisamide monotherapy in epilepsy patients. Epilepsy Behav 2008; 12: 102–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ciesielski AS, Samson S, Steinhoff BJ. Neuropsychological and psychiatric impact of add-on titration of pregabalin versus levetiracetam: a comparative short-term study. Epilepsy Behav 2006; 9: 424–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Aldenkamp AP, Dreifuss FE, Reiner WO. Epilepsy in children and adolescents. New York: CRC Publishers, 1995Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stewart SA. The effects of benzodiazepines on cognition. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66Suppl. 2: 9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bialer M, Johannessen SI, Kupferberg HJ, et al. Progress report on new antiepileptic drugs: a summary of the Eighth Eilat Conference (EILAT VIII). Epilepsy Res 2007; 73: 1–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rogawski MA, Löscher W. The neurobiology of anti-epileptic drugs. Nat Rev Neurosci 2004; 5: 553–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Salinsky MC, Storzbach D, Spencer DC, et al. Effects of topiramate and gabapentin on cognitive abilities in healthy volunteers. Neurology 2005; 64: 792–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Meador KJ, Loring DW, Vahle VJ, et al. Cognitive and behavioral effects of lamotrigine and topiramate in healthy volunteers. Neurology 2005; 64: 2108–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Trimble MR. Anticonvulsant drugs and cognitive function: a review of the literature. Epilepsia 1987; 28Suppl. 3: S37–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Reynolds EH. Neurological aspects of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism. Clin Haematol 1976; 5: 661–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Reynolds EH, Carney MW, Toone BK. Methylation and mood. Lancet 1984; 2: 196–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dodrill CB. Correlates of generalized tonic-clonic seizures with intellectual, neuropsychological, emotional, and social function in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1986; 27: 399–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Aldenkamp AP, Bodde N. Behaviour cognition and epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 2005; 182: 19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pincus JH, Tucker GJ. Behavioral neurology. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003: 24–5Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Loiseau P, Strube E, Signoret JL. Memory and epilepsy. In: Trimble MR, Reynolds EH, editors. Epilepsy, behaviour and cognitive function. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1988: 165–77Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Binnie CD. Cognitive impairment during epileptiform discharges: is it ever justifiable to treat the EEG? Lancet Neurol 2003; 2: 725–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jokeit H, Ebner A. The risk of cognitive decline in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. In: Trimble MR, Schmitz B, editors. The neuropsychiatry of epilepsy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002: 152–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gordon N. The Landau-Kleffner syndrome: increased understanding. Brain Dev 1997; 19: 311–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Baxendale SA, van Paesschen W, Thompson PJ, et al. The relationship between quantitative MRI and neuro-psychological functioning in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 1998; 39: 158–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Helmstaedter C. Behavioral aspects of frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2001; 2: 384–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mula M, Trimble MR, Thompson P, et al. Topiramate and word-finding difficulties in patients with epilepsy. Neurology 2003; 60: 1104–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kanner AM, Wuu J, Faught E, et al. A past psychiatric history may be a risk factor for topiramate-related psychiatric and cognitive adverse events. Epilepsy Behav 2003; 4: 548–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mula M, Trimble MR, Sander JW. The role of hippocampal sclerosis in topiramate-related depression and cognitive deficits in people with epilepsy. Epilepsia 2003; 44: 1573–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Herrmann DJ. Know the memory: the use of questionnaires to assess and study memory. Psychol Bull 1982; 92: 434–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Thompson PJ. Epilepsy and memory. In: Manelis J, Bental E, Loeber EN, et al., editors. Advances in epileptology. Vol. 17. New York: Raven Press, 1989Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Aldenkamp AP, Baker G, Pieters MS, et al. The neuro-toxicity scale: the validity of a patient-based scale, assessing neurotoxicity. Epilepsy Res 1995; 20: 229–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Aldenkamp AP, Baker GA. The neurotoxicity scale: II. Results of a patient-based scale assessing neurotoxicity in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1997; 27: 165–73Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dodrill CB, Troupin AS. Neuropsychological effects of carbamazepine and phenytoin: a reanalysis. Neurology 1991; 41: 141–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Herranz JL, Arteaga R, Armijo JA. Side effects of sodium valproate in monotherapy controlled by plasma levels: a study in 88 pediatric patients. Epilepsia 1982; 23: 203–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Aldenkamp AP, Alpherts WC, Moerland MC, et al. Controlled release carbamazepine: cognitive side effects in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1987; 28: 507–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pieters MS, Jennekens-Schinkel A, Stijnen T, et al. Carbamazepine (CBZ) controlled release compared with conventional CBZ: a controlled study of attention and vigilance in children with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1992 Nov–Dec; 3(6): 1137–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brouwer OF, Pieters MS, Edelbroek PM, et al. Conventional and controlled release valproate in children with epilepsy: a cross-over study comparing plasma levels and cognitive performances. Epilepsy Res 1992; 13: 245–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bialer M. Extended-release formulations for the treatment of epilepsy. CNS Drugs 2007; 21(9): 765–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bialer M. Generic products of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): is it an issue? Epilepsia 2007 Oct; 48(10): 1825–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Aldenkamp AP, Rentmeester T, Hulsman J, et al. Pharmaco-kinetics and cognitive effects of carbamazepine formulations with different dissolution rates. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54: 185–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Perucca E. Clinical pharmacokinetics of new-generation antiepileptic drugs at the extremes of age. Clin Pharmacokinet 2006; 45: 351–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Motamedi G, Meador K. Epilepsy and cognition. Epilepsy Behav 2003; 4Suppl. 2: S25–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bergin AM. Pharmacotherapy of paediatric epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2003; 4: 421–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Loring DW, Meador KJ. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs in children. Neurology 2004; 62: 872–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Vinten J, Adab N, Kini U, et al. Neuropsychological effects of exposure to anticonvulsant medication in utero. Neurology 2005; 64: 949–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Meador KJ, Baker G, Cohen MJ, et al. Cognitive/ behavioral teratogenetic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy Behav 2007; 11: 292–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gray SL, Lai KV, Larson EB. Drug-induced cognition disorders in the elderly: incidence, prevention and management. Drug Saf 1999; 21: 101–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Drane DL, Meador KJ. Epilepsy anticonvulsant drugs and cognition. Baillieres Clin Neurol 1996; 5: 877–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Butler CR, Graham KS, Hodges JR, et al. The syndrome of transient epileptic amnesia. Ann Neurol 2007; 61: 587–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Vermeulen J, Aldenkamp AP. Cognitive side-effects of chronic antiepileptic drug treatment: a review of 25 years of research. Epilepsy Res 1995; 22: 65–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cochrane HC, Marson AG, Baker GA, et al. Neuropsychological outcomes in randomized controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs: a systematic review of methodology and reporting standards. Epilepsia 1998; 39: 1088–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dodrill CB. A neuropsychological battery for epilepsy. Epilepsia 1978; 19: 611–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Alpherts WC, Aldenkamp AP. Computerized neuropsychological assessment of cognitive functioning in children with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1990; 31Suppl. 4: S35–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Fliessbach K, Hoppe C, Schlegel U, et al. NeuroCogFX: a computer-based neuropsychological assessment battery for the follow-up examination of neurological patients [in German]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2006; 74: 643–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    McCaffrey RJ, Westervelt HJ. Issues associated with repeated neuropsychological assessments. Neuropsychol Rev 1995; 5: 203–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Seidenberg M, O’Leary DS, Giordani B, et al. Test-retest IQ changes of epilepsy patients: assessing the influence of practice effects. J Clin Neuropsychol 1981; 3: 237–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Austin JK, Huberty TJ, Huster GA, et al. Does academic achievement in children with epilepsy change over time? Dev Med Child Neurol 1999; 41: 473–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Dreifuss FE. Cognitive function: victim of disease or hostage to treatment? Epilepsia 1992; 33Suppl. 1: S7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, Department of NeurologyAmedeo Avogadro UniversityNovaraItaly
  2. 2.Institute of NeurologyUniversity College LondonLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations