CNS Drugs

, Volume 18, Issue 12, pp 807–825 | Cite as

Tocopherol (Vitamin E) in Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

  • Karen Berman
  • Henry Brodaty
Review Article

Abstract

In this article, we review the evidence that tocopherol (vitamin E) may have a role to play in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological diseases. The theoretical rationale for the effectiveness of tocopherol as treatment and/or prevention of Alzheimer’s disease is based on its antioxidant properties. Results from animal and in vitro studies provide evidence to support use of tocopherol for prevention and treatment of degenerative neurological diseases. Furthermore, several, but not all, epidemiological, cross-sectional, prospective studies indicate that tocopherol may have protective effects in Alzheimer’s disease, although dietary and supplemental forms of the vitamin may differ in their efficacy. Mixed results have been obtained from clinical trials. Evidence of the use of tocopherol as a protective measure or as therapy in neurological diseases other than Alzheimer’s disease is less compelling. To date, there are no clear-cut answers as to whether tocopherol is worth prescribing, but current clinical practice favours its use in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge permission from Prof. G Vatassery and the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, to reproduce the diagram of the chemical structure of vitamin E, as used in the article by Prof. Vatassery.[15] The study was funded from internal departmental resources. The authors do not consider that they have any conflict of interest directly relevant to the context of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Brodaty H, Sachdev PS. Drugs for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Med J Aust 1997; 167(8): 447–9, 452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brodaty H, Ames D, Boundy KL, et al. Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease. Med J Aust 2001; 175(6): 324–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kappus H, Diplock AT. Tolerance and safety of vitamin E: a toxicological position report. Free Radic Biol Med 1992; 13(1): 55–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tabet N, Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Vitamin E for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000; (4): CD002854Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Martin A, Janigian D, Shukitt-Hale B, et al. Effect of vitamin E intake on levels of vitamins E and C in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues: implications for health recommendations. Brain Res 1999; 845(1): 50–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Joseph JA, Denisova NA, Bielinski D, et al. Oxidative stress protection and vulnerability in aging: putative nutritional implications for intervention. Mech Ageing Dev 2000; 116(2–3): 141–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Meydani M. Vitamin E. Lancet 1995; 345(8943): 170–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marcus R, Coulston AM. Fat soluble vitamins. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, et al., editors. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Inc., 1992: 1566–99Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jiang Q, Christen S, Shigenaga MK, et al. Gamma-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74(6): 714–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Traber MG, Sies H. Vitamin E in humans: demand and delivery. Annu Rev Nutr 1996; 16: 321–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eisai Co. Ltd. This is vitamin E [online]. Available from URL: http://www.eisai.co.jp/index-e.html. [Accessed 2003 May 30]
  12. 12.
    US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. Vitamin E [online]. Available from URL: http://www.nih.gov/. [Accessed 2003 May 20]
  13. 13.
    Weber P, Bendich A, Machlin LJ. Vitamin E and human health: rationale for determining recommended intake levels. Nutrition 1997; 13(5): 450–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sokol RJ. The coming of age of vitamin E. Hepatology 1989; 9(4): 649–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vatassery GT, Bauer T, Dysken M. High doses of vitamin E in the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system in the aged. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70(5): 793–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vogel R. Antioxidants are useful in preventing cardiovascular disease: a debate. Pro antioxidants. Can J Cardiol 1999; 15Suppl. B: 23B–5BPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Halliwell B. The antioxidant paradox. Lancet 2000 Apr 1; 355(9210): 1179–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P. Antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease: Dr Jekyll or Mr Hyde? Am J Public Health 1999; 89(3): 289–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Williamson KS, Gabbita SP, Mou S,et al. The nitration product 5-nitro-gamma-tocopherol is increased in the Alzheimer brain. Nitric Oxide 2002; 6(2): 221–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grundman M. Vitamin E and Alzheimer disease: the basis for additional clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(2): 630–636sGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Delanty N, Dichter MA. Antioxidant therapy in neurologic disease. Arch Neurol 2000; 57(9): 1265–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pitchumoni SS, Doraiswamy PM. Current status of antioxidant therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998; 46(12): 1566–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sokol RJ. Vitamin E and neurologic deficits. Adv Pediatr 1990; 37: 119–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Phelps DL. The role of vitamin E therapy in high risk neonates. Clin Perinatol 1988 Dec; 15(4): 955–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zipursky A, Brown EJ, Watts J, et al. Oral vitamin E supplementation for the prevention of anaemia in premature infants: a controlled trial. Pediatrics 1987 Jan; 79(1): 61–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bell EF, Filer Jnr LJ. The role of vitamin E in the nutrition of premature infants [review]. Am J Clin Nutr 1981 Mar; 34(3): 414–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sano M, Ernesto C, Thomas RG, et al. A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer’s disease: The Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med 1997; 336(17): 1216–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Impact of deprenyl and tocopherol treatment on Parkinson’s disease in DATATOP patients requiring levodopa. Parkinson Study Group. Ann Neurol 1996; 39(1): 37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pappert EJ, Tangney CC, Goetz CG, et al. Alpha-tocopherol in the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson’s disease patients: dose-response study and correlations with plasma levels. Neurology 1996; 47(4): 1037–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fahn S. A pilot trial of high-dose alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in early Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 1992; 32 Suppl.: S128–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Anderson TW, Reid DB. A double-blind trial of vitamin E in angina pectoris. Am J Clin Nutr 1974; 27(10): 1174–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Corrigan JJ. The effect of vitamin E on warfarin-induced vitamin K deficiency. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1982; 393: 361–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bendich A, Machlin LJ. Safety of oral intake of vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 48(3): 612–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pratico D, Delanty N. Oxidative injury in diseases of the central nervous system: focus on Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Med 2000; 109(7): 577–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Behl C. Vitamin E and other antioxidants in neuroprotection. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1999; 69(3): 213–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Floyd RA. Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and degenerative neurological disorders. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999; 222(3): 236–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Engelhart MJ, Geerlings MI, Ruitenberg A, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA 2002; 287(24): 3223–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Good PF, Werner P, Hsu A, et al. Evidence of neuronal oxidative damage in Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Pathol 1996; 149(1): 21–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lohr JB, Kuczenski R, Niculescu A. Oxidative mechanisms and tardive dyskinesia. CNS Drugs 2003; 17(1): 47–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Floyd RA. Role of oxygen free radicals in carcinogenesis and brain ischemia. FASEB J 1990; 4(9): 2587–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schippling S, Kontush A, Arlt S, et al. Increased lipoprotein oxidation in Alzheimer’s disease. Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 28(3): 351–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Varadarajan S, Yatin S, Aksenova M, et al. Review: Alzheimer’s amyloid beta-peptide-associated free radical oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. J Struct Biol 2000; 130(2–3): 184–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Harman D. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 1956; 11: 131–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wolf R, Wolf D, Ruocco V. Vitamin E: the radical protector. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1998; 10(2): 103–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gale CR. Dietary antioxidants and dementia. Int Psychogeriatr 2001; 13(3): 259–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Darley-Usmar V, Wiseman H, Halliwell B. Nitric oxide and oxygen radicals: a question of balance. FEBS Lett 1995; 369(2-3): 131–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cassarino DS, Bennett JP. An evaluation of the role of mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases: mitochondrial mutations and oxidative pathology, protective nuclear responses, and cell death in neurodegeneration. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1999; 29(1): 1–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rottkamp CA, Nunomura A, Hirai K, et al. Will antioxidants fulfil their expectations for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease? Mech Ageing Dev 2000; 116(2-3): 169–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Butterfield DA. β-Amyloid-associated free radical oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: implications for Alzheimer’s disease. Chem Res Toxicol 1997; 10(5): 495–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gasic-Milenkovic J, Loske C, Munch G. Advanced glycation endproducts cause lipid peroxidation in the human neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y. J Alzheimers Dis 2003; 5(1): 25–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McIntosh LJ, Trash MA, Troncoso JC. Increased susceptibility of Alzheimer’s disease temporal cortex to oxygen free radicalmediated processes. Free Radie Biol Med 1997; 23(2): 183–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Floyd RA, West M, Hensley K. Oxidative biochemical markers: clues to understanding aging in long-lived species. Exp Gerontol 2001; 36: 619–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Altavilla D, Deodato B, Campo GM, et al. IRFI 042, a novel dual vitamin E-like antioxidant, inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and reduces the inflammatory response in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res 2000; 47(3): 515–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Behl C. Vitamin E protects neurons against oxidative cell death in vitro more effectively than 17-beta estradiol and induces the activity of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. J Neural Transm 2000; 107(4): 393–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Melton L. Oestrogen shields brain from ageing. Lancet 1999; 354(9184): 1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vatassery GT. Vitamin E and other endogenous antioxidants in the central nervous system. Geriatrics 1998; 53Suppl. 1: S25–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Abd el-Fattah AA, al-Yousef HM, al-Bekairi AM, et al. Vitamin E protects the brain against oxidative injury stimulated by excessive aluminium intake. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1998; 46(6): 1175–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Basgchi D, Garg A, Krohn RL, et al. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins and selected antioxidants against TPA-induced hepatic and brain lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice. Gen Pharmacol 1998; 30(5): 771–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Inci S, Ozcan OE, Kilinc K. Time-level relationship for lipid peroxidation and the protective effect of alpha-tocopherol in experimental mild and severe brain injury. Neurosurgery 1998; 43(2): 330–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Giray B, Gurbay A, Hincal F. Cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress in rat brain and liver is prevented by vitamin E or allopurinol. Toxicol Lett 2001; 118(3): 139–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tagami M, Ikeda K, Yamagata K, et al. Vitamin E prevents apoptosis in hippocampal neurons caused by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Lab Invest 1999; 79(5): 609–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Urano S, Asai Y, Makabe S, et al. Oxidative injury of synapseand alteration of antioxidative defense systems in rats, and its prevention by vitamin E. Eur J Biochem 1997; 245(1): 64–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hara H, Kato H, Kogure K. Protective effect of alpha-tocopherol on ischemic neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus. Brain Res 1990; 510(2): 335–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sohal RS, Brunt UT. Lipofuscin as an indicator of oxidative stress and aging [review]. Adv Exp Med Biol 1989; 266:17–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Monji A, Morimoto N, Okuyama I, et al. Effect of dietary vitamin E on lipofuscin accumulation with age in the rat brain. Brain Res 1994; 634(1): 62–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    O’Donnell E, Lynch MA. Dietary antioxidant supplementation reverses age-related neuronal changes. Neurobiol Aging 1998; 19(5): 461–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Koppal T, Subramaniam R, Drake J, et al. Vitamin E protects against Alzheimer’s amyloid peptide (25–35)-induced changes in neocortical synaptosomal membrane lipid structure and composition. Brain Res 1998; 786(1–2): 270–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Escames G, Guerrero JM, Reiter RJ, et al. Melatonin and vitamin E limit nitric oxide-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. Neurosci Lett 1997; 230(3): 147–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Post A, Holsboer F, Behl C. Induction of NF-kappaB activity during haloperidol-induced oxidative toxicity in clonal hippocampal cells: suppression of NE-kappaB and neuroprotection by antioxidants. J Neurosci 1998; 18(20): 8236–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dillard CJ, Dumelin EE, Tappel AL. Effect of dietary vitamin E on expiration of pentane and ethane by the rat. Lipids 1977; 12(1): 109–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dillard CJ, Litov RE, Tappel AL. Effects of dietary vitamin E, selenium, and polyunsaturated fats on in vivo lipid peroxidation in the rat as measured by pentane production. Lipids 1978; 13(6): 396–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Yamada K, Tanaka T, Han D, et al. Protective effects of idebenone and alpha-tocopherol on beta-amyloid- (1–42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats: implication of oxidative stress in beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in vivo. Eur J Neurosci 1999; 11(1): 83–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Socci DJ, Crandall BM, Arendash GW. Chronic antioxidant treatment improves the cognitive performance of aged rats. Brain Res 1995; 693(1-2): 88–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Guerrero AL, Dorado-Martinez C, Rodriguez A, et al. Effects of vitamin E on ozone-induced memory deficits and lipid peroxidation in rats. Neuroreport 1999; 10(8): 1689–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yatin SM, Aksenov M, Butterfield DA. The antioxidant vitamin E modulates amyloid beta-peptide-induced creatine kinase activity inhibition and increased protein oxidation: implications for the free radical hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurochem Res 1999; 24(3): 427–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yao ZX, Drieu K, Szweda LI, et al. Free radicals and lipid peroxidation do not mediate beta-amyloid-induced neuronal cell death. Brain Res 1999; 847(2): 203–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kolsch H, Ludwig M, Lutjohann D, et al. Neurotoxicity of 24-hydroxycholesterol, an important cholesterol elimination product of the brain, may be prevented by vitamin E and estradiol-17beta. J Neural Transm 2001; 108(4): 475–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Subbarao KV, Richardson JS, Ang LC. Autopsy samples of Alzheimer’s cortex show increased peroxidation in vitro. J Neurochem 1990; 55(1): 342–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hensley K, Hall N, Subramaniam R, et al. Brain regional correspondence between Alzheimer’s disease histopathology and biomarkers of protein oxidation. J Neurochem 1995; 65(5): 2146–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Adams JD, Klaidman LK, Odunze IN, et al. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease: brain levels of glutathione, glutathione disulfide, and vitamin E. Mol Chem Neuropathol 1991; 14(3): 213–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Metcalfe T, Bowen DM, Muller DP. Vitamin E concentrations in human brain of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, fetuses with Down’s syndrome, centenarians, and controls. Neurochem Res 1989; 14(12): 1209–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jeandel C, Nicolas MB, Dubois F, et al. Lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in Alzheimer’s disease. Gerontology 1989; 35(5–6): 275–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Riviere S, Birlouez-Aragon I, Nourhashemi F, et al. Low plasma vitamin C in Alzheimer patients despite an adequate diet. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1998; 13(11): 749–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zaman Z, Roche S, Fielden P, et al. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E and carotenoids in Alzheimer’s disease. Age Ageing 1992; 21(2): 91–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tohgi H, Abe T, Nakanishi M, et al. Concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and its quinone derivative in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vascular dementia of the Binswanger type and Alzheimer type dementia. Neurosci Lett 1994; 174(1): 73–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, de Bustos F, Molina JA, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neural Transm 1997; 104(6–7): 703–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jama JW, Launer LJ, Witteman JC, et al. Dietary antioxidants and cognitive function in a population-based sample of older persons: The Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144(3): 275–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Perkins AJ, Hendrie HC, Callahan CM, et al. Association of antioxidants with memory in a multiethnic elderly sample using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150(1): 37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kalmijn S, Feskens EJ, Launer LJ, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and cognitive function in very old men. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145(1): 33–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Morris MC, Beckett LA, Scherr PA, et al. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1998; 12(3): 121–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Masaki KH, Losonczy KG, Izmirlian G, et al. Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men. Neurology 2000; 54(6): 1265–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease in a biracial community study. JAMA 2002; 287(24): 3230–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Vitamin E and cognitive decline in older persons. Arch Neurol 2002; 59(7): 1125–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Shea S, et al. Antioxidant vitamin intake and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003; 60(2): 203–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Grodstein F, Chen J, Willett WC. High-dose antioxidant supplements and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77(4): 975–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Corrigan FM, Van Rhijn A, Horrobin DF. Essential fatty acids in Alzheimer’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1991; 640: 250–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. Lancet 2002; 360(9326): 23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jenner P, Olanow CW. Oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1996; 47(6 Suppl. 3): S161–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Martignoni E, Blandini F, Godi L, et al. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease. the role of L-DOPA. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 27(3-4): 428–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hildick-Smith M. Parkinson’s disease. In: Pathy MSJ, editor. Principles and practice of geriatric medicine. 2nd ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1991Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Langsten JW, Langsten EB, Irwin I. MPTP-induced parkinsonismin human and non-human primates: clinical and experimental aspects. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 1984; 100: 49–54Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    de Rijk MC, Breteler MM, den Breeijen JH, et al. Dietary antioxidants and Parkinson disease: The Rotterdam Study. Arch Neurol 1997; 54(6): 762–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Golbe LI, Farrell TM, Davis PH. Case-control study of early life dietary factors in Parkinson’s disease. Arch Neurol 1988; 45(12): 1350–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hellenbrand W, Boeing H, Robra BP, et al. Diet and Parkinson’s disease: II. a possible role for the past intake of specific nutrients: results from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire in a case-control study. Neurology 1996; 47(3): 644–50Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Scheider WL, Hershey LA, Vena JE, et al. Dietary antioxidants and other dietary factors in the etiology of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 1997; 12(2): 190–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Effects of tocopherol and deprenyl on the progression of disability in early Parkinson’s disease. The Parkinson Study Group. N Engl J Med 1993 Jan 21; 328(3): 176–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Morens DM, Grandinetti A, Waslien CI, et al. Case-control study of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and dietary vitamin E intake. Neurology 1996; 46(5): 1270–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Logroscino G, Marder K, Cote L, et al. Dietary lipids and antioxidants in Parkinson’s disease: a population-based, case-control study. Ann Neurol 1996; 39(1): 89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Zhang SM, Hernan MA, Chen H, et al. Intakes of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, vitamin supplements, and PD risk. Neurology 2002; 59(8): 1161–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lohr JB, Caligiuri MP. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of vitamin E treatment of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Psychiatry 1996; 57(4): 167–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Adler LA, Edson R, Lavori P, et al. Long-term treatment effects of vitamin E for tardive dyskinesia. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 43(12): 868–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Dannon PN, Grunhaus L, Iancu I, et al. Vitamin E treatment in tardive dystonia. Clin Neuropharmacol 1997; 20(5): 434–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Dorfman-Etrog P, Hermesh H, Prilipko L, et al. The effect of vitamin E addition to acute neuroleptic treatment on the emergence of extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenic patients: an open label study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1999; 9(6): 475–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lohr JB, Cadet JL, Lohr MA, et al. Vitamin E in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: the possible involvement of free radical mechanisms. Schizophr Bull 1988; 14(2): 291–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Boomershine KH, Shelton PS, Boomershine JE. Vitamin E in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Ann Pharmacother 1999; 33(11): 1195–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Soares KV, McGrath JJ. Vitamin E for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. [update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (2):CD000209; PMID: 10796508]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001; (4): CD000209Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Barak Y, Swartz M, Shamir E, et al. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a statistical meta-analysis. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1998; 10(3): 101–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Dorevitch A, Lerner V, Shalfman M, et al. Lack of effect of vitamin E on serum creatine phosphokinase in patients with long-term tardive dyskinesia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1997; 12(3): 171–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Adler LA, Rotrosen J, Edson R, et al. Vitamin E treatment for tardive dyskinesia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999 Sep; 56(9): 836–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Apostolski S, Marinkovic Z, Nikolic A, et al. Glutathione peroxidase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the effects of selenium supplementation. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 1998; 17(3-4): 325–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Oteiza PI, Uchitel OD, Carrasquedo F, et al. Evaluation of antioxidants, protein, and lipid oxidation products in blood from sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Neurochem Res 1997; 22(4): 535–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Eisen A, Weber M. Treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Drugs Aging 1999; 14(3): 173–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Santavuori P, Heiskala H, Autti T, et al. Comparison of the clinical courses in patients with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis receiving antioxidant treatment and those without antioxidant treatment. Adv Exp Med Biol 1989; 266: 273–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Peyser CE, Folstein M, Chase GA, et al. Trial of d-alpha-tocopherol in Huntington’s disease. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152(12): 1771–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Doody RS, Stevens JC, Beck C, et al. Practice parameter: management of dementia (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2001; 56(9): 1154–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias of late life. American Psychiatric Association [published erratum appears in Am J Psychiatry 1997 Aug; 154 (8): 1180]. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154(5 Suppl.): 1–39Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Alzheimer Research Forum. Alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) [online]. Available from URL: http://www.alzforum.org/dis/tre/drt/vitamine.asp. [Accessed 2002 October 15]
  128. 128.
    Haan MN. Can vitamin supplements prevent cognitive decline and dementia in old age? Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77(4): 762–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Zandi PP, Anthony JC, Khachaturian AS, et al. Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease in users of antioxidant vitamin supplements. The Cache County Study. Arch Neurol 2004; 61(1): 82–8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Berman
    • 1
  • Henry Brodaty
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Academic Department for Old Age Psychiatry, Euroa CentrePrince of Wales HospitalRandwickAustralia
  2. 2.School of PsychiatryUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations