CNS Drugs

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 23–45 | Cite as

Effects of Newer Antipsychotics on Extrapyramidal Function

  • Daniel Tarsy
  • Ross J. Baldessarini
  • Frank I. Tarazi
Review Article

Abstract

Following acceptance of clozapine as a superior antipsychotic agent with low risk of adverse extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS), such as dystonia, parkinsonism, akathisia or tardive dyskinesia, several novel antipsychotic drugs have been developed with properties modelled on those of clozapine. Though generally considered ‘atypical’ in their relatively low risk of inducing EPS, these agents vary considerably in their pharmacology and impact on neurological functioning.

Although few comparative data are available, the atypical antipsychotics can be tentatively ranked by EPS risk (excluding akathisia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome) in the following order: clozapine < quetiapine < olanzapine = ziprasidone. At higher doses, risperidone is ranked with a higher EPS risk than olanzapine and ziprasidone, but its risk of EPS is lower with lower doses. In general, this ranking is inversely related to antidopaminergic (D2 receptor) potency. The high antiserotonergic (5-HT2A receptor) potency of risperidone, clozapine, ziprasidone and olanzapine, but not quetiapine, as well as the anti-muscarinic activity of olanzapine and clozapine may also limit EPS.

For the treatment of psychotic reactions to dopamine agonist therapy in Parkinson’s disease, clozapine is both effective and relatively well tolerated; quetiapine may be tolerated, olanzapine is not well tolerated, risperidone is poorly tolerated, and amisulpride and ziprasidone have not been well evaluated. Clozapine, perhaps because of its anticholinergic activity, can reduce parkinsonian tremor. It is useful for ongoing psychosis with tardive dyskinesia, especially for dystonic features. No atypical antipsychotic is clearly effective for motor abnormalities in Huntington’s disease or Tourette’s syndrome, and the effect of these drugs on other neurological disorders have been well evaluated in only small numbers of patients.

In summary, with the exception of clozapine, and perhaps quetiapine, atypical antipsychotics have brought only relative avoidance of EPS, strongly encouraging continued searches for novel antipsychotic agents.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Supported, in part, by NIH grant MH-47370, a grant from the Bruce J. Anderson Foundation, by the McLean Hospital Private Donors Neuropharmacology Research Fund and by an investigator-initiated research award from Eli Lilly Corporation (RJ Baldessarini), NARSAD Young Investigator award, Theodore and Vada Stanley Foundation (FI Tarazi).

References

  1. 1.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tarazi FI. Drags and the treatment of psychiatric disorders: antipsychotic and antimanic agents. Chapter 20. In: Hartman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, et al., editors. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Press, 2001:485–520Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baldessarini RJ, Frankenburg FR. Clozapine: a novel antipsychotic agent. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 746–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jibson MD, Tandon R. New atypical antipsychotic medications. J Psychiatr Res 1998; 32: 215–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meltzer HY. Multireceptor atypical antipsychotic drags. In: Ellenbroek BA, Cools AR, editors. Atypical antipsychotics. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 2000: 191–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deniker P. Experimental neurological syndromes and the new drag therapies in psychiatry. Compr Psychiatry 1960; 1: 92–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Denham J, Carrick DJ. Therapeutic value of thioproperazine and the importance of the associated neurological disturbances. J Ment Sci 1961; 107: 326–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tarazi FI. Brain dopamine receptors: a primer on their current status, basic and clinical. Harv Rev Psychiatry 1996; 3: 301–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baldessarini RJ. Dopamine receptors and clinical medicine. In: Neve KA, Neve RL, editors. The dopamine receptors. Totowa (NJ): Humana Press, 1997: 457–98Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baldessarini RJ. American biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology 1944–1994. Chapter 16. In: Menninger RW, Nemiah JC, editors. American psychiatry after World War II (1944–1994). Washington, DC: APA Press, 2000: 371–412Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Idanpaan-Heikkila J, Alhava E, Olkinuroa M, et al. Agranulocytosis during treatment with clozapine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 11: 193–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alvir JNJ, Lieberman JA, Safferman AZ, et al. Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis: incidence and risk factors in the US. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 162–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kane JM, Honigfeld G, Singer J, et al. Clozapine for the treatment resistant schizophrenic: a double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45: 789–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Honigfeld G, Arellano F, Sethi J, et al. Reducing clozapine-related morbidity and mortality: five years of experience with the Clozaril national registry. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59Suppl 3: 3–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Geddes J, Freemantle N, Harrison P, et al. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: symptomatic overview and meta-regression analysis. BMJ 2000; 321: 1371–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barnes TRE, McPhillips MA. Novel antipsychotics, extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1998; 13Suppl. 3: S49–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van Tol HH, Bunzow JR, Guan HC, et al. Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine. Nature 1991; 350: 610–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kapur S, Seeman P. Does fast dissociation from the dopamine D2 receptor explain the action of atypical antipsychotics? Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 360–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tarazi FI, Yeghiayan SK, Neumeyer JL, et al. Medial prefrontal cortical D2 and striatolimbic D4 dopamine receptors: common targets for typical and atypical antipsychotic drags. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1998; 22: 693–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ. Dopamine D4 receptors: significance for molecular psychiatry at the millennium. Mol Psychiatry 1999; 4: 529–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tarazi FI, Zhang K, Baldessarini RJ. Long-term effects of olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine on dopamine receptor types in regions of rat brain: implications for antipsychotic drag treatment. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001; 297: 711–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schotte A, Janssen PFM, Gommeren W, et al. Risperidone compared with new and reference antipsychotic drugs: in vitro and in vivo receptor binding. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1996; 124: 57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arnt J, Skarsfeldt T. Do novel antipsychotics have similar pharmacological characteristics? A review of the evidence. Neuropsychopharmacology 1998; 18: 63–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goldstein JM. The new generation of antipsychotic drags: how atypical are they? Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2000; 3(4): 339–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Casey DE. Barriers to progress-the impact of tolerability problems. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2001; 16 Suppl.: S15–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gefvert O, Bergström M, Langström B, et al. Time course of central nervous dopamine D2 and 5HT2 receptor blockade and plasma drug concentrations after discontinuation of quetiapine in patients with schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 1998; 135:119–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ichikawa J, Meltzer HY. Relationship between dopaminergic and serotonergic neuronal activity in the frontal cortex and the action of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999; 249Suppl.4: 90–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nordstrom A-L, Nyberg S, Olsson H, et al. Positron emission tomography finding of a high striatal D2 receptor occupancy in olanzapine-treated patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55: 283–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nordstrom A-L, Farde L, Nyberg S, et al. D1, D2, and 5-HT2 receptor occupancy in relation to clozapine serum concentration: PET study of schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152: 1444–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kapur S, Zipursky RB, Remington G. Clinical and theoretical implications of 5-HT2 and D2 receptor occupancy of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 286–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kasper S, Tauscher J, Küfferle B, et al. Dopamine- and serotonin-receptors in schizophrenia: results of imaging studies and implications for pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999; 249 Suppl. 4: 83–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Waddington J, Casey D. Comparative pharmacology of classical and novel (second-generation) antipsychotics. In: Buckley PF, Waddington JL, editors. Schizophrenia and mood disorders: the new drag therapies in clinical practice. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000: 1–13Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clozapine [editorial]. Lancet 1989; II: 1430–2Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Emsley RA. Role of newer atypical antipsychotics in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. CNS Drags 2000; 13(6): 409–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tuunainen A, Wahlbeck K, Gilbody SM. Newer atypical antipsychotic medication vs. clozapine for schizophrenia (Cochrane Review). In: Nielsen JP, Crowther CA, Hodnett ED, et al., editors. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Available in The Cochrane Library [database on disk and CD ROM]. Updated quarterly. The Cochrane Collaboration; issue 2. Oxford: Update Software, 2000: CD000966Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gerlach J, Coppelhaus P, Helweg E, et al. Clozapine and haloperidol in a single-blind cross-over trial: therapeutic and biochemical aspects in the treatment of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1974; 50: 410–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Van Praag HM, Korf J, Dols LCW. Clozapine vs perphenazine. Br J Psychiatry 1976; 129: 547–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fischer-Cornelssen KA, Ferner UJ. An example of European multicenter trials: multispectral analysis of clozapine. Psychol Bull 1976; 12: 34–9Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Claghorn J, Honigfeld G, Abuzzahab FS, et al. Risks and benefits of clozapine versus chlorpromazine. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1987; 7: 377–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Baldessarini RJ, Cohen BM, Teicher MH. Significance of neuroleptic dose and plasma level in the pharmacological treatment of psychoses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45: 79–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cohen BM, Tsuneizumi T, Baldessarini RJ, et al. Differences between antipsychotic drugs in persistence of brain levels and behavioral effects. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992; 108: 338–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Casey DE. Clozapine: neuroleptic-induced EPS and tardive dyskinesia. Psychopharmacology 1989; 99 Suppl.: S47–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wahlbeck K, Cheine M, Essali A, et al. Evidence of clozapine’s effectiveness in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 990–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gerlach J, Peacock L. Motor and mental side effects of clozapine. J Clin Psychiatry 1994; 9Suppl. B: 107–9Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kane J, Safferman AZ, Pollack S, et al. Clozapine, negative symptoms, and extrapyramidal side effects. J Clin Psychiatry 1994; 55Suppl. B: 74–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Breier A, Buchanan RW, Kirkpatrick D, et al. Effects of clozapine on positive and negative symptoms in outpatients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151: 20–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Buchanan RW, Breier A, Kirkpatrick D, et al. Positive and negative symptom response to clozapine in schizophrenic patients with and without the deficit syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155:751–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Barnes TRE, Braude WM. Akathisia variants and tardive dyskinesia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985; 42: 874–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cohen BM, Keck Jr PE, Satlan A, et al. Prevalence and severity of akathisia in patients on clozapine. Biol Psychiatry 1991; 29: 1215–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chengappa KN, Shelton MD, Baker RW, et al. The prevalence of akathisia in patients receiving stable doses of clozapine. J Clin Psychiatry 1994; 55: 142–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Miller CH, Fleischhacker WW. Managing antipsychotic-induced acute and chronic akathisia. Drug Saf 2000; 22: 73–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pearlman CA. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a review of the literature. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1986; 6: 257–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Addonizio G, Susman VL, Roth SD. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: review and analysis of 115 cases. Biol Psychiatry 1987; 22: 1004–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rosenburg MR, Green M. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: review of response to therapy. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149: 1927–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Weiler M, Kornhuber J. Does clozapine cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome? J Clin Psychiatry 1993; 54: 70–81Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Thornberg SA, Ereshefsky L. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with clozapine monotherapy. Pharmacotherapy 1993; 13: 510–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sachdev P, Kruk J, Kneebone M, et al. Clozapine-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome: review and report of new cases. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1995; 15: 365–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Karaginias JL, Phillips LC, Hogan KP, et al. Clozapine-associated neuroleptic malignant syndrome: two new cases and a review of the literature. Ann Pharmacother 1999; 33: 623–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Caroff SN, Mann SC, Campbell EC. Atypical antipsychotics and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Psychiatr Ann 2000; 30: 314–21Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Baldessarini RJ, Cole JO, Davis JM, et al. Tardive dyskinesia: a summary of the findings of an APA Task Force. Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137: 1163–72Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jeste D, Wyatt RJ. Understanding and treating tardive dyskinesia. New York: Guilford Press, 1982Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tarsy D, Baldessarini RJ. Tardive dyskinesia. Annu Rev Med 1984; 35: 605–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kane JM, Jeste DV, Barnes TRE, et al. Tardive dyskinesia: an APA Task Force report. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1992Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Doepp S, Buddeberg C. Extrapyramidal symptoms following clozapine therapy. Nervenarzt 1975 Oct; 46(10): 589–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    De Leon J, Moral L, Camunas C. Clozapine and jaw dyskinesia: case report. J Clin Psychiatry 1991; 52: 494–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Davé M. Clozapine-related tardive dyskinesia. Biol Psychiatry 1994; 35: 886–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Peacock L, Solgaard T, Lublin H, et al. Clozapine vs typical antipsychotics. A retro- and prospective study of extrapyramidal side effects. Psychopharmacology 1996; 124:188–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Modestin J, Stephan PL, Erni T, et al. Problems of extrapyramidal syndromes in psychiatric inpatients and the relationship of clozapine treatment to tardive dyskinesia. Schizophr Res 2000; 42: 223–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kane J, Woerner MG, Pollack S, et al. Does clozapine cause tardive dyskinesia? J Clin Psychiatry 1993; 54: 327–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Glazer WM, Morgenstern H, Doucette JT. Predicting the long-term risk of tardive dyskinesia in outpatients maintained on neuroleptic medication. J Clin Psychiatry 1993; 54: 133–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tarsy D. Tardive dyskinesia. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2000; 2: 205–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Soares KVS, McGrath JJ. The treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res 1999; 39: 1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gardos G, Casey DE, Cole JO, et al. Ten-year outcome in tardive dyskinesia. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151: 836–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Factor S, Friedman JH. The emerging role of clozapine in the treatment of movement disorders. Mov Disord 1997; 12: 43–97Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Simpson GM, Varga E. Clozapine — a new antipsychotic agent. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1974; 16: 679–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Simpson GM, Lee JH, Shrivastava RK. Clozapine in tardive dyskinesia. Psychopharmacology 1978; 56: 75–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cole JO, Gardos G, Tarsy D, et al. Drugs trials in persistent dyskinesia. In: Fann WE, Smith RC, Davis JM, editors. Tardive dyskinesia, research and treatment. New York: SP Medical and Scientific Books, 1980: 419–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gerbino L, Shopsin B, Collra M. Clozapine in the treatment of tardive dyskinesias: an interim report. In: Fann WE, Smith RC, Davis JM, editors. Tardive dyskinesia, research and treat-ment. New York: SP Medical and Scientific Books, 1980: 475–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Small JG, Millstein V, Marhenke JD, et al. Treatment outcome with clozapine in tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic sensitivity and treatment resistant psychosis. J Clin Psychiatry 1987; 48: 263–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lieberman JA, Saltz BL, Johns CA, et al. Effects of clozapine on tardive dyskinesia. Br J Psychiatry 1991; 158: 503–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Littrell K, Magill AM. The effect of clozapine on pre-existing tardive dyskinesia. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 1993; 31: 1418–9Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tamminga CA, Thaker GK, Moran M, et al. Clozapine in tardive dyskinesia: observations from human and animal model studies. J Clin Psychiatry 1994; 55Suppl. B: 102–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Spivak B, Mester R, Abesgaus J, et al. Clozapine treatment for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and chronic akathisia in schizophrenic patients. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58: 318–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Carroll BJ, Curtiss CG, Kokmen E. Paradoxical response to dopaminergic agonists in tardive dyskinesia. Am J Psychiatry 1977; 134: 785–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Caine ED, Jolinsky RJ, Kartzinel R, et al. The trial use of clozapine for abnormal involuntary movement disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1979; 36: 317–20Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Meltzer HY, Luchins DL. Effect of clozapine in severe tardive dyskinesia: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1984; 4: 286–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    van Putten T, Wirshing WS, Marder SR. Tardive Meige syndrome responsive to clozapine. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1990 Oct; 10(5): 381–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Blake LM, Marks RC, Nierman P, et al. Clozapine and clonazepam in tardive dystonia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1991; 11: 268–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Friedman JH. Clozapine treatment of psychosis in patients with tardive dystonia: report of three cases. Mov Disord 1994; 9: 321–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Trugman JM, Leadbetter R, Zalis ME, et al. Treatment of severe axial tardive dystonia with clozapine: case report and hypothesis. Mov Disord 1994; 9: 441–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bonuccelli U, Abbruzzese G, Ceravolo R, et al. Successful treatment with clozapine in four patients with tardive dystonia. Mov Disord 1996; 11 Suppl. 1: 220–1Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Borg M, Shatel M. Treatment of axial tardive dystonia with clozapine. Mov Disord 1996; 11Suppl. 1: 212–3Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Valevski A, Radvan M, Hermesh H, et al. Successful treatment of severe generalized dystonia with clozapine. Mov Disord 1996; 11 Suppl. 1: 230–1Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jeste DV, Wyatt RJ. Therapeutic strategies against tardive dyskinesia: two decades of experience. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982; 39: 803–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Burke RE, Fahn S, Jankovic J, et al. Tardive dystonia: late-onset and persistent dystonia caused by antipsychotic drugs. Neurology 1982; 32: 1335–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hallett M. Physiology of basal ganglia disorders: overview. Can J Neurol Sci 1993; 20: 177–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pakkenberg H, Pakkenberg B. Clozapine in the treatment of tremor. Acta Neurol Scand 1986; 73: 295–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Friedman JH, Lannon MC. Clozapine-responsive tremor in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 1990; 5: 225–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fischer PA, Bass H, Hefner R. Treatment of parkinsonian tremor with clozapine. J Neural Transmission 1990; 2: 233–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jansen ENH. Clozapine in the treatment of tremor in Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neurol Scand 1994; 89: 262–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bonnuccelli U, Ceravolo R, Salvetti S, et al. Clozapine in Parkinson’s disease tremor. Neurology 1997; 49: 1587–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Friedman JH, Koller WC, Lannon MC, et al. Benztropine versus clozapine for the treatment of tremor in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1997; 48: 1077–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ceravolo R, Salvetti S, Dell’Agnello G, et al. The pharmacological tools in the study of essential tremor. Mov Disord 1996; 11Suppl. 1: 255–6Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bolden C, Cusack B, Richelson E. Clozapine as a potent and selective muscarinic antagonist at the five cloned human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells. Eur J Pharmacol 1991; 192: 205–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schuster P, Gabriel E, Kufferle B, et al. Reversal by physostigmine of clozapine-induced delirium. Clin Toxicol 1977; 10: 437–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Baldessarini RJ, Huston-Lyons D, Campbell A, et al. Do anti-adrenergic actions contribute to the atypical properties of clozapine? Br J Psychiatry 1992; 160Suppl. 17: 12–6Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Klawans Jr HL, Weiner WJ. Attempted use of haloperidol in the treatment of L-dopa induced dyskinesias. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1974; 37: 427–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gomez-Arevalo GJ, Gershanik OS. Modulatory effect of clozapine on levodopa response in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 1993; 8: 349–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bennett Jr JP, Landow ER, Schuh LA. Suppression of dyskinesias in advanced Parkinson’s disease: increasing daily clozapine doses suppressed dyskinesias and improved parkinsonian symptoms. Neurology 1993; 43: 1551–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bennett Jr JP, Landow ER, Dietrich S, et al. Suppression of dyskinesias in advanced Parkinson’s disease: moderate daily clozapine doses provide long-term dyskinesia reduction. Mov Disord 1994; 9: 409–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Durif F, Vidailhet M, Assal F, et al. Low-dose clozapine improves dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1997; 48: 658–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Linazasoro G, Marti Masso JF, Suarez JA. Nocturnal akathisia in Parkinson’s disease: treatment with clozapine. Mov Disord 1993; 8: 171–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chacko RC, Hurley RA, Jankovic J. Clozapine use in diffuse Lewy body disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1993; 5: 206–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Parsa MA, Simon M, Dubrow C, et al. Psychiatric manifestations of olivopontocerebellar atrophy treated with clozapine. Int J Psychiatry Med 1993; 23: 149–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rich SA, Friedman JH, Ott BR. Risperidone versus clozapine in the treatment of psychosis in six patients with Parkinson’s disease and other akinetic-rigid syndromes. J Clin Psychiatry 1995; 56: 556–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sajatovic M, Verbanac P, Ramirez LF, et al. Clozapine treatment of psychiatric symptoms resistant to neuroleptic treatment in patients with Huntington’s chorea. Neurology 1991; 41: 156–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Bonuccelli U, Ceravolo R, Maremmani C, et al. Clozapine in Huntington’s chorea. Neurology 1994; 44: 821–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Colosimo C, Cassetta E, Bentivoglio AR, et al. Clozapine in Huntington’s disease. Neurology 1995; 45: 1023–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    van Vugt JPP, Siesling S, Vergeer M, et al. Clozapine vs placebo in Huntington’s disease. Mov Disord 1996; 11: 54–5Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Shapiro A, Shapiro E, Young JG, Feinberg TE. Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. New York: Raven Press, 1988Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Thiel A, Dressler D, Kistel C, et al. Clozapine treatment of spasmodic torticollis. Neurology 1994; 44: 957–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bashir K, Manyan BV. Clozapine for the control of hemiballismus. Clin Neuropharmacol 1994; 17: 477–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Noe Sebastian E, Irimia Siera P, Pomares Arias EM, et al. Neuropsychiatric disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Rev Neurol 2001; 32:676–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Scholz E, Dichgans J. Treatment of drug-induced exogenous psychosis in parkinsonism with clozapine and fluperlapine. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 1985; 235: 60–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Friedman JH, Factor SA. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2000; 15:201–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Fernandez HH, Friedman JH. Role of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of movement disorders. CNS Drugs 1999; 11: 467–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Wolters EC, Hurwitz TA, Mak E. Clozapine and the treatment of parkinsonian patients with dopaminomimetic psychosis. Neurology 1990; 40: 832–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    The Parkinson Study Group. Low-dose clozapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 757–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    The French Clozapine Parkinson Study Group. Clozapine in drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet 1999; 353: 2041–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Livingston MG. Risperidone. Lancet 1994; 343: 457–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kane JM. Risperidone. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151: 802–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Klaus A, Bollen J, De Cuyper H, et al. Risperidone versus haloperidol in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic in-patients: a multicenter double-blind comparative study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1992; 85: 295–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Chouinard G, Jones B, Remington G, et al. Canadian multi-centered placebo controlled study of fixed doses of risperidone and haloperidol in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1993; 13: 25–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Marder SR, Meibach RC. Risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151: 825–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Peuskens J. Risperidone in the treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia: multinational, multi-center, double-blind, parallel-group study versus haloperidol. Br J Psychiatry 1995; 166:712–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Leucht S, Pitschel-Walz G, Abraham D, et al. Efficacy and extrapyramidal side-effects of the new antipsychotics olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and sertindole compared to conventional antipsychotics and placebo: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Schizophr Res 1999; 35: 51–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wirshing DA, Marshall BD, Green ME, et al. Risperidone in treatment-refractory schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 1374–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sharif ZA, Raza A, Ratakonda SS. Comparative efficacy of risperidone and clozapine in the treatment of patients with refractory schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: retrospective analysis. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61: 498–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Wahlbeck K, Cheine M, Tuisku K, et al. Risperidone versus clozapine in treatment resistant schizophrenia: randomized pilot study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2000; 24: 911–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kopala LC, Kimberley PG, Honer WG. Extrapyramidal signs and clinical symptoms in first-episode schizophrenia: response to low-dose risperidone. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1997; 17: 308–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Rosebush PI, Mazurek MF. Neurologic side effects in neurolepticnaïve patients treated with haloperidol or risperidone. Neurology 1999; 52: 782–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Miller CH, Mohr F, Umbricht D, et al. Prevalence of acute extrapyramidal signs and symptoms in patients treated with clozapine, risperidone and conventional antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59: 69–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Müller-Siecheneder F, Müller MJ, Hillert A, et al. Risperidone versus haloperidol and amitriptyline in the treatment of patients with a combined psychotic and depressed syndrome. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1998; 18: 111–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Herrmann N, Rivard MF, Flynn M, et al. Risperidone for the treatment of behavioral disturbances in dementia: case series. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998; 10: 220–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lavretsky H, Sultzer D. A structured trial of risperidone for the treatment of agitation in dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1998; 6: 127–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Irizarry MC, Ghaemi SN, Lee-Cherry ER, et al. Risperidone treatment of behavioral disturbances in outpatients with dementia. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999; 11: 336–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Katz IR, Jeste DV, Mintzer JE, et al. Comparison of risperidone and placebo for psychosis and behavioral disturbances associated with dementia: randomized, double-blind trial. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60: 107–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Negron AE, Reichman WE. Risperidone in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease with negative symptoms. Int Psychogeriatr 2000; 21: 527–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Verma S, Orengo CA, Kunik ME, et al. Tolerability and effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in male geriatric inpatients. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2001; 16: 223–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Daniel DG, Goldberg TE, Weinberger DR, et al. Different side effect profiles of risperidone and clozapine in 20 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153: 417–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Breier AF, Malhotra AK, Su TP, et al. Clozapine and risperidone in chronic schizophrenia: effect on symptoms, parkinsonian side effects, and neuroendocrine response. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 294–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Bondolfi G, Dufour H, Patris M, et al. Risperidone vs clozapine in treatment-resistant chronic schizophrenia: randomized, double-blind study. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 499–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Raitasuo V, Vataja R, Elomaa E. Risperidone induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a young patient. Lancet 1994; 344: 1705–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Webster P, Wijeratne C. Risperidone-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Lancet 1994; 344: 1228–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Tarsy D. Risperidone and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. JAMA 1996; 275: 446–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Addington DE, Toews JA, Addington JM. Risperidone and tardive dyskinesia: a case report. J Clin Psychiatry 1995; 56: 484–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Woerner MG, Sheitman BB, Lieberman JA, et al. Tardive dyskinesia induced by risperidone? Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153: 843–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Gwinn KA, Caviness JN. Risperidone-induced tardive dyskinesia and parkinsonism. Mov Disord 1997; 12: 119–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Friedman JH. Risperidone induced tardive dyskinesia (‘fly catcher tongue’) in a neuroleptic naïve patient. Ment Health Res 1998; 81: 271–2Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Campbell M. Risperidone-induced tardive dyskinesia in first-episode psychotic patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 19: 276–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Vercueil L, Foucher J. Risperidone-induced tardive dystonia and psychosis. Lancet 1999; 353: 981–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lemmens P, Brecher M, Van Baelen B. A combined analysis of double-blind studies with risperidone vs placebo and other antipsychotic agents: factors associated with extrapyramidal symptoms. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1999; 99: 160–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Kane J, Woerner M, Weinhold P, et al. Incidence of tardive dyskinesia: five-year data from a prospective study. Psychopharmacol Bull 1984; 20: 423–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Jeste DV, Okamoto A, Napolitano J, et al. Low incidence of persistent tardive dyskinesia in elderly patients with dementia treated with risperidone. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 1150–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Smith JM, Baldessarini RJ. Changes in prevalence, severity, and recovery in tardive dyskinesia with age. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980; 37: 1368–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Woerner MG, Alvirj MJ, Saltz BL, et al. Prospective study of tardive dyskinesia in the elderly: rates and risk factors. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 152–8Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Jeste DV, Lacro JP, Bailey A, et al. Lower incidence of tardive dyskinesia with risperidone compared with haloperidol in older patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 716–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Khan BU. Risperidone for severely disturbed behavior and tardive dyskinesia in developmentally disabled adults. J Autism Dev Disord 1997; 27: 479–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Carr LA, Perlman SL. Risperidone and olanzapine improved motor symptoms in Huntington’s disease [abstract]. Neurology 2000; 54Suppl. 3: 116–7Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Zuddas A, Cianchetti C. Efficacy of risperidone in idiopathic segmental dystonia. Lancet 1996; 347: 127–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Lombroso PJ, Scahill L, King RA, et al. Risperidone treatment of children and adolescents with chronic tic disorders: preliminary report. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995; 34: 1147–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Bruun RD, Budman CL. Risperidone as a treatment for Tourette syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry 1996; 57: 29–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Meco G, Alessandri A, Bonifati V, et al. Risperidone for hallucinations in L-dopa-treated Parkinson’s disease patients. Mov Disord 1994; 9Suppl. 1: 61–2Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Ford B, Lynch T, Greene P. Risperidone and Parkinson’s disease. Lancet 1994; 344: 681–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Meco G, Alessandri A, Giustini P, et al. Risperidone in levodopa-induced psychosis in advanced Parkinson’s disease: an open-label, long-term study. Mov Disord 1997; 12: 610–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Workman Jr RJ, Orengo CA, Bakey AA, et al. The use of risperidone for psychosis and agitation in demented patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997; 9: 594–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Leopold NA. Risperidone treatment of drag-related psychosis in patients with parkinsonism. Mov Disord 2000; 15: 301–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Ellis T, Cudkowicz ME, Sexton PM, et al. Clozapine and risperidone treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2000; 12: 364–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Meco G, Fabrizio E, Alessandri A, et al. Risperidone and levodopa induced dyskinesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 64: 135–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Allen RL, Walker Z, D’Ath PJ, et al. Risperidone for psychotic and behavioral symptoms in Lewy body dementia. Lancet 1995; 346(8968): 185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    McKeith IG, Ballard CG, Harrison RWS. Neuroleptic sensitivity to risperidone in Lewy body dementia. Lancet 1995; 346: 699–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Beasley Jr CM, Sanger T, Satterlee W, et al. Olanzapine versus placebo: results of a double-blind, fixed-dose olanzapine trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1996; 124(1–2): 159–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Beasley Jr CM, Tollefson GD, Tran P, et al. Olanzapine versus placebo and haloperidol: acute phase results of a North American double-blind olanzapine trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 1996; 14(2): 111–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Tollefson GD, Beasley Jr CM, Tran PV, et al. Olanzapine vs haloperidol in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders: results of an international collaborative trial. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154: 457–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Tran PV, Hamilton SH, Kuntz AJ, et al. Double-blind comparison of olanzapine versus risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1997; 17: 407–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Bhana N, Foster RH, Olney R, et al. Olanzapine: an updated review of its use in the management of schizophrenia. Drugs 2000; 61: 111–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Gomez JC, Sacristin JA, Hernandez J, et al. The safety of olanzapine compared with other antipsychotic drugs: results of an observational prospective study in patients with schizophrenia (EFESO study). J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61: 335–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Moltz DA, Coeytaux RR. Case report: possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome with olanzapine. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1998; 18: 485–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Nemets B, Geller V, Grisara N, et al. Olanzapine treatment of clozapine-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Hum Psychopharmacol 2000; 15: 77–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    O’Brien J, Barber R. Marked improvement in tardive dyskinesia following treatment with olanzapine in an elderly subject. Br J Psychiatry 1998; 172: 186–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Jaffe ME, Simpson GM. Reduction of tardive dystonia with olanzapine. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 2016–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Soutullo CA, Keck Jr PE, McElroy SL. Olanzapine in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: report of two cases. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 19: 100–1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Littrell KH, Johnson CG, Littrell S, et al. Marked reduction of tardive dyskinesia with olanzapine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55: 279–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Dunayevich E, Strakowski SM. Olanzapine-induced tardive dystonia. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 1662–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Herran A, Vazquez-Barquero JL. Tardive dyskinesia associated with olanzapine. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131(1): 72–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Tollefson GD, Beasley Jr CM, Tamura RN, et al. Blind, controlled, long-term study of the comparative incidence of treatment-emergent tardive dyskinesia with olanzapine or haloperidol. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154: 1248–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Paleacu D, Anca M, Giladi N. Olanzapine in Huntington’s disease [abstract]. Neurology 2000; 54Suppl. 3: A421–2Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Safirstein B, Shulman LM, Weiner WJ. Successful treatment of hemichorea with olanzapine. Mov Disord 1999; 14: 532–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Wolters EC, Jansen ENH, Tuynman-Qua HG, et al. Olanzapine in the treatment of dopaminomimetic psychosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1996; 47: 1085–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Aarsland D, Larsen JP, Lim NG, et al. Olanzapine for psychosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999; 11: 392–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Friedman J. Olanzapine in the treatment of dopaminomimetic psychosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1998; 50: 1195–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Friedman JH, Goldstein S, Jacques C. Substituting clozapine for olanzapine in psychiatrically stable Parkinson’s disease patients: results of an open-label pilot study. Clin Neuropharmacol 1998; 21: 285–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Graham JM, Sussman JD, Ford KS, et al. Olanzapine in the treatment of hallucinosis in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: a cautionary note. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 65: 774–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Weiner WJ, Minagar A, Shulman LM. Olanzapine for the treatment of hallucinations/delusions in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 1998; 13: 862–3Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Molho ES, Factor SA. Worsening of motor features of parkinsonism with olanzapine. Mov Disord 1999; 14: 1014–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Stover NP, Juncos JL. Olanzapine treatment of parkinsonian patients with psychosis [abstract]. Neurology 1999; 52Suppl. 2: 215–6Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Goetz CG, Blasucci LM, Leurgans S, et al. Olanzapine and clozapine: comparative effects on motor function in hallucinating PD patients. Neurology 2000; 55: 789–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Manson AJ, Schrag A, Lees AJ. Low-dose olanzapine for levodopa induced dyskinesias. Neurology 2000; 55: 795–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Tohen M, Sanger TM, McElroy SL, et al. Olanzapine vs. placebo in the treatment of acute mania. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 702–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Tohen M, Jacobs TG, Grundy SL, et al. Efficacy of olanzapine in acute bipolar mania: double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 841–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Richard IH, Nutt J. Worsening of motor function in Parkinson’s disease: ‘typical’ response to ‘atypical’ antipsychotic medications. Neurology 2000; 55: 748–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Naumann R, Felber W, Heilemann H, et al. Olanzapine-induced agranulocytosis. Lancet 1999; 354: 566–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Cagligiuri MR, Jeste DV, Lacro JP. Antipsychotic-induced movement disorders in the elderly: epidemiology and treatment recommendations. Drugs Aging 2000; 17: 363–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Solomons K, Geiger O. Olanzapine use in the elderly: a retrospective analysis. Can J Psychiatry 2000; 45: 151–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Byerly MJ, Weber MT, Brooks DL, et al. Antipsychotic medications and the elderly: effects on cognition and implications for use. Drugs Aging 2001; 18: 45–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Reynolds GP. Antipsychotic drug use in neurodegenerative disease in the elderly: problems and potential from a pharmacological perspective. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2001; 2(4): 543–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Emsley RA, Raniwalla J, Bailey PJ, et al. A comparison of quetiapine (Seroquel) and haloperidol in schizophrenic patients with a history of and a demonstrated partial response to conventional antipsychotic treatment. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 15: 121–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Kasper S, Mueller-Spahn F. Review of quetiapine and its clinical applications in schizophrenia. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2000; 1(4): 783–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Fabre Jr LF, Arvanitis L, Pultz J, et al. Seroquel (ICI 204, 636), a novel, atypical antipsychotic: early indication of safety and efficacy in patients with chronic and subchronic schizophrenia. Clin Ther 1995; 17: 366–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Casey DE. Seroquel (quetiapine): preclinical and clinical findings of a new atypical antipsychotic. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 1996; 5: 939–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Borison RL, Arvanitis LA, Miller BG, et al. ICI 204-636, an atypical antipsychotic: efficacy and safety in a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1996; 16: 158–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Small JG, Hirsch SR, Arvanitis LA, et al. Quetiapine in patients with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997; 54: 549–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Arvanitis LA, Miller BG. Multiple fixed doses of ‘Seroquel’ (quetiapine) in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia: a comparison with haloperidol and placebo. Biol Psychiatry 1997; 42: 233–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    McManus DQ, Arvanitis LA, Kowalcyk BB, et al. Quetiapine, a novel antipsychotic: experience in elderly patients with psychotic disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60: 292–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Jonnalagada JR, Norton JW Acute dystonia with quetiapine. Clin Neuropharmacol 2000; 23: 229–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Glazer WM, Morgenstern H, Pultz JA, et al. Incidence of persistent tardive dyskinesia may be lower with quetiapine treatment than previously reported with typical antipsychotics in patients with psychoses [abstract]. Neurology 2000; 54Suppl. 3:51–2Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Ghelber D, Belmaker RH. Tardive dyskinesia with quetiapine. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 796–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Parsa MA, Bastani B. Quetiapine (Seroquel) in the treatment of psychosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998; 10: 216–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Fernandez HH, Friedman JH, Jacques C, et al. Quetiapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 1999; 14: 484–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Fernandez HH, Lannon MC, Friedman JH, et al. Clozapine replacement by quetiapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2000; 15: 579–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Juncos JL, Evatt ML, Jewart RD. Long-term effects of quetiapine fumarate in parkinsonism complicated by psychosis [abstract]. Neurology 1998; 50Suppl.4: 70–1Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Juncos JL, Arvanitis L, Sweitzer D, et al. Quetiapine improves psychotic symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease [abstract]. Neurology 1999; 52Suppl. 2: 262–3Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Menza MMA, Palermo B, Mark M. Quetiapine as an alternative to clozapine in the treatment of dopamimetic psychosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1999; 11: 141–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Targum SD, Abbott BA. Efficacy of quetiapine in Parkinson’s patients with psychosis. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20: 54–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Juncos JL, Evatt ML, Jewart RD, et al. Long-term quetiapine treatment for psychosis in patients with parkinsonism who failed treatment with other atypical antipsychotics [abstract]. Neurology 2000; 54Suppl. 3: 374–5Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Matheson AJ, Lamb HM. Quetiapine: a review of its clinical potential in the management of psychotic symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. CNS Drugs 2000; 14(2): 157–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Seeger TF, Seymour PA, Schmidt AW, et al. Ziprasidone (CP-88,059): a new antipsychotic with combined dopamine and serotonin receptor antagonist activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 275: 101–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Gury C, Canciel O, Iaria P. Antipsychotic drugs and cardiovascular safety: current studies of prolonged QT interval and risk of ventricular arrhythmia. Encephale 2000; 26: 62–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Daniel DG, Copeland LF: Ziprasidone: comprehensive overview and clinical use of a novel antipsychotic. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000; 9: 819–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Colonna L, Saleem P, Don dey-Nouvel L, et al. Long term safety and efficacy of amisulpride in subchronic or chronic schizophrenia. Int J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 15: 13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Peuskens J. Amisulpride: it’s role in the therapeutic management of the schizophrenia patients. Conclusions. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 2000; 400: 28–9Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Jain KK. An assessment of iloperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000; 9: 2935–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Cooper SJ, Butler A, Tweed J, et al. Zotepine in the prevention of recurrence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study for chronic schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 2000; 150(3): 237–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Stanniland C, Taylor D. Tolerability of atypical antipsychotics. Drug Saf 2000; 22: 195–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Kanba S, Suzuki E, Nomura S, et al. Affinity of neuroleptics for D1 receptor of human brain striatum. J Psychiatry Neurosci 1994; 19: 265–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Richelson E. Receptor pharmacology of neuroleptics: relation to clinical effects. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60Suppl. 10: 5–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Richelson E, Souder T. Binding of antipsychotic drugs to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Life Sci 2000; 68: 29–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Tarsy D. Akathisia. In: Joseph A, Young RR, editors. Movement disorders in neurology and neuropsychiatry. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Blackwell, 1998: 75–83Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Tarsy
    • 1
  • Ross J. Baldessarini
    • 2
  • Frank I. Tarazi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyHarvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Consolidated Department of Psychiatry & Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School, and the Mailman Research CenterMcLean Division of Massachusetts General HospitalBelmont, BostonUSA

Personalised recommendations