, Volume 21, Issue 17, pp 1277–1290 | Cite as

Development and validation of the Diabetic Foot Ulcer Scale-Short Form (DFS-SF)

  • Carla M. BannEmail author
  • Sheri E. Fehnel
  • Dennis D. Gagnon
Original Research Article


Background: The Diabetic Foot Ulcer Scale (DFS) provides comprehensive measurement of the impact of diabetic foot ulcers on patients’ QOL through self-administration of 64 items comprising 15 subscales.

Objective: To develop and evaluate a short form of the DFS (DFS-SF) to reduce patient burden and the number of outcome measures, and to improve sensitivity to change in clinical condition.

Methods: The DFS-SF was created through the analysis of data from a doubleblind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of the efficacy and safety of becaplermin (recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB) in the treatment of chronic, full-thickness, neuropathic, diabetic foot ulcers. Using these data, items demonstrating poor psychometric properties were eliminated. Exploratory factor analyses were then conducted to develop a new, more parsimonious scaling algorithm that optimised the internal consistency of the new subscales. Finally, data from two additional clinical trials were used to assess replicability of the DFS-SF subscale structure.

Results: The DFS-SF contains a total of 29 items comprising six subscales. The results of both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provided support for the scaling algorithm. The DFS-SF subscales showed good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity, and demonstrated sensitivity to ulcer healing.

Conclusions: The results of this investigation indicate that the DFS-SF has good psychometric properties and replicability.


Negative Emotion Exploratory Factor Analysis Subscale Score Principal Factor Analysis Becaplermin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was funded by Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, New Jersey, USA.


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Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carla M. Bann
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sheri E. Fehnel
    • 2
  • Dennis D. Gagnon
    • 3
  1. 1.Statistics Research DivisionRTI InternationalResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  2. 2.RTI Health SolutionsRTI InternationalResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  3. 3.Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & DevelopmentRaritanUSA

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