, Volume 20, Issue 12, pp 813–825 | Cite as

Long Term Cost-of-Illness in Stroke

An International Review
  • Krista A. Payne
  • Krista F. Huybrechts
  • J. Jaime Caro
  • Traci J. Craig Green
  • Wendy S. Klittich
Review Article


An international review of the costs of stroke was conducted to explore data sources, and cost variables as well as to compare estimates of the annual aggregated cost (prevalence-based) and total per patient long-term cost (incidence-based) of care.

Dutch, English, French, German, Italian and Spanish literature was searched using the keywords stroke, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, cerebrovascular accident, cerebral infarction, cost(s), economics, and cost analysis. Criteria for study inclusion were: provides estimates of direct and/or indirect costs of stroke, published after 1989, methods described in adequate detail, and for studies of long-term costs, estimates based on a minimum 5 years of care following the event. Cost estimates are presented in original currencies and US dollars.

Among studies representing Australia, New Zealand, Western Europe and North America, six prevalence studies reported total annual aggregated costs of $US7975 (1988 values) to $US54 546 (1993 values) per patient; eight incidence-based studies reported total long-term per patient costs of $US18 538 (1991 values) to $US228 038 (1990 values). Identifiable factors underlying variation included: perspective employed, cost variables considered, and exclusion of comorbidities.

Although lack of uniformity hampers inter-study comparisons, it is evident that stroke poses a significant economic burden. Consensus on standard cost variables and methods for projections of resource use and survival over time are clearly warranted.


Ischaemic Stroke Indirect Cost Purchase Power Parity Cost Component Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this manuscript. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krista A. Payne
    • 1
  • Krista F. Huybrechts
    • 2
  • J. Jaime Caro
    • 2
    • 3
  • Traci J. Craig Green
    • 2
  • Wendy S. Klittich
    • 2
  1. 1.Caro Research InstituteMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Caro Research InstituteConcordUSA
  3. 3.Division of General Internal Medicine, Royal Victoria HospitalMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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