A Model to Estimate the Cost Benefit of an Occupational Vaccination Programme for Influenza with Influvac® in the UK
Objectives: To model the economic impact of introducing an occupational vaccination programme for influenza with an inactivated influenza subunit vaccine (Influvac®) in the UK.
Design and setting: Using published sources, a decision tree was constructed which modelled the costs and benefits of introducing an influenza vaccine in a business in the UK from the perspective of an employer.
Study participants and interventions: The model considered the implementation of an occupational vaccination programme with Influvac® in a business employing 1000 normal healthy adults earning the national average wage in the UK. The model assumed that 95% of employees would be absent from work after contracting influenza for a mean of 5 days and that the level of productivity would be reduced by 60% for one day by 85% of sick employees returning to work.
Main outcome measures and results: The expected probability of an employee being absent from work following an influenza vaccination would be reduced from 5.7 to 1.8% when the incidence of influenza in the community is 6%.Accordingly, if all 1000 employees were vaccinated, a business would be expected to reduce absenteeism from work attributable to an influenza outbreak by 220 days. Moreover, the expected return on every pound invested by an employer would be £1.03, £3.09 and £5.15 (2000 values) when the annual incidence of influenza in the community is 2, 6 and 10%, respectively.
Conclusions: Implementation of an occupational vaccination programme with Influvac® would be expected to reduce the incidence of influenza among a workforce leading to less absenteeism from work and averted lost productivity. Even if the incidence of influenza was as low as 2% it may be a worthwhile investment for UK employers to vaccinate their employees with Influvac®.
- 3.Immunisation against infectious disease (green book). Norwich: The Stationary Office, 1996: 113–20Google Scholar
- 4.Ashley J, Smith T, Dunnell K. Deaths in Great Britain associated with influenza epidemic of 1989/90: population trends. OPCS. London. HM Stationary Office 1991; 65: 16–20Google Scholar
- 5.Levy E. French economic evaluations of influenza and influenza vaccination. Pharmacoeconomics 1996; Suppl. 3: 62–6Google Scholar
- 9.Guest JF, Morris A. Community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections: the annual cost to the National Health Service. Br J Med Econ 1996; 10: 263–73Google Scholar
- 10.NHS Lung and Asthma Information Agency. Sickness absence from respiratory disease. London: Department of Public Health Sciences, St George’s Hospital Medical School, 1992Google Scholar
- 12.Gross PA, Hermogenes AW, Sacks HS, et al. The efficacy of influenza vaccination in elderly persons: a meta-analysis and review of the literature. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 519–27Google Scholar
- 15.Palache AM. Influenza immunisation. J Clin Res 1999; 2: 111–32Google Scholar
- 18.Hak E, van Essen GA, Buskens E, et al. Is immunising all patients with chronic lung disease in the community against influenza cost effective?. Evidence from a general practice based clinical prospective cohort study in Utrecht, the Netherlands. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998; 52: 120–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Fleming D, Charlton J, McCormick A. The population at risk in relation to influenza immunisation policy in England and Wales. Health Trends 1997; 29 (2): 42–7Google Scholar
- 22.Office for National Statistics. Quarterly projections of the New Earnings Survey. Labour market trends. Norwich: The Stationary Office, 2000 JunGoogle Scholar
- 25.Demicheli V, Rivetti D, Deeks JJ, et al. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults (Cochrane Review). Available in The Cochrane Library [database on disk and CD ROM]. Updated quarterly. The Cochrane Collaboration; issue 3, 2000. Oxford: Update Software, 1997Google Scholar
- 26.Drummond MF, O’Brien BJ, Stoddart GL, et al. Cost benefit analysis. In: Drummond MF, O’Brien B, Torrance GW, et al. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998: 205–31Google Scholar
- 32.de Koning J, Tuyl FA. The relation between labour time, production and employment. Rotterdam: Netherlands Economic Institute, 1984Google Scholar
- 33.Annual earnings survey 1997. London: The Stationary Office, 1997Google Scholar