, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 293–301

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Inhaled Zanamivir in the Treatment of Influenza A and B in High-Risk Patients

  • Adrian D. Griffin
  • Andrew S. Perry
  • Douglas M. Fleming
Original Research Article

DOI: 10.2165/00019053-200119030-00007

Cite this article as:
Griffin, A.D., Perry, A.S. & Fleming, D.M. Pharmacoeconomics (2001) 19: 293. doi:10.2165/00019053-200119030-00007


Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of zanamivir 10mg twice daily for 5 days in the treatment of influenza in high-risk patients.

Design: Bootstrap cost-effectiveness analysis incorporating within-trial analysis of pooled patient-level cost and effect data.

Setting: UK unit costs and utilities applied to high-risk patients drawn from 6 multinational clinical trials.

Patients: A total of 154 zanamivir and 167 placebo high-risk patients were included in the analysis.

Main outcome measures: Cost per day of normal activities; cost per symptom-free day; cost per complication averted; cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY).

Results: The mean benefit was estimated to be 2.5 days [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68 to 4.27] of normal activities gained; 2.0 (95% CI: 0.56 to 3.51) symptom-free days; and a 9% reduction in complications (95% CI: 0 to 18%). Excluding the effect of rare hospitalisation costs, the cost (1999 values) of gaining a day of normal activities was £9.50 (95% CI: £5 to £39); cost per symptom-free day was £11.56 (95% CI: £6 to £43); cost per complication averted was £262 (95% CI: £90 to £1574). Influenza was estimated to reduce utility by 0.883 per day, demonstrating the debilitating effect of the disease. Extrapolating a day of normal activities to a standard utility measure resulted in a cost per QALY of £3900 excluding inpatient costs (£7490 including inpatient costs). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves demonstrated 90% certainty that zanamivir would be cost effective at £8000 per QALY.

Conclusions: Significant health benefits can be obtained with zanamivir treatment in high-risk patients. The cost per QALY for zanamivir in these patients compares well with that of other commonly used pharmacological interventions.

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian D. Griffin
    • 1
  • Andrew S. Perry
    • 1
  • Douglas M. Fleming
    • 2
  1. 1.GlaxoWellcome R&DGreenford, MiddlesexUK
  2. 2.Northfield Health CentreBirminghamUK

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