, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 170–179

Societal Perspective on the Burden of Migraine in The Netherlands

  • Leona van Roijen
  • Marie-Louise Essink-Bot
  • Marc A. Koopmanschap
  • Bowine C. Michel
  • Frans F. H. Rutten
Original Research Article


This study presents a comprehensive overview of the societal burden of migraine in The Netherlands. We assessed the direct and indirect costs of this disease, and the health status of patients with migraine. We developed the ‘illness and labour’ (I&) questionnaire to collect data on the effect of illness on labour performance 846 migraine patients and 834 controls were selected from the general population. Participants completed an I&L questionnaire as wel l as generic health status questionnaires.

The direct costs of migraine amounted to 134 million Netherlands guilders (NLG) [$US1=NLG1.68, October 1994]. Conservative calculations of the costs of absence from work and reduced productivity at work were NLG264 and NLG277 million per year respectively. Our study did not indicate that migraine caused household productivity losses. The baseline estimate of the total societal costs of migraine in The Netherlands was NLG675 million per year. The assessment of health status showed considerable impairment of psychological and social functioning in migraine patients.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Blau JN. Towards a definition of migraine headache. Lancet 1984; 1–444Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cephalalgia, classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders cranial neuralgias and facial pain. An International Journal of Headache, Vol. 8, Suppl. 7. Norwegian University Press, 1988: 1–96Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Behrens C, Henke KD. Cost of illness studies: no aid to decision making? Health Policy 1988: 10: 137–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hodgson TA. Cost of illness studies: no aid to decision making? Health Policy 1989: 11: 57–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shiell A, Gerard K, Donaldson C. Cost of illness studies: an aid to decision making? Health Policy 1987; 8: 317–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drummond M. Cost of illness, a major headache? Pharmacoeconomics 1992; 2 (1): 1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    van Roijen L, Koopmanschap MA, Bonneux L. Costs of illness [in Dutch]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1992: 136 (2): 74–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Population month statistics 1989/9. The Hague: Central Bureau for Statistics, 1989Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Labour force survey 1990. The Hague: Central Bureau for Statistics, 1990Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Central economic plan 1992. The Hague: Central Planning Bureau, 1992Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Socio–economic month statistics. The Hague: Central Bureau for Statistics, 1989Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Osterhaus JT, Gutterman DL, Plachetka JR. Healthcare resource and lost labour costs of migraine headache in the US. Pharmacoeconomics 1992; 2 (1): 67–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harwryslyshyn O. Toward a definition of non–market activities. Rev Income Wealth 1977: 23: 79–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Essink-Bot ML, Stouthart MEA, Bonsel GJ. Generalizability of valuation on health status. Health Econ 1993; 2: 237–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nalional health survey 1989 and 1990. The Hague: Central Bureau of Statistics, 1991Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lindgren B. Costs of illness in Sweden 1964—1975. Lund: Liber, 1981Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Koopmanschap MA, van lneveld BM. Towards a new approach for estimating indirect costs of disease. Soc Sci Med 1992; 34 (9): 1005–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Uncertainties on labour time reduction in the medium term [in Dutch]. Working documenl 14. The Hague: Central Planning Bureau, 1987Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Koning J, Tuyl FAWM. The relation between labour time, production and employment [in Dutch]. Rotterdam: Netherlands Economic Institute, 1984Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Do we make it work? Research on the relation between active and inactive people [in Dutch]. The Hague: WRR (Scientific Council for Government Affairs), 1977Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Herbelei TA, Baumgartner R. Factors affecting response rates to mailed questionnaires: a quantitative analysis of the published literature. Am Sociol Rev 1978: 43: 447–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Green J. A survey of migraine in England 1975–1976. Headache 1977: 17: 67–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Research on the prevalence of migraine and headache in the Netherland, [in Dutch]. Nieuwegein: Institute for Psychologic Market Research BV, 1991Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Waters WE. The epidemiological enigma of migraine. Int J Epidemiol 1973: 2 (2): 189–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Diary study on migraine [in Dutch]. Nieuwegein: Institute for Psychologic Market Research BV, 1991Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Data from a national study on general practitioners. Utrecht: NIVEL (Dutch Institute for Research in Extramural Health Care), 1992Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Data from national registries on hospital admission and hospital days of 1988. Utrecht: SIG (lnformalion Centre on Health Care), 1990Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vademucum. Alphen aan den Rijn: COTG (Central Organisation on Tariffs in Health Care), 1989Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Financial overview 1988. Utrecht: Nepharma, 1989Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Data on number of patients and consultations by diagnosis of physiotherapy. Utrecht: N1VEL(Dutch Institute for Research in Extramural Health Care), 1987Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Von Korff M, Ornel J, Dworkin SF. Grading the severity of chronic pain. Pain 1992 Aug: 50 (2): 133–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Van Roijen L, Michel BC, Koopmanschap MA, et al. Costs of migraine in the Netherlands: research on the costs of healthcare absence from work and disability. Part I [in Dutch]. Rotterdam: ln slitute for Medical Technology Assesment, Erasmus University, 1993Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Björk S, Roos P. Economic aspects of migraine in Sweden. Working paper 8. Lund: Institute for Health Economic, 1991Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cull RE, Wells NEJ, Miocevich ML. The economic cost of migraine. Br J Med Econ 1993; 2: 103–15Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Juster FT, Stafford FP. The allocation of time: empirical findings, behavioral models and problems of measurement. J Econ Lit 1991 Jun: xxix: 471–522Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leona van Roijen
    • 1
  • Marie-Louise Essink-Bot
    • 1
  • Marc A. Koopmanschap
    • 1
  • Bowine C. Michel
    • 1
  • Frans F. H. Rutten
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Medical Technology AssessmentErasmus UniversityThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations