Sports Medicine

, Volume 38, Issue 7, pp 579–606 | Cite as

The Effect of Muscle-Damaging Exercise on Blood and Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Stress

Magnitude and Time-Course Considerations
  • Michalis G. NikolaidisEmail author
  • Athanasios Z. Jamurtas
  • Vassilis Paschalis
  • Ioannis G. Fatouros
  • Yiannis Koutedakis
  • Dimitris Kouretas
Review Article


The aim of this article is to present the effects of acute muscle-damaging exercise on oxidative stress/damage of animal and human tissues using a quantitative approach and focusing on the time-course of exercise effects. The reviewed studies employed eccentric contractions on a dynamometer or downhill running. The statistical power of each study to detect a 20% or 40% post-exercise change compared with pre-exercise value in each oxidative stress/damage biomarker was calculated. Muscle-damaging exercise can increase free radical levels and augment oxidation of lipids, proteins, glutathione and possibly DNA in the blood. In contrast, the effect of muscle-damaging exercise on concentration of antioxidants in the blood, except for glutathione, was little. Muscle-damaging exercise induces oxidative stress/damage in skeletal muscle, even though this is not fully supported by the original statistical analysis of some studies. In contrast, muscle-damaging exercise does not appear to affect — at least to similar extent as the oxidative stress/ damage markers — the levels of antioxidants in skeletal muscle. Based on the rather limited data available, the oxidative stress response of skeletal muscle to exercise was generally independent of muscle fibre type. Most of the changes in oxidative stress/damage appeared and were sustained for days after muscledamaging exercise. The major part of the delayed oxidative stress/damage production that follows muscle-damaging exercise probably comes from phagocytic cells that are activated and recruited to the site of the initial damage. A point that emerged and potentially explains much of the lack of consensus among studies is the low statistical power of many of them. In summary, muscle-damaging exercise can increase oxidative stress/damage in blood and skeletal muscle of rats and humans that may persist for and/or appear several days after exercise.


Reactive Oxygen Species Nitric Oxide Muscle Damage Total Antioxidant Capacity Protein Carbonyl 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors received no sources of funding for the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


  1. 1.
    Datta R, Hallahan DE, Kharbanda SM, et al. Involvement of reactive oxygen intermediates in the induction of c–jun gene transcription by ionizing radiation. Biochemistry 1992; 31: 8300–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abe J, Berk BC. Fyn and JAK2 mediate Ras activation by reactive oxygen species. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 21003–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kotsonis P, Frey A, Frohlich LG, et al. Autoinhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase: distinct effects of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species on enzyme activity. Biochem J 1999; 340: 745–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Halliwell B. Free radicals and other reactive species in disease. Nature Encyclop Life Sci 2001; 1–7Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reid MB, Khawli FA, Moody MR. Reactive oxygen in skeletal muscle, III: contractility of unfatigued muscle. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75: 1081–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Betters JL, Criswell DS, Shanely RA, et al. Trolox attenuates mechanical ventilation–induced diaphragmatic dysfunction and proteolysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; 170: 1179–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bloomer RJ, Goldfarb AH. Anaerobic exercise and oxidative stress: a review. Can J Appl Physiol 2004; 29: 245–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Finaud J, Lac G, Filaire E. Oxidative stress: relationship with exercise and training. Sports Med 2006; 36: 327–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vollaard NB, Shearman JP, Cooper CE. Exercise–induced oxidative stress: myths, realities and physiological relevance. Sports Med 2005; 35: 1045–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nikolaidis MG, Jamurtas AZ, Paschalis V, et al. Exercise induced oxidative stress in G6PD–deficient individuals. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38: 1443–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nikolaidis MG, Kyparos A, Hadziioanou M, et al. Acute exercise markedly increases blood oxidative stress in boys and girls. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2007; 32: 197–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Close GL, Ashton T, Cable T, et al. Eccentric exercise, isokinetic muscle torque and delayed onset muscle soreness: the role of reactive oxygen species. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004; 91: 615–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Close GL, Ashton T, Cable T, et al. Effects of dietary carbohydrate on delayed onset muscle soreness and reactive oxygen species after contraction induced muscle damage. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 948–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldfarb AH, Bloomer RJ, McKenzie MJ. Combined antioxidant treatment effects on blood oxidative stress after eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37: 234–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee J, Goldfarb AH, Rescino MH, et al. Eccentric exercise effect on blood oxidative–stress markers and delayed onset of muscle soreness. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34: 443–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maughan RJ, Donnelly AE, Gleeson M, et al. Delayed–onset muscle damage and lipid peroxidation in man after a downhill run. Muscle Nerve 1989; 12: 332–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dickinson MH, Farley CT, Full RJ, et al. How animals move: an integrative view. Science 2000; 288: 100–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lindstedt SL, Lastayo PC, Reich TE. When active muscles lengthen: properties and consequences of eccentric contractions. News Physiol Sci 2001; 16: 256–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dudley GA, Tesch PA, Harris RT, et al. Influence of eccentric actions on the metabolic cost of resistance exercise. Aviat Space Environ Med 1991; 62: 678–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jamurtas AZ, Fatouros IG, Buckenmeyer P, et al. Effects of plyometric exercise on muscle damage and plasma creatine kinase levels and its comparison with eccentric and concentric exercise. J Strength Cond Res 2000; 14: 68–74Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kendall B, Eston R. Exercise–induced muscle damage and the potential protective role of estrogen. Sports Med 2002; 32: 103–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Paschalis V, Koutedakis Y, Jamurtas AZ, et al. Equal volumes of high and low intensity of eccentric exercise in relation to muscle damage and performance. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19: 184–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Peake J, Nosaka K, Suzuki K. Characterization of inflammatory responses to eccentric exercise in humans. Exerc Immunol Rev 2005; 11: 64–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sorichter S, Puschendorf B, Mair J. Skeletal muscle injury induced by eccentric muscle action: muscle proteins as markers of muscle fiber injury. Exerc Immunol Rev 1999; 5: 5–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen YW, Hubal MJ, Hoffman EP, et al. Molecular responses of human muscle to eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol 2003; 95: 2485–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Costill DL, Pascoe DD, Fink WJ, et al. Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol 1990; 69: 46–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kirwan JP, del Aguila LF. Insulin signalling, exercise and cellular integrity. Biochem Soc Trans 2003; 31: 1281–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kohen R, Nyska A. Oxidation of biological systems: oxidative stress phenomena, antioxidants, redox reactions, and methods for their quantification. Toxicol Pathol 2002; 30: 620–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sen CK. Antioxidants in exercise nutrition. Sports Med 2001; 31: 891–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sen CK, Packer L. Thiol homeostasis and supplements in physical exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 653S–69SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Packer JE, Slater TF, Willson RL. Direct observation of a free radical interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C. Nature 1979; 278: 737–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stocker R, Weidemann MJ, Hunt NH. Possible mechanisms responsible for the increased ascorbic acid content of Plasmodium vinckei–infected mouse erythrocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1986; 881: 391–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ji LL. Exercise and oxidative stress: role of the cellular antioxidant systems. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1995; 23: 135–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, et al. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007; 39: 44–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sies H. Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. New York: Academic Press, 1991Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gohil K, Packer L, de Lumen B, et al. Vitamin E deficiency and vitamin C supplements: exercise and mitochondrial oxidation. J Appl Physiol 1986; 60: 1986–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Davies KJ, Quintanilha AT, Brooks GA, et al. Free radicals and tissue damage produced by exercise. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1982; 107: 1198–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Halliwell B, Whiteman M. Measuring reactive species and oxidative damage in vivo and in cell culture: how should you do it and what do the results mean? Br J Pharmacol 2004; 142: 231–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Amelink GJ, Bar PR. Exercise–induced muscle protein leakage in the rat: effects of hormonal manipulation. J Neurol Sci 1986; 76: 61–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tiidus PM, Bombardier E. Oestrogen attenuates post–exercise myeloperoxidase activity in skeletal muscle of male rats. Acta Physiol Scand 1999; 166: 85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Borsa PA, Sauers EL. The importance of gender on myokinetic deficits before and after microinjury. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32: 891–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stupka N, Lowther S, Chorneyko K, et al. Gender differences in muscle inflammation after eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 2325–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rinard J, Clarkson PM, Smith LL, et al. Response of males and females to high-force eccentric exercise. J Sports Sci 2000; 18: 229–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McArdle A, van der Meulen JH, Catapano M, et al. Free radical activity following contraction–induced injury to the extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 26: 1085–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pizza FX, Mitchell JB, Davis BH, et al. Exercise–induced muscle damage: effect on circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 363–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Best TM, McCabe RP, Corr D, et al. Evaluation of a new method to create a standardized muscle stretch injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 200–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Brickson S, Ji LL, Schell K, et al. M1/70 attenuates blood–borne neutrophil oxidants, activation, and myofiber damage following stretch injury. J Appl Physiol 2003; 95: 969–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sakurai T, Hollander J, Brickson S, et al. Changes in nitric oxide and inducible and nitric oxide synthase following stretch induced injury to the tibialis anterior muscle of rabbit. Jap J Physiol 2005; 55: 101–7Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Childs A, Jacobs C, Kaminski T, et al. Supplementation with vitamin C and N–acetyl–cysteine increases oxidative stress in humans after an acute muscle injury induced by eccentric exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 2001; 31: 745–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    You T, Goldfarb AH, Bloomer RJ, et al. Oxidative stress response in normal and antioxidant supplemented rats to a downhill run: changes in blood and skeletal muscles. Can J Appl Physiol 2005; 30: 677–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cannon JG, Orencole SF, Fielding RA, et al. Acute phase response in exercise: interaction of age and vitamin E on neutrophils and muscle enzyme release. Am J Physiol 1990; 259: R1214–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Child R, Brown S, Day S, et al. Changes in indices of antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and inflammation in human skeletal muscle after eccentric muscle actions. Clin Sci (Lond) 1999; 96: 105–15Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Close GL, Ashton T, Cable T, et al. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not attenuate post–exercise muscle soreness following muscle–damaging exercise but may delay the recovery process. Br J Nutr 2006; 95: 976–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Meydani M, Evans WJ, Handelman G, et al. Protective effect of vitamin E on exercise–induced oxidative damage in young and older adults. Am J Physiol 1993; 264: R992–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Radak Z, Pucsok J, Mecseki S, et al. Muscle soreness–induced reduction in force generation is accompanied by increased nitric oxide content and DNA damage in human skeletal muscle. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 26: 1059–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sacheck JM, Decker EA, Clarkson PM. The effect of diet on vitamin E intake and oxidative stress in response to acute exercise in female athletes. Euro J Appl Physiol 2000; 83: 40–6Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sacheck JM, Milbury PE, Cannon JG, et al. Effect of vitamin E and eccentric exercise on selected biomarkers of oxidative stress in young and elderly men. Free Radic Biol Med 2003; 34: 1575–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Saxton JM, Donnelly AE, Roper HP. Indices of free–radical–mediated damage following maximum voluntary eccentric and concentric muscular work. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1994; 68: 189–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cabral de Oliveira AG, Perez AC, Merino G, et al. Protective effects of Panax ginseng on muscle injury and inflammation after eccentric exercise. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2001; 130: 369–77Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dawson Jr R, Biasetti M, Messina S, et al. The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise–induced muscle injury. Amino Acids 2002; 22: 309–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Molnar AM, Servais S, Guichardant M, et al. Mitochondrial H2O2 production is reduced with acute and chronic eccentric exercise in rat skeletal muscle. Antioxid Redox Signal 2006; 8: 548–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Perez AC, de Oliveira CC, Prieto JG, et al. Quantitative assessment of nitric oxide in rat skeletal muscle and plasma after exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2002; 88: 189–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Umegaki K, Daohua P, Sugisawa A, et al. Influence of one bout of vigorous exercise on ascorbic acid in plasma and oxidative damage to DNA in blood cells and muscle in untrained rats. J Nutr Biochem 2000; 11: 401–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jackson MJ. An overview of methods for assessment of free radical activity in biology. Proc Nutr Soc 1999; 58: 1001–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ashton T, Rowlands CC, Jones E, et al. Electron spin resonance spectroscopic detection of oxygen–centred radicals in human serum following exhaustive exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998; 77: 498–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bailey DM, Lawrenson L, McEneny J, et al. Electron paramagnetic spectroscopic evidence of exercise—induced free radical accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Free Radic Res 2007; 41: 182–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Paolini M, Valgimigli L, Marchesi E, et al. Taking EPR ‘snap shots’ of the oxidative stress status in human blood. Free Radic Res 2003; 37: 503–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Richardson RS, Donato AJ, Uberoi A, et al. Exercise—induced brachial artery vasodilation: role of free radicals. Am J Physiol 2007; 292: H1516–22Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mylonas C, Kouretas D. Lipid peroxidation and tissue damage. In Vivo 1999; 13: 295–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Vincent HK, Taylor AG. Biomarkers and potential mechanisms of obesity—induced oxidant stress in humans. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006; 30: 400–18Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Prior RL, Cao G. In vivo total antioxidant capacity: comparison of different analytical methods. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 27: 1173–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dotan Y, Lichtenberg D, Pinchuk I. Lipid peroxidation cannot be used as a universal criterion of oxidative stress. Prog Lipid Res 2004; 43: 200–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yeum K, Russell R, Krinsky M, et al. Biomarkers of antioxidant capacity in the hydrophilic and lipophilic compartments of human plasma. Arch Biochem Biophys 2004; 430: 97–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘antioxidant power’: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996; 239: 70–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Suzuki K, Peake J, Nosaka K, et al. Changes in markers of muscle damage, inflammation and HSP70 after an Ironman triathlon race. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006; 98: 525–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Barr RG, Rowe BH, Camargo Jr CA. Methylxanthines for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: meta analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2003; 327: 643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Block BM, Liu SS, Rowlingson AJ, et al. Efficacy of post operative epidural analgesia: a meta–analysis. JAMA 2003; 290: 2455–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Loe SM, Sanchez-Ramos L, Kaunitz AM. Assessing the neonatal safety of indomethacin tocolysis: a systematic review with meta–analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 106: 173–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Richman JM, Liu SS, Courpas G, et al. Does continuous peripheral nerve block provide superior pain control to opioids? A meta–analysis. Anesth Analg 2006; 102: 248–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Haskell WL, Kiernan M. Methodologic issues in measuring physical activity and physical fitness when evaluating the role of dietary supplements for physically active people. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 541S–50SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Liu H, Uno M, Kitazato KT, et al. Peripheral oxidative biomarkers constitute a valuable indicator of the severity of oxidative brain damage in acute cerebral infarction. Brain Res 2004; 1025: 43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Park KS, Kim JH, Kim MS, et al. Effects of insulin and antioxidant on plasma 8–hydroxyguanine and tissue 8–hydroxydeoxyguanosine in streptozotocin—induced diabetic rats. Diabetes 2001; 50: 2837–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ghiselli A, Serafini M, Natella F, et al. Total antioxidant capacity as a tool to assess redox status: critical view and experimental data. Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 29: 1106–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bird RP, Draper HH. Comparative studies on different methods of malonaldehyde determination. Methods Enzymol 1984; 105: 299–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tietz NW, Wekstein DR, Shuey DF, et al. A two—year longitudinal reference range study for selected serum enzymes in a population more than 60 years of age. J Am Geriatr Soc 1984; 32: 563–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nikolaidis MG, Mougios V. Effects of exercise on the fatty—acid composition of blood and tissue lipids. Sports Med 2004; 34: 1051–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Foley JM, Jayaraman RC, Prior BM, et al. MR measurements of muscle damage and adaptation after eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87: 2311–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hulbert A. On the importance of fatty acid composition of membranes for aging. J Theor Biol 2005; 234: 277–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Morrow JD, Harris TM, Roberts II LJ. Noncyclooxygenase oxidative formation of a series of novel prostaglandins: analytical ramifications for measurement of eicosanoids. Anal Biochem 1990; 184: 1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Basu S. Isoprostanes: novel bioactive products of lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Res 2004; 38: 105–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Davies MJ, Fu S, Wang H, et al. Stable markers of oxidant damage to proteins and their application in the study of human disease. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 27: 1151–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Matthews W, Driscoll J, Tanaka K, et al. Involvement of the proteasome in various degradative processes in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86: 2597–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Stadtman ER, Levine RL. Free radical—mediated oxidation of free amino acids and amino acid residues in proteins. Amino Acids 2003;25: 207–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Berlett BS, Levine RL, Stadtman ER. Comparison of the effects of ozone on the modification of amino acid residues in glutamine synthetase and bovine serum albumin. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 4177–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Margaritis I, Tessier F, Richard MJ, et al. No evidence of oxidative stress after a triathlon race in highly trained competitors. Int J Sports Med 1997; 18: 186–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Umegaki K, Higuchi M, Inoue K, et al. Influence of one bout of intensive running on lymphocyte micronucleus frequencies in endurance—trained and untrained men. Int J Sports Med 1998; 19: 581–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hartmann A, Plappert U, Raddatz K, et al. Does physical activity induce DNA damage? Mutagenesis 1994; 9: 269–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Asami S, Hirano T, Yamaguchi R, et al. Increase of a type of oxidative DNA damage, 8–hydroxyguanine, and its repair activity in human leukocytes by cigarette smoking. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 2546–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Therond P, Bonnefont-Rousselot D, Davit-Spraul A, et al. Biomarkers of oxidative stress: an analytical approach. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2000; 3: 373–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Blatt DH, Leonard SW, Traber MG. Vitamin E kinetics and the function of tocopherol regulatory proteins. Nutrition 2001; 17: 799–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Leeuwenburgh C, Ji LL. Glutathone and glutathione ethyl ester supplementation of mice alter glutathione homeostasis during exercise. J Nutr 1998; 128: 2420–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lew H, Pyke S, Quintanilha A. Changes in the glutathione status of plasma, liver and muscle following exhaustive exercise in rats. FEBS Lett 1985; 185: 262–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Parker RS. Absorption, metabolism, and transport of carotenoids. FASEB J 1996; 10: 542–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ashton T, Young IS, Peters JR, et al. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, exercise, and oxidative stress: an ascorbic acid intervention study. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87: 2032–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bailey DM, Davies B, Young IS, et al. EPR spectroscopic detection of free radical outflow from an isolated muscle bed in exercising humans. J Appl Physiol 2003; 94: 1714–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bailey DM, Young IS, McEneny J, et al. Regulation of free radical outflow from an isolated muscle bed in exercising humans. Am J Physiol 2004; 287: H1689–99Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lunn PG, Austin S. Dietary manipulation of plasma albumin concentration. J Nutr 1983; 113: 1791–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Anderson L, Anderson N. The human plasma proteome: history, character, and diagnostic prospects. Mol Cell Proteomics 2002; 1: 845–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Arguelles S, Garcia S, Maldonado M, et al. Do the serum oxidative stress biomarkers provide a reasonable index of the general oxidative stress status? Bioch Biophys Acta 2004; 1674: 251–9Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Baker JS, Bailey DM, Hullin D, et al. Metabolic implications of resistive force selection for oxidative stress and markers of muscle damage during 30 s of high—intensity exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004; 92: 321–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hartmann A, Niess AM, Grunert-Fuchs M, et al. Vitamin E prevents exercise—induced DNA damage. Mutat Res 1995; 346: 195–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hartmann A, Pfuhler S, Dennog C, et al. Exercise—induced DNA effects in human leukocytes are not accompanied by increased formation of 8–hydroxy–2’–deoxyguanosine or induction of micronuclei. Free Radic Biol Med 1998; 24: 245–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ilhan N, Kamanli A, Ozmerdivenli R, et al. Variable effects of exercise intensity on reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, and glucose concentration. Arch Med Res 2004; 35: 294–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Steensberg A, Morrow J, Toft AD, et al. Prolonged exercise, lymphocyte apoptosis and F2–isoprostanes. Eur J Appl Physiol 2002; 87: 38–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Thompson D, Williams C, McGregor SJ, et al. Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001; 11: 466–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Daugaard JR, Nielsen JN, Kristiansen S, et al. Fiber type specific expression of GLUT4 in human skeletal muscle: influence of exercise training. Diabetes 2000; 49: 1092–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Torgan CE, Etgen Jr GJ, Kang HY, et al. Fiber type–specific effects of clenbuterol and exercise training on insulin–resistant muscle. J Appl Physiol 1995; 79: 163–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ji LL, Fu R, Mitchell EW. Glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle: effects of fiber type and exercise intensity. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73: 1854–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Leeuwenburgh C, Hollander J, Leichtweis S, et al. Adaptations of glutathione antioxidant system to endurance training are tissue and muscle fiber specific. Am J Physiol 1997; 272: R363–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Powers SK, Criswell D, Lawler J, et al. Influence of exercise and fiber type on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 1994; 266: R375–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Dalle-Donne I, Rossi R, Giustarini D, et al. Protein carbonyl groups as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Clin Chim Acta 2003; 329: 23–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Oliver CN. Inactivation of enzymes and oxidative modification of proteins by stimulated neutrophils. Arch Biochem Biophys 1987; 253: 62–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Szweda LI, Stadtman ER. Iron–catalyzed oxidative modification of glucose–6–phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides: structural and functional changes. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 3096–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Graziewicz MA, Day BJ, Copeland WC. The mitochondrial DNA polymerase as a target of oxidative damage. Nucleic Acids Res 2002; 30: 2817–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Delp MD, Duan C. Composition and size of type I, IIA, IID/X, and IIB fibers and citrate synthase activity of rat muscle. J Appl Physiol 1996; 80: 261–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ohashi T, Mizutani A, Murakami A, et al. Rapid oxidation of dichlorodihydrofluorescin with heme and hemoproteins: formation of the fluorescein is independent of the generation of reactive oxygen species. FEBS Lett 2002; 511: 21–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    de Souza-Pinto NC, Eide L, Hogue BA, et al. Repair of 8–oxode—oxyguanosine lesions in mitochondrial dna depends on the oxoguanine dna glycosylase (OGG1) gene and 8–oxoguanine accumulates in the mitochondrial dna of OGG1–defective mice. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 5378–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Radak Z, Kumagai S, Nakamoto H, et al. 8–oxoguanosine and uracil repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in red and white skeletal muscle of exercise—trained old rats. J Appl Physiol 2007; 102: 1696–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Nikolaidis MG, Petridou A, Mougios V. Comparison of the phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty acid profile of rat serum, skeletal muscle and heart. Physiol Res 2006; 55: 259–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Moyes CD. Controlling muscle mitochondrial content. J Exp Biol 2003; 206: 4385–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Evans WJ. Vitamin E, vitamin C, and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 647S–52SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    de Leon R, Hodgson JA, Roy RR, et al. Extensor—and flexor like modulation within motor pools of the rat hindlimb during treadmill locomotion and swimming. Brain Res 1994; 654: 241–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Roy RR, Hutchison DL, Pierotti DJ, et al. EMG patterns of rat ankle extensors and flexors during treadmill locomotion and swimming. J Appl Physiol 1991; 70: 2522–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Duarte JA, Carvalho F, Bastos ML, et al. Do invading leucocytes contribute to the decrease in glutathione concentrations indicating oxidative stress in exercised muscle, or are they important for its recovery? Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1994; 68: 48–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Khassaf M, Child RB, McArdle A, et al. Time course of responses of human skeletal muscle to oxidative stress induced by nondamaging exercise. J Appl Physiol 2001; 90: 1031–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Galter D, Mihm S, Droge W. Distinct effects of glutathione disulphide on the nuclear transcription factor kappa B and the activator protein–1. Eur J Biochem 1994; 221: 639–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hehner SP, Breitkreutz R, Shubinsky G, et al. Enhancement of T cell receptor signaling by a mild oxidative shift in the intracellular thiol pool. J Immunol 2000; 165: 4319–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Droge W. Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol Rev 2002; 82: 47–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Cathcart MK, McNally AK, Morel DW, et al. Superoxide anion participation in human monocyte—mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein and conversion of low—density lipoprotein to a cytotoxin. J Immunol 1989; 142: 1963–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ha HC, Thiagalingam A, Nelkin BD, et al. Reactive oxygen species are critical for the growth and differentiation of medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6: 3783–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Peake JM, Suzuki K, Coombes JS. The influence of antioxidant supplementation on markers of inflammation and the relationship to oxidative stress after exercise. J Nutr Biochem 2007 Jun; 18 (6): 357–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Michailidis Y, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, et al. Sampling time is crucial for measurement of aerobic exercise—induced oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 1107–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Leeuwenburgh C, Heinecke JW. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in exercise. Curr Med Chem 2001; 8: 829–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lastayo PC, Reich TE, Urquhart M, et al. Chronic eccentric exercise: improvements in muscle strength can occur with little demand for oxygen. Am J Physiol 1999; 276: R611–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Frederiks WM, Bosch KS. The role of xanthine oxidase in ischemia/reperfusion damage of rat liver. Histol Histopathol 1995; 10: 111–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Thompson-Gorman SL, Zweier JL. Evaluation of the role of xanthine oxidase in myocardial reperfusion injury. J Biol Chem 1990; 265: 6656–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Harrison R. Structure and function of xanthine oxidoreductase: where are we now? Free Radic Biol Med 2002; 33: 774–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hellsten-Westing Y, Kaijser L, Ekblom B, et al. Exchange of purines in human liver and skeletal muscle with short—term exhaustive exercise. Am J Physiol 1994; 266: R81–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Gomez-Cabrera MC, Borras C, Pallardo FV, et al. Decreasing xanthine oxidase—mediated oxidative stress prevents useful cellular adaptations to exercise in rats. J Physiol 2005; 567: 113–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Heunks LM, Vina J, van Herwaarden CL, et al. Xanthine oxidase is involved in exercise—induced oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Physiol 1999; 277: R1697–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Pizza FX, Peterson JM, Baas JH, et al. Neutrophils contribute to muscle injury and impair its resolution after lengthening contractions in mice. J Physiol 2005; 562: 899–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Close GL, Ashton T, McArdle A, et al. The emerging role of free radicals in delayed onset muscle soreness and contraction induced muscle injury. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2005; 142: 257–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Zerba E, Komorowski TE, Faulkner JA. Free radical injury to skeletal muscles of young, adult, and old mice. Am J Physiol 1990; 258: C429–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge J. Free radicals in biology and medicine. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Jamurtas AZ, Theocharis V, Tofas T, et al. Comparison between leg and arm eccentric exercises of the same relative intensity on indices of muscle damage. Eur J Appl Physiol 2005; 95: 179–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Paschalis V, Nikolaidis MG, Giakas G, et al. The effect of eccentric exercise on position sense and joint reaction angle of the lower limbs. Muscle Nerve 2007; 35: 496–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Warren GL, Lowe DA, Armstrong RB. Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction—induced injury. Sports Med 1999; 27: 43–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Vina J, Borras C, Gomez-Cabrera MC, et al. Part of the series: from dietary antioxidants to regulators in cellular signalling and gene expression—role of reactive oxygen species and (phyto)oestrogens in the modulation of adaptive response to stress. Free Radic Res 2006; 40: 111–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Andrade FH, Reid MB, Allen DG, et al. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and dithiothreitol on contractile function of single skeletal muscle fibres from the mouse. J Physiol 1998; 509: 565–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Radak Z, Chung HY, Goto S. Exercise and hormesis: oxidative stress—related adaptation for successful aging. Biogerontology 2005; 6: 71–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Aguilo A, Tauler P, Fuentespina E, et al. Antioxidant response to oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise. Physiol Behav 2005; 84: 1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Bloomer RJ, Goldfarb AH, Wideman L, et al. Effects of acute aerobic and anaerobic exercise on blood markers of oxidative stress. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19: 276–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kakarla P, Vadluri G, Reddy KS, et al. Vulnerability of the mid aged rat myocardium to the age—induced oxidative stress: influence of exercise training on antioxidant defense system. Free Radic Res 2005; 39: 1211–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Miyazaki H, Ohishi S, Ookawara T, et al. Strenuous endurance training in humans reduces oxidative stress following exhausting exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001; 84: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Steiner R, Meyer K, Lippuner K, et al. Eccentric endurance training in subjects with coronary artery disease: a novel exercise paradigm in cardiac rehabilitation? Eur J Appl Physiol 2004; 91: 572–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Gjovaag TF, Vikne H, Dahl HA. Effect of concentric or eccentric weight training on the expression of heat shock proteins in m. biceps brachii of very well trained males. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006; 96: 355–62PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michalis G. Nikolaidis
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Athanasios Z. Jamurtas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vassilis Paschalis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ioannis G. Fatouros
    • 4
  • Yiannis Koutedakis
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Dimitris Kouretas
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Human Performance and RehabilitationCenter for Research and Technology — ThessalyKariesGreece
  2. 2.Department of Physical Education and Sports ScienceUniversity of ThessalyKariesGreece
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and BiotechnologyUniversity of ThessalyGreece
  4. 4.Department of Physical Education and Sports ScienceDemocritus University of ThraceGreece
  5. 5.School of Sport, Performing Arts and LeisureWolverhampton UniversityUK

Personalised recommendations