Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 161–177 | Cite as

Combined Application of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Voluntary Muscular Contractions

  • Thierry PaillardEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

Electromyostimulation (EMS) and voluntary muscle contraction (VC) constitute different modes of muscle activation and induce different acute physiological effects on the neuromuscular system. Long-term application of each mode of muscle activation can produce different muscle adaptations. It seems theoretically possible to completely or partially cumulate the muscle adaptations induced by each mode of muscle activation applied separately. This work consisted of examining the literature concerning the muscle adaptations induced by long-term application of the combined technique (CT) [i.e. EMS is combined with VC — non-simultaneously] compared with VC and/or EMS alone in healthy subjects and/or athletes and in post-operative knee-injured subjects. In general, CT induced greater muscular adaptations than VC whether in sports training or rehabilitation. This efficiency would be due to the fact that CT can facilitate cumulative effects of training completely or partially induced by VC and EMS practiced alone. CT also provides a greater improvement of the performance of complex dynamic movements than VC. However, EMS cannot improve coordination between different agonistic and antagonistic muscles and thus does not facilitate learning the specific coordination of complex movements. Hence, EMS should be combined with specific sport training to generate neuromuscular adaptations, but also allow the adjustment of motor control during a voluntary movement. Likewise, in a therapeutic context, CT was particularly efficient to accelerate recovery of muscle contractility during a rehabilitation programme. Strength loss and atrophy inherent in a traumatism and/or a surgical operation would be more efficiently compensated with CT than with VC. Furthermore, CT also restored more functional abilities than VC. Finally, in a rehabilitation context, EMS is complementary to voluntary exercise because in the early phase of rehabilitation it elicits a strength increase, which is necessary to perform voluntary training during the later rehabilitation sessions.

Keywords

Maximal Voluntary Contraction Voluntary Contraction Knee Extensor Vertical Jump Quadriceps Femoris 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author is pleased to acknowledge Dr Peter Winterton for correcting the English text. The author has provided no information on sources of funding. The author has no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Hultman E, Sjoholm H, Jaderholm-Ek I, et al. Evaluation of methods for electrical stimulation of human skeletal muscle in situ. Pflugers Arch 1983; 398: 139–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sanchez BR, Puche PP, Gonzame-Badillo JJ. Percutaneous electrical stimulation in strength training: an update. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19: 438–48Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hainaut K, Duchateau J. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary exercise. Sports Med 1992; 14: 100–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cabric M, Appell HJ, Resic A. Effects of electrostimulation of different frequencies on the myonuclei and fiber size in human muscle. Int J Sports Med 1987; 8: 323–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gondin J, Guette M, Ballay Y, et al. Electromyostimulation training effects on neural drive and muscle architecture. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37: 1291–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maffiuletti NA, Dugnani S, Folz M, et al. Effect of combined electrostimulation and plyometric training on vertical jump height. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34: 1638–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim CK, Takala TES, Seger J, et al. Training effects of electrically induced dynamic contractions in human quadriceps muscle. Aviat Space Environ Med 1995; 66: 251–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johnson DH, Thurston P, Ashcroft PJ. The Russian technique of faradism in the treatment of chondromalacia patellae. Physi—other Can 1977; 29: 266–8Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gould N, Donnermeyer D, Gammon G, et al. Transcutaneous muscle stimulation to retard disuse atrophy after open meniscectomy. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1983; 178: 190–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gould N, Donnermeyer D, Pope M, et al. Transcutaneous muscle stimulation as a method to retard disuse atrophy. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1982; 164: 215–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burnett QM, Fowler PJ. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: historical overview. Orthop Clin North Am 1985; 16: 143–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nitz AJ, Dobner JJ. High electrical stimulation effect on thigh musculature during immobilization for knee sprain. Phys Ther 1987; 67: 219–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gibson JNA, Smith K, Rennie MJ. Prevention of disuse muscle atrophy by means of electrical stimulation: maintenance of protein synthesis. Lancet 1988; II: 767–70Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gibson JNA, Morrison WL, Scrimgeour CM, et al. Effects of therapeutic percutaneous electrical stimulation of atrophic human quadriceps on muscle composition, protein synthesis and contractile properties. Eur J Clin Invest 1989; 19: 206–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Godfrey CM, Jayawardena H, Quince TA, et al. Comparison of electro-stimulation and isometric exercise in strengthening the quadriceps muscle. Physiother Can 1979; 31: 265–7Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Steadman JR. Rehabilitation of skiing injuries. Clin Sports Med 1982; 1: 289–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morrissey MC, Brewster CE, Shields CL, et al. The effects of electrical stimulation on the quadriceps during postoperative knee immobilization. Am J Sports Med 1985; 13: 40–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Delitto A, Rose SJ, McKowen JM, et al. Electrical stimulation versus voluntary exercise in strengthening thigh musculature after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Phys Ther 1988; 68: 660–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anderson AF, Lipscomb AB. Analysis of rehabilitation techniques after anterior cruciate reconstruction. Am J Sports Med 1989; 17: 154–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Delitto A, Snyder-Mackler L. Two theories of muscle strength augmentation using percutaneous electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 1990; 70: 158–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gobelet C, Frey M, Bonard A. Muscle training techniques and retropatellar chondropathy. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic 1992; 59: 23–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Snyder-Mackler L, Delitto A, Stralka SW, et al. Use of electrical stimulation to enhance recovery of quadriceps femoris muscle force production in patients following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Phys Ther 1994; 74: 901–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tsuda E, Okamura Y, Otsuka H, et al. Direct evidence of the anterior cruciate ligament—hamstring reflex arc in humans. Am J Sports Med 2001; 29: 83–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tsuda E, Ishibashi Y, Okamura Y, et al. Restoration of anterior cruciate ligament—hamstring reflex arc after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthosc 2003; 11: 63–7Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Snyder-Mackler L, Delitto A, Bailey SL, et al. Strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle and functional recovery after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg 1995; 77: 1166–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Robertson VJ, Ward AR. Vastus medialis electrical stimulation to improve lower extremity function following a lateral patellar retinacular release. J Orthop Sports Physical Ther 2002; 32: 437–46Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Durmus D, Alayli G, Canturk F. Effects of quadriceps electrical stimulation program on clinical parameters in the patients with knee osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2007; 26 (5): 674–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ruther CL, Golden CL, Harris RT, et al. Hypertrophy, resistance training, and the nature of skeletal muscle activation. J Strength Cond Res 1995; 9: 155–9Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hortobagyi T, Lambert J, Scott K. Incomplete muscle activation after training with electrostimulation. Can J Appl Physiol 1998; 23: 261–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Duchateau J, Hainaut K. Training effects of a sub—maximal electrostimulation in a human muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: 99–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Massey BH, Nelson R, Sharkey BC, et al. Effects of high frequency electrical stimulation on the size and strength of skeletal muscle. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1965; 5: 136–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Laughman RK, Youdas JW, Garett TR, et al. Strength changes in the normal quadriceps femoris muscle as result of electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 1983; 63: 494–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cannon RJ, Cafarelli E. Neuromuscular adaptations to training. J Appl Physiol 1987; 63: 2396–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lyle N, Rutherford OM. A comparison of voluntary versus stimulated strength training of the human aductor pollicis muscle. J Sports Sci 1998; 16: 267–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vengust R, Strojnik V, Pavlovcic V, et al. The effect of electrostimulation and high load exercises in patients with patellofemoral joint dysfunction: a preliminary report. Pflugers Arch 2001; 442: 153–4Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lieber RL, Silva PD, Daniel DM. Equal effectiveness of electrical and volitional strength training for quadriceps femoris muscles after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. J Orthop Res 1996; 14: 131–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mc Miken DF, Todd-Smith M, Thompson C. Strengthening of human quadriceps muscles by cutaneous electrical stimulation. Scand J Rehabil Med 1983; 15: 25–8Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Paillard T, Noe F, Passelergue P, et al. Electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary muscular contraction. Sports Med 2005; 35: 951–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Henneman E, Somjen G, Carpenter DO. Functional significance of cell size in spinal motoneurons. J Neurophysiol 1965; 28: 560–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stotz PJ, Bawa P. Motor unit recruitment during lengthening contractions of human wrist flexors. Muscle Nerve 2001; 24: 1535–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Solomonow M. External control of the neuromuscular system. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1984; 31: 752–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mc Comas AJ, Fawcett PR, Campbell MJ, et al. Electrophysiological estimation of the number of motor units within a human muscle. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1971; 34: 121–31Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lexell J, Henriksson-Larsen K, Sjostrom M. Distribution of different fibre types in human skeletal muscles 2: a study of cross—sections of whole m. vastus lateralis. Acta Physiol Scand 1983; 117: 115–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Garnett R, Stephens JA. Changes in the recruitment threshold of motor units produced by cutaneous stimulation in man. J Physiol 1981; 311: 463–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Clamann HP, Gillies JD, Skinner RD, et al. Quantitative measures of output of a motoneuron pool during monosynaptic reflexes. J Neurophysiol 1974; 37: 1328–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Knaflitz M, Merletti R, De Luca CJ. Inference of motor unit recruitment order in voluntary and electrically elicited contractions. J Appl Physiol 1990; 68: 1657–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Feiereisen P, Duchateau J, Hainaut K. Motor unit recruitment order during voluntary and electrically induced contractions in the tibialis anterior. Exp Brain Res 1997; 114: 117–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Edwards RHT, Young A, Hosking GP, et al. Human skeletal muscle function: description of tests and normal values. Clin Sci Mol Med 1977; 52: 283–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Trimble MH, Enoka RM. Mechanisms underlying the training effects associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 1991; 71: 273–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Enoka RM. Muscle strength and its development: new perspectives. Sports Med 1988; 6: 146–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bax L, Staes F, Bax L, Verhagen A, et al. Does neuromuscular electrical stimulation strengthen the quadriceps femoris? Sports Med 2005; 35: 191–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Miller C, Thepaut-Mathieu C. Strength training by electrostimulation conditions for efficacy. Int J Sports Med 1993; 14: 20–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vanderthommen M, Duteil S, Wary C, et al. A comparison of voluntary and electrically induced contractions by interleaved 1H and 31P—NMRS in humans. J Appl Physiol 2003; 94: 1012–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bergstrom M, Hultman E. Energy cost and fatigue during intermittent electrical stimulation of human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 1988; 65: 1500–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Spiet LL, Soderlund K, Bergstrom M, et al. Anaerobic energy release in skeletal muscle during electrical stimulation in men. J Appl Physiol 1987; 62: 611–5Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hamada T, Kimura T, Moritani T. Selective fatigue of fast motor units after electrically elicited muscle contractions. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2004; 14: 531–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hamada T, Hayashi T, Kimura T, et al. Electrical stimulation of human lower extremities enhances energy consumption, carbohydrate oxidation, and wholebody glucose uptake. J Appl Physiol 2004; 96: 911–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Vanderthommen M, Crielard JM. Electrostimulation en médecine du sport. Rev Med Liege 2001; 56: 391–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Binder-Macleod SA, Snyder-Mackler L. Muscle fatigue: clinical implications for fatigue assessment and neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 1993; 73: 902–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ratkevicius A, Skurvydas A, Povilonis E, et al. Effects of contraction duration on low—frequency fatigue in voluntary and electrically—induced exercise of human quadriceps muscle. J Sports Sci 1998; 16: 523–4Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Moreau D, Dubots P, Boggio V, et al. Effects of electromyostimulation and strength on muscle soreness, muscle damage and sympathetic activation. J Sports Sci 1995; 13: 95–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Venable MP, Collins MA, O’Bryant HS, et al. Effect of supplemental electrical stimulation on the development of strength, vertical jump performance and power. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1991; 5: 139–43Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pichon F, Chatard JC, Martin A, et al. Electrical stimulation and swimming performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 1671–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Delitto A, Brown M, Strube MJ, et al. Electrical stimulation of quadriceps femoris in an elite weight lifter: a single subject experiment. Int J Sports Med 1989; 10: 187–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dervisevic E, Bilban M, Valencic V. The influence of low—frequency electrostimulation and isokinetic training on the maximal strength of m. quadriceps femoris. Isokinet Exerc Sci 2002; 10: 203–9Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Maffiuletti NA, Cometti G, Amiridis IG, et al. The effects of electromyostimulation training and basket practice on muscle strength and jumping ability. Int J Sports Med 2000; 21: 437–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Malatesta D, Cattaneo F, Dugnani S, et al. Effects of electromyostimulation training and volley practice on jumping abilities. J Strength Cond Res 2003; 17: 573–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Brocherie F, Babault N, Cometti G, et al. Electromyostimulation training effects on the physical performance on ice hockey players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37: 455–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Babault N, Cometti G, Bernardin M, et al. Effects of electromyostimulation training on muscle strength and power of elite rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 2007; 21: 431–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Herrero JA, Izquierdo M, Maffiuletti N, et al. Electromyostimulation and plyometric training effects on jumping and sprint time. Int J Sports Med 2006; 27: 533–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Paillard T, Noe F, Bernard N, et al. Effects of two types of neuromuscular electrical stimulation training on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res. In pressGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sale DG. Neural adaptation to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: 135–45Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ruherford OM, Jones DA. The role of learning and coordination in strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1986; 55: 100–5Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Singer KP. Functional electrical stimulation of the extremities in the neurological patient: a brief review. Aust Physiother 1986; 33: 33–42Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Carolan B, Cafarelli E. Adaptations in coactivation after isometric resistance training. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73: 911–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bobbert ME, Van Soest AJ. Effects of muscle strengthening on vertical jump height: a stimulation study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26 (8): 1012–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jensen JL, Marstrand PC, Nielsen JB. Motor skill training and strength training are associated with different plastic changes in the central nervous system. J Appl Physiol 2005; 99: 1558–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yang HY, Liu TY, Kuai L, et al. Electrical acupoint stimulation increases athletes’ rapid strength [abstract]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2006; 26: 313–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Snyder-Mackler L, Ladin Z, Schepsis AA, et al. Electrical stimulation of the thigh muscles after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: effects of electrically elicited contraction of the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles on gait and on strength of the thigh muscles. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1991; 73: 1025–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Stevens JE, Mizner RL, Snyder-Mackler L. Quadriceps strength and volitional activation before and after total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res 2003; 21: 775–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mizner RL, Stevens JE, Snyder-Mackler L. Voluntary activation and decreased force production of the quadriceps femoris muscle after total knee arthroplasty. Phys Ther 2003; 83: 359–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lewek MD, Rudolph KS, Snyder-Mackler L. Quadriceps femoris muscle weakness and activation failure in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. J Ortho Res 2004; 22: 110–5Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mizner RL, Petterson S, Stevens JE, et al. Early quadriceps strength loss after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005; 87: 1047–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mintken PE, Carpenter KJ, Eckhoff D, et al. Early neuromuscular electrical stimulation to optimize quadriceps muscle function following total knee arthroplasty: a case report. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2007; 37 (7): 364–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Drechsler WL, Cramp MC, Scott OM. Changes in muscle strength and EMG median frequency after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006; 98 (6): 613–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Solomonow M, Baratta R, Zhou B, et al. The synergic action of the anterior cruciate ligament and thigh muscles in maintaining joint stability. Am J Sports Med 1987; 15: 207–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Iwaza J, Ochi M, Uchio Y, et al. Decrease in anterior knee laxity by electrical stimulation of normal and reconstructed anterior cruciate ligaments. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2006; 88: 477–83Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lorentzon R, Elmqvist LG, Sjostrom M, et al. Thigh musculature in relation to chronic anterior cruciate ligament tear: muscle size, morphology, and mechanical output before reconstruction. Am J Sports Med 1989; 17: 423–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sisk TD, Stralka SW, Deering MB, et al. Effect of electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength after reconstructive surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament. Am J Sports Med 1987; 15: 215–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Paternostro-Sluga T, Fialka C, Alacamliogliu Y, et al. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Clin Orthop 1999; 368: 166–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Stevens JE, Mizner RL, Snyder-Mackler L. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for quadriceps muscle strengthening after bilateral total knee arthroplasty: a case series. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2004; 34: 21–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Eriksson E. Sports injuries of the knee ligaments: their diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention. Med Sci Sports 1976; 8: 133–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Petterson S, Snyder-Mackler L. The use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve activation deficits in a patient with chronic quadriceps strength impairments following total knee arthroplasty. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2006; 36: 678–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lainey CG, Walmsley RP, Andrew GM. Effectiveness of exercise alone versus exercise plus electrical stimulation in strengthening the quadriceps muscle. Physiother Can 1983; 35: 5–11Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wigerstad-Lossing I, Grimby G, Jonsson T, et al. Effects of electrical muscle stimulation combined with voluntary contractions after knee ligament surgery. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: 93–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Vanderthommen M, Constant T, Crielaard JM. La rééducation du quadriceps: intérêt de l’électromyostimulation de basse fréquence après arthroscopie du genou. Kinesither Sci 1992; 308: 21–2Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lewek M, Stevens J, Snyder-Mackler L. The use of electrical stimulation to increase quadriceps femoris muscle force in an elderly patient following a total knee arthroplasty. Phys Ther 2001; 81: 1565–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rebai H, Barra V, Laborde A, et al. Effects of two electrical stimulation frequencies in thigh muscle after knee surgery. Int J Sports Med 2002; 23: 604–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Fitzgerald GK, Piva SR, Irrgang JJ. A modified neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocol for quadriceps strength training following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2003; 33: 492–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Talbot LA, Gaines JM, Ling SM, et al. A home—based protocol of electrical muscle stimulation for quadriceps muscle strength in older adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 1571–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Suetta C, Aagaard P, Rosted A, et al. Training—induced changes in muscle CSA, muscle strength, EMG, and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long—term unilateral dis—use. J Appl Phys 2004; 97: 1954–61Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Eriksson E, Haggmark T. Comparison of isometric muscle training and electrical stimulation supplementing isometric muscle training in the recovery after major knee ligament surgery: a preliminary report. Am J Sports Med 1979; 7: 169–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Arvidsson I, Arvidsson H, Eriksson E, et al. Prevention of quadriceps wasting after immobilization: an evaluation of the effect of electrical stimulation. Orthopedics 1986; 9: 1519–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Marin TP, Gundersen LA, Blevins FT, et al. The influence of functional electrical stimulation on the properties of vastus lateralis fibres following total knee arthroplasty. Scand J Rehab Med 1991; 23: 207–10Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Belanger M, Stein RB, Wheeler GD, et al. Electrical stimulation: can it increase muscle strength and reverse osteopenia in spinal cord injured individuals? Arch Phys Med Rehab 2000; 81: 1090–8Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Phillips W, Burkett LN, Munro R, et al. Relative changes in blood flow with functional electrical stimulation during exercise of the paralysed lower limbs. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 90–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lake DA. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation: an overview and its application in the treatment of sports injuries. Sports Med 1992; 13: 320–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Poumarat G, Squire P, Lawani M. Effect of electrical stimulation superimposed on isokinetic contractions. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1992; 32: 227–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Suetta C, Magnusson SP, Rosted A, et al. Resistance training in the early postoperative phase reduces hospitalization and leads to muscle hypertrophy in elderly hip surgery patients: a controlled, randomized study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52: 2016–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lord SR, Ward JA, Williams P, et al. Physiological factors associated with falls in older community—dwelling women. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994; 42: 1110–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Yanagi T, Shiba N, Maeda T, et al. Agonist contractions against electrically stimulated antagonists. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84: 843–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Iwasaki T, Shiba N, Matsuse H, et al. Improvement in knee extension strength through training by means of combined electrical stimulation and voluntary muscle contraction. Tohoku J Exp Med 2006; 209: 33–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Matsuse H, Shiba N, Umezu Y, et al. Muscle training by means of combined electrical stimulation and volitional contraction. Aviat Space Environ Med 2006; 77: 581–5PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Analyse de la Performance Sportive, Département STAPSUniversité de Pau et des Pays de l’AdourFrance

Personalised recommendations