Sports Medicine

, Volume 37, Issue 10, pp 907–921 | Cite as

Hydration and Muscular Performance

Does Fluid Balance Affect Strength, Power and High-Intensity Endurance?
  • Daniel A. JudelsonEmail author
  • Carl M. Maresh
  • Jeffrey M. Anderson
  • Lawrence E. Armstrong
  • Douglas J. Casa
  • William J. Kraemer
  • Jeff S. Volek
Review Article


Significant scientific evidence documents the deleterious effects of hypohydration (reduced total body water) on endurance exercise performance; however, the influence of hypohydration on muscular strength, power and high-intensity endurance (maximal activities lasting >30 seconds but <2 minutes) is poorly understood due to the inconsistent results produced by previous investigations. Several subtle methodological choices that exacerbate or attenuate the apparent effects of hypohydration explain much of this variability. After accounting for these factors, hypohydration appears to consistently attenuate strength (by ≈2%), power (by ≈3%) and high-intensity endurance (by ∼10%), suggesting alterations in total body water affect some aspect of force generation. Unfortunately, the relationships between performance decrement and crucial variables such as mode, degree and rate of water loss remain unclear due to a lack of suitably uninfluenced data. The physiological demands of strength, power and high-intensity endurance couple with a lack of scientific support to argue against previous hypotheses that suggest alterations in cardiovascular, metabolic and/or buffering function represent the performance-reducing mechanism of hypohydration. On the other hand, hypohydration might directly affect some component of the neuromuscular system, but this possibility awaits thorough evaluation. A critical review of the available literature suggests hypohydration limits strength, power and highintensity endurance and, therefore, is an important factor to consider when attempting to maximise muscular performance in athletic, military and industrial settings.


Caloric Restriction Endurance Training Muscular Strength Total Body Water Menstrual Status 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No funding sources were used in the preparation of this manuscript. Douglas J. Casa serves on the Board of Advisors, has received grant funding and honoraria from Gatorade and has received honoraria from Camelbak, Inc. The authors wish to thank Dr Sinclair A. Smith for his exceptional helpfulness and Dr Barry A. Spiering for editorial contributions.


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Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel A. Judelson
    • 2
    Email author
  • Carl M. Maresh
    • 1
  • Jeffrey M. Anderson
    • 1
  • Lawrence E. Armstrong
    • 1
  • Douglas J. Casa
    • 1
  • William J. Kraemer
  • Jeff S. Volek
  1. 1.Human Performance LaboratoryDepartment of Kinesiology, University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Department of KinesiologyCalifornia State UniversityFullertonUSA

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