Sports Medicine

, Volume 36, Issue 12, pp 1067–1086 | Cite as

The Physical Activity Patterns of European Youth with Reference to Methods of Assessment

  • Neil ArmstrongEmail author
  • Joanne R. Welsman
Review Article


This article reviews the habitual physical activity of children and adolescents from member countries of the European Union in relation to methods of assessing and interpreting physical activity. Data are available from all European Union countries except Luxembourg and the trends are very similar. European boys of all ages participate in more physical activity than European girls and the gender difference is more marked when vigorous activity is considered. The physical activity levels of both genders are higher during childhood and decline as young people move through their teen years. Physical activity patterns are sporadic and sustained periods of moderate or vigorous physical activity are seldom achieved by many European children and adolescents. Expert committees have produced guidelines for health-related physical activity for youth but they are evidence-informed rather than evidence-based and where there is evidence of a relationship between physical activity during youth and health status there is little evidence of a particular shape of that relationship. The number of children who experience physical activity of the duration, frequency and intensity recommended by expert committees decreases with age but accurate estimates of how many girls and boys are inactive are clouded by methodological problems. If additional insights into the promotion of health through habitual physical activity during youth are to be made, methods of assessment need to be further refined and recommended guidelines re-visited in relation to the existing evidence base.


Physical Activity Vigorous Physical Activity Indirect Calorimetry Physical Activity Guideline Moderate Physical Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This review was supported by a grant from the European Union. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


  1. 1.
    Casperson CJ, Powell K, Christenson G. Physical activity, exercise and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions of health related research. Public Health Rep 1985; 100: 126–31Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sirard JR, Pate RR. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents. Sports Med 2001; 31: 439–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trost SG. Objective measurement of physical activity in youth: current issues, future directions. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2001; 29:32–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Twisk JWR. Physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents. Sports Med 2001; 31: 617–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    American College of Sports Medicine. Physical fitness in children and youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: 422–3Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sallis JF, Patrick K, Long BJ. Overview of the international consensus conference on physical activity guidelines for adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994; 6: 299–302Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Armstrong N, Simons-Morton B. Physical activity and blood lipids in adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994; 6: 381–405Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alpert BS, Wilmore JH. Physical activity and blood pressure in adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994; 6: 361–80Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bar-Or O, Baranowski T. Physical activity, adiposity, and obesity among adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994; 6: 348–60Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bailey DA, Martin AD. Physical activity and skeletal health in adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994; 6: 330–47Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Calias KJ, Taylor WC. Effects of physical activity on psychological variables in adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994; 6:406–23Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sallis JF, Patrick K. Physical activity guidelines for adolescents: a consensus statement. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994; 6: 302–14Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cale L, Harris J. Exercise recommendations for young people: an update. Health Educ J 2001; 101: 126–38Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pate RR, Trost SG, Williams CA. Critique of existing guidelines for physical activity in young people. In: Biddle S, Sallis J, Cavill N. editors. Young and active? London: Health Education Authority, 1998: 162–76Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biddle S, Sallis J, Cavill N. Young and active? London: Health Education Authority, 1998Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJR, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr 2005; 146 (6):732–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bar-Or O. Pediatric sports medicine for the practitioner. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harro M, Riddoch C. Physical activity. In: Armstrong N, van Mechelen W. editors. Paediatric exercise science and Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000: 77–84Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Janz KF, Witt J, Mahoney LT, et al. The stability of children’s physical activity measured by accelerometry and self-report. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 1326–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sallis JF. Self-report measures of children’s physical activity. J Sch Health 1991; 61: 215–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Armstrong N, Bray S. Physical activity patterns defined by continuous heart rate monitoring. Arch Dis Child 1991; 66:245–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bailey RC, Olson J, Pepper SL, et al. The level and tempo of children’s physical activities: an observational study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 1033–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Montoye HJ, Taylor HL. Measurement of physical activity in population studies: a review. Hum Biol 1984; 56: 195–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Watson A WS, O’Donovan DJ. Influences of level of habitual activity on physical work capacity and body composition of post pubertal school boys. Q J Exp Physiol 1977; 62: 325–32Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wessel JA, Montoye HJ, Mitchell H. Physical activity assessment by recall method. Am J Public Health 1965; 55: 1430–6Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pate RR. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1993; 33: 321–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baranowski T, Dworkin RJ, Cieslik C, et al. Reliability and validity of self report of aerobic activity: family health report. Res Q 1984; 55: 309–17Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Telama R, Viikari J, Valimaki I, et al. Atherosclerosis precursors in Finnish children and adolescents leisure time physical activity. Acta Paediatr Scand 1985; 318: 169–80Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saris WHM. Aerobic power and daily physical activity in children. Meppel (The Netherlands): Kripps Repro, 1982Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Salonen IT, Lakka T. Assessment of physical activity in population studies: validity and consistency of the methods in the Kuopio ischemic heart disease risk factor study. Scand J Sports Sci 1987; 9: 89–95Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Saris WHM. Habitual physical activity in children: methodology and findings in health and disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc1986; 18: 253–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Murphy JK, Alpert BS, Christman N, et al. Physical fitness in children: a survey method based on parental report. Am J Public Health 1988; 78: 708–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Saris WHM. The assessment and evaluation of daily physical activity in children: a review. Acta Paediatr Scand 1985; 318:37–48Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Harro M. Validation of a questionnaire to assess physical activity of children ages 4–8 years. Res Q Exerc Sport 1997; 68:259–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bouchard C, Trermlay A, Leblanc C, et al. Method to assess energy expenditure in children and adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1983; 37: 461–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Durnin NGA, Lonergan ME, Good J, et al. A cross-sectional nutritional and anthropometric study, with an interval of 7 years on 611 young adolescent school children. Br J Nutr1974; 32: 169–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sallis JF, Buono MJ, Freedson PS. Bias in estimating caloric expenditure from physical activity in children. Sports Med 1991; 11: 203–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Torun B. Inaccuracy of applying energy expenditure rates of adults to children. Am I Clin Nutr 1983; 38: 813–4Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sallis IF, Saelens BE. Assessment of physical activity by self-report; status, limitations and future directions. Res Q Exerc Sports 2000; 71: S1–14Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pate R, Freedson P, Sallis I, et al. Compliance with physical activity guidelines: prevalence in a population of children and youth. Ann Epidemiol 2002; 12: 303–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Kalakanis LE, et al. How which activity do youth get? A quantitative review of heart-rate measured activity. Pediatrics 2001; 108: E44Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sleap M, Tolfrey K. Do 9-to-12-yr-old children meet existing physical activity recommendations for health? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 591–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Riddoch CI, Andersen LB, Wedderkopp N, et aI. Physical activity levels and patterns of 9- and 15-yr-old European children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36: 86–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ekelund U, Yngve A, Sjostrom M. Total daily energy expenditure and patterns of physical activity in adolescents assessed by two different methods. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1999; 9:257–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kemper HCG. The Amsterdam growth study. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1995Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Deforce B, Lefevre I, De Boudeaudhuig I, et al. Physical fitness and physical activity in obese and non-obese Aemish youth. Obes Res 2003; 11: 43441Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Guillaume M, Lapidus L, Bjorntorp P, et al. Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in children: the Belgium Luxembourg child study II. Obes Res 1997; 5: 549–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hussey I, Gormley I, Bell C. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years. Br J Sports Med 2001; 35: 268–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    O’Sullivan SO. The physical activity of children: a study of 1603 Irish school children aged 11–12 years. Ir Med J 2002;95: 78–81Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Currie C, Hurrelmann K, Settertobulte W, et al. Health and health behaviour among young people. Copenhagen: World Health Organisation, 2000Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    King AIC, Coles B. The health of Canada’s youth. Ottawa: Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1992Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Heartbeat Wales. Welsh youth health survey 1986. Cardiff: Heartbeat Wales, 1986Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Riddoch C. Northern Ireland health and fitness survey. Belfast: Sports Council for Northern Ireland and Department of Health and Social Services, 1990Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marella M, Colli R, Faina M. Evaluation de l’aptitude physique: Eurofit, batterie experimentagle. Rome: Scuola Dello Sport,Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Currie C, Roberts C, Morgan A, et al., editors. Young people’s health in context. Copenhagen: World Health Organisation,Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cantera-Garde MA, Dévis-Devés I. Physical activity levels of secondary school Spanish adolescents. Eur J Phys Educ 2000;5: 28–44Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Silvennionen M. Relations between different kinds of physical activity and motive types among Finnish comprehensive and upper secondary school pupils. Scand J Sports Sci 1984; 6:72–82Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bouziotas C, Koutedaiks Y. A three year study of coronary heart disease risk factors in Greek adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2003; 15: 9–18Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Maniôs Y, Kafatos A, Markakis G. Physical activity of 6-year old children: validation of two proxy reports. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1998; 10: 176–88Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Deheeger M, Rolland-Cachera MF, Fontvielle AM. Physical activity and body composition in 10 year old French children: linkages with nutritional intake? Int J Obes 1997; 21: 372–9Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vermorel M, Vernet I, Bitar A, et al. Daily energy expenditure, activity patterns, and energy costs of the various activities in French 12–16-y-old adolescents in free living conditions. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56: 819–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Engstrom LM. Physical activity of children and youth. Acta Paediatr Scand 1980; 283: 101–5Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sunnegardh I, Bratteby IE, Sjolin S, et al. The relation between physical activity and energy intake of 8 and 13 year old children in Sweden. In: Binkhorst RA, Kemper HC G, Saris WHM, editors. Children and exercise XI. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1985: 183–93Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fuchs R, Semmer NK, Lippert P, et al. Patterns of physical activity among German adolescents: the Berlin-Bremen study. Prev Med 1988; 17: 746–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rutenfranz I, Berndt I, Knauth P. Daily physical activity investigated by time budget studies and physical performance capacity of school boys. Acta Paediatr Belg 1974; 28: 79–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Guerra S, Duarte I, Mota I. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in school children. Eur Phys Educ Rev 2001; 7: 269–81Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ribeiro I, Guerra S, Pinto A, et al. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: relationship with blood pressure and physical activity. Ann Hum Biol 2003; 30: 203–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Andersen LB, Schelin B. Physical activity and performance in a random sample of adolescents attending school in Denmark. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1994; 4: 13–8Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hasselstrom H, Hansen SE, Frobert K, et al. Physical fitness and physical activity during adolescence as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in young adulthood: Danish youth and sports study: an eight year follow-up. Int J Sports Med 2002; 23: S27–31Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    King A, Wold B, Tudor-Smith C, et al., editors. The health of youth: a cross national survey. Copenhagen: World Health Organisation, 1996Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Loucaides LA, Chedzoy SM, Bennett N, et al. Correlates of physical activity in a Cypriot sample of sixth-grade children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2004; 16: 25–36Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Aberberga-Augskalne L. Individual growth patterns and physical fitness in Riga school children. Acta Medico-Historica Rigensia 2002; 25: 65–76Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Seliger VS, Trefny S, Bartenkova S, et al. The habitual physical activity and fitness of 12 year old boys. Acta Paediatr Belg 1974; 28: 54–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Naul R, Telema R, Rychtecky A. Physical fitness and active lifestyle of Czech, Finnish and German youth. Acta Univ Carol Kinanthrop 1997; 33: 5–16Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Telema R, Naul R, Nupponen H, et al. Physical fitness, sporting lifestyles and Olympic cideals: cross-cultural studies on youth sport in Europe. Schorndorf: Verlag Karl Hofmann, 2002Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jurak G, Kovač M, Strel J. How Slovenian primary school pupils spend their summer holidays. In: Jurak G, editor. Sports activities of Slovenian children and young people during their summer holidays. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana, 2003:23–38Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jurak G, Kovač M, Strel J, et al. How Slovenian secondary school children spend their summer holidays. In Jurak G, editor. Sports activities of Slovenian children and young people during their summer holidays. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana, 2003: 39–58Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Raudsepp L, Liblik R, Hannus A. Children’s and adolescents’ physical self-perception as related to moderate to vigorous physical activity and physical fitness. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2002;14: 97–106Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sallo M, Viru A. Aerobic capacity and physical activity in 4 to 10-year-old children. Biol Sport 1996; 13: 211–9Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kemper HCG. Growth, health and fitness of teenagers. Med Sport Sci 1985; 20: 1–202Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Prochaska JJ, Sallis JF, Long BA. A physical activity screening measure for use with adolescents in primary care. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001; 155: 554–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ainslee PN, Reilly T, Westerterp KR. Estimating human energy expenditure. Sports Med 2003; 33: 683–98Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Saris WHM. New developments in the assessment of physical activity in children. In: Coudert J, Van Praagh E. editors. Pediatric work physiology. Paris: Masson, 1992: 107–14Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    James WPT, Ferro-Luzzi A, Waterlow JC. Definition of chronic energy deficiency in adults: report of a working party of the international dietary energy consultancy group. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988; 42: 79–81Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Davies PSW. Total energy expenditure in young children. Am J Hum Biol 1996; 8: 183–8Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hoos ME, Gerver WJM, Kester AD, et al. Physical activity levels in children and adolescents. Int J Obes 2003; 27: 605–9Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bratteby LE, Sandhagen B, Fan H, et al. Total energy expenditure and physical activity as assessed by the doubly labeled water method in Swedish adolescents in whom energy intake was underestimated by 7 -d diet records. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67: 905–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ekelund U, Sjostrom M, Yngve A, et al. Physical activity assessed by activity monitor and doubly labeled water in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 275–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hoos MB, Plasqui G, Gerver WJM, et al. Physical activity level measured by doubly labeled water and accelerometry in children. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003; 89: 624–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    O’Connor J, Ball EJ, Steinbeck KS, et al. Measuring physical activity in children: a comparison of four different methods. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2003; 15: 202–15Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Emons HJG, Groenenboom DC, Westerterp KR, et al. Comparison of heart rate monitoring combined with indirect calorimetry and the doubly labelled water method for the measurement of energy expenditure in children. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992;65: 99–103Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Livingstone MEE, Coward A W, Prentice AM, et al. Daily energy expenditure in free-living children: comparison of heart rate monitoring with the doubly labelled water method. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56: 343–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Eston RG, Rowlands AV, Ingledew DK. Validity of heart rate, pedometry, and accelerometry for predicting the energy cost of children’s activity. J Appl Physiol 1998; 84: 362–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Louie L, Eston RG, Rowland AV, et al. Validity of heart rate, pedometry and accelerometry for estimating the energy cost of activity in Hong Kong Chinese boys. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1999; 11: 229–39Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bedale EM. Energy expenditure and food requirements of children at school. Proc R Soc (London) 1923; 94: 368–404Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Publ J, Greaves K, Hoyt M, et al. Children’s activity rating scale (cars): description and calibration. Res Q Exerc Sport 1990;61: 26–36Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Armstrong N, Welsman JR. Young people and physical activity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sleap M, Warburton P. Physical activity levels of 5‐11 year old children in England determined by continuous observation. Res Q Exerc Sport 1992; 63: 238–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sleap M, Warburton P. Physical activity levels of preadolescent children in England. Br J Phys Educ Res Suppl 1994; 14: 2–6Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sleap M, Warburton P. Physical activity levels of 5‐11-year-old children in England: cumullative evidence from three direct observation studies. Int J Sports Med 1996; 17: 248–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Armstrong N. Young people’s physical activity patterns as assessed by heart rate monitoring. J Sports Sci 1998; 16: S9–16Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Armstrong N, Balding J, Gentle P, et al. Patterns of physical activity among 11 to 16 year old British children. BMJ 1990;301: 203–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Verschuur R, Kemper HCG. Habitual physical activity in Dutch teenagers measured by heart rate. In: Binkhorst RA, Kemper HCG, Saris WHM, editors. Children and exercise XI. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1985: 194–202Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Riddoch C, Mahoney C, Murphy N, et al. The physical activity patterns of Northern Irish school children ages 11 to 16 years. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1991; 3: 300–9Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bradfield RB, Chan H, Bradfield NE, et al. Energy expenditures and heart rates of Carmridge boys at school. Am J Clin Nutr 1971; 24: 1461–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Verschuur R, Kemper HCG. Habitual physical activity. Med Sport Sci 1985; 20: 56–65Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Verschuur R, Kemper HCG. The pattern of daily physical activity. Med Sport Sci 1985; 20: 169–86Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Armstrong N, Bray S. Primary schoolchildren’s physical activity patterns during autumn and summer. Bull Phys Educ 1990;26: 23–6Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Biddle S, Mitchell J, Armstrong N. The assessment of physical activity in children: a comparison of continuous heart rate monitoring, self-report and interview techniques. Br J Phys Educ Res Suppl 1991; 10: 4–8Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    McManus A, Armstrong N. Patterns of physical activity among primary school children. In: Ring FJ, editor. Children in sport. Bath: University Press, 1995: 17–23Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Falgairette G, Bedu M, Fellmann N, et al. Bioenergetic profile in 144 boys aged from 6 to 15 years with special reference to sexual maturation. Eur J Appl Physiol 1991; 62: 151–6Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Salla M, Silla R. Physical activity with moderate to vigorous intensity in preschool and first grade school children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1997; 9: 44–54Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    WeIsman JR, Armstrong N. Physical activity patterns of 5 to 11-year-old children. In: Armstrong N, Kirhy BJ, WeIsman JR, editors. Children and exercise XIX: promoting health and well-being. London: E and FN Spon, 1997: 139–44Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gavarry O, Bernard T, Giacomoni M, et al. Continuous heart rate monitoring over 1 week in teenagers aged 11‐16 years. EurJ Appl Physiol 1998; 77: 125–32Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    WeIsman JR, Armstrong N. Physical activity patterns of 5-to 7-year-old children and their mothers. Eur J Phys Educ 1998;3: 145–55Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Armstrong N, Welsman JR, Kirby BJ. Longitudinal changes in 11–13-year-olds’ physical activity. Acta Paediatr 2000; 89:775–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Welsman JR, Armstrong N. Physical activity patterns in secondary school children. Eur J Phys Educ 2000; 5: 147–57Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ekelund U, Poortvleit E, Nilsson A, et al. Physical activity in relation to aerobic fitness and body fat in 14-to-15 year-old boys and girls. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001; 85: 195–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lauter S. Zur genese der fettsucht. Dtsch Arch Klin 1926; 150: 315–65Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Saris WHM, Binkhorst RA. The use of pedometer and actometer in studying daily physical activity in man: part II -validity of pedometer and actometer measuring the daily physical activity. Eur J Appl Physiol l977; 37: 229–35Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rowe DA, Mahar MT, Raedeke TD, et al. Measuring physical activity in childhood with pedometers: reliability, reactivity and replacement of missing data. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2004; 16:343–54Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Cardon G, De Bourdeaudhuij I. A pilot study comparing pedometer counts with reported physical activity in elementary school children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2004; 16: 355–67Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Rowlands AV, Eston RG, Ingledew DK. Measurement of physical activity in children with particular reference to the use of heart rate and pedometry. Sports Med 1997; 24: 258–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Raustorp A, Pangrazi RP, Stahle A. Physical activity level and body mass index among school children in south eastern Sweden. Acta Paediatr 2004; 93: 400–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Skalik K, Fromel K, Sigmund E, et al. Weekly physical activity in secondary school students (a comparative probe into Czech, Polish and Swedish conditions). Gymnica 2001; 31: 21–6Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Verschuur R, Kemper HCG, Besseling CWM. Habitual physical activity and health in 13 and 14 year old teenagers. In: Ilmarinen J, Valimaki I. editors. Children and sport. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984: 255–61Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Vincent SD, Pangrazi RP, Raustorp A, et al. Activity levels and body mass index of children in the United States, Sweden and Australia. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 35: 1367–73Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Loucaides CA, Chedzoy SM, Bennett N. Pedometer-assessed physical (ambulatory) activity in Cypriot children. Eur Phys Educ Rev 2003; 9: 43–55Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Freedson P, Pober D, Janz KF. Calibration of accelerometer output for children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37 (11 Suppl.):S523–30Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Raudsepp L, Pall P. Reproducibility and stability of physical activity in children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1998; 10: 320–6Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nilsson A, Ekelund U, Yngve A, et al. Assessing physical activity among children with accelerometers using different time sampling intervals and placements. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2002; 14: 87–96Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Guerra S, Santos P, Ribeiro JC, et al. Assessment of children’s and adolescent’s physical activity levels. Eur Phys Educ Rev 2003; 9: 75–85Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Santos P, Guerra S, Ribeiro JC, et al. Age and gender-related physical activity: a descriptive study in children using accelerometry. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003; 43: 85–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Mota J, Santos P, Guerra S, et al. Differences of daily physical activity levels of children according to body mass index. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2002; 14: 442–52Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Mallam KM, Metcalf BS, Kirby J, et al. Contribution of time tabled physical education to total physical activity in primary school children: cross-sectional study. BMJ 2003; 327: 592–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Berman N, Bailey R, Barstow TJ, et al. Spectral and bout detection analysis of physical activity patterns in healthy, prepubertal boys and girls. Am J Hum Biol 1998; 10: 289–97Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Perusse L, Trembley A, Le Blanc C, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on level of habitual physical activity and exercise participation. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 129: 1012–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Rowland TW. The biological basis of physical activity. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1998; 30: 392–9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Children’s Health and Exercise Research Centre, St Luke’s CampusUniversity of ExeterExeterUK

Personalised recommendations