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Sports Medicine

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 327–358 | Cite as

Oxidative Stress

Relationship with Exercise and Training
  • Julien FinaudEmail author
  • Gérard Lac
  • Edith Filaire
Review Article

Abstract

Free radicals are reactive compounds that are naturally produced in the human body. They can exert positive effects (e.g. on the immune system) or negative effects (e.g. lipids, proteins or DNA oxidation). To limit these harmful effects, an organism requires complex protection — the antioxidant system. This system consists of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E [tocopherol], vitamin A [retinol], vitamin C [ascorbic acid], glutathione and uric acid). An imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defence leads to an oxidative stress state, which may be involved in aging processes and even in some pathology (e.g. cancer and Parkinson’s disease). Physical exercise also increases oxidative stress and causes disruptions of the homeostasis. Training can have positive or negative effects on oxidative stress depending on training load, training specificity and the basal level of training. Moreover, oxidative stress seems to be involved in muscular fatigue and may lead to overtraining.

Keywords

Oxidative Stress Reactive Oxygen Species Uric Acid CoQ10 Total Antioxidant Capacity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review. This work is dedicated to the late Prof. Robert (2004) and the late Prof. Bedo (2006).

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© Adis Data Information BV 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire Biologie Interuniversitaire des Activités Physiques et SportivesUniversité Blaise Pascal de Clermont-FerrandAubière CedexFrance

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