Sports Medicine

, Volume 35, Issue 8, pp 685–715 | Cite as

Central Nervous System Injuries in Sport and Recreation

A Systematic Review
  • Cory TothEmail author
  • Stephen McNeil
  • Thomas Feasby
Review Article


Many sports have been associated with a variety of neurological injuries affecting the central nervous system (CNS), with some injuries specific to that sport. A systematic review of sport-specific CNS injuries has not been attempted previously, and could assist in the understanding of morbidity and mortality associated with particular sporting activities, either professional or amateur. A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed (1965–2003) examining all known sports and a range of possible CNS injuries attributable to that sport. Numerous sporting activities (45) have associated CNS injuries as reported within the literature. The sports most commonly associated with CNS injuries are: football, boxing, hockey, use of a trampoline, and various winter activities. A number of sporting activities are associated with unique CNS injuries or injury-related diseases such as heat stroke in auto racing, vertebral artery dissection in the martial arts, and dementia pugilistica in boxing. Neurological injuries of the CNS due to sport comprise a wide collection of maladies that are important for the neurologist, neurosurgeon, orthopaedic surgeon, physiatrist, sports medicine doctor, athletic trainer and general physician to recognise.


Spinal Cord Injury Head Injury Spinal Injury Soccer Player Football Player 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


  1. 1.
    Steele AG. Emergency medical care for open wheel racing events at Indianapolis Raceway Park. Ann Emerg Med 1994 Aug; 24 (2): 264–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gennarelli TA. Cerebral concussions and diffuse brain injuries. In: Cooper PR, editor. Head injury. 2nd ed. Baltimore (MD): Wilkins and Wilkins, 1987: 108–24Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trammell TR, Olivary SE. Crash and injury statistics from Indy-car racing 1985–1989. In: Association for Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference; 1990 Oct 1–3; Scottsdale (AZ). The Association, 1991: 329–35Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Holley JE, Butler JW, Mahoney JM. Carbon monoxide poisoning in racing car drivers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1999 Mar; 39 (1): 20–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jareno A, de la Serna JL, Cercas A, et al. Heat stroke in motor car racing drivers [letter]. Br J Sports Med 1987 Mar; 21 (1): 48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pasternack JS, Veenema KR, Callahan CM. Baseball injuries: a Little League survey. Pediatrics 1996 Sep; 98 (3 Pt 1): 445–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Radelet MA, Lephart SM, Rubinstein EN, et al. Survey of the injury rate for children in community sports. Pediatrics 2002 Sep; 110 (3): e28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cheng TL, Fields CB, Brenner RA, et al. Sports injuries: an important cause of morbidity in urban youth. District of Columbia Child/Adolescent Injury Research Network. Pediatrics 2000 Mar; 105 (3): e32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Powell JW, Barber-Foss KD. Traumatic brain injury in high school athletes. JAMA 1999 Sep 8; 282 (10): 958–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Covassin T, Swanik CB, Sachs ML. Epidemiological considerations of concussions among intercollegiate athletes. Appl Neuropsychol 2003; 10 (1): 12–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Danis RP, Hu K, Bell M. Acceptability of baseball face guards and reduction of oculofacial injury in receptive youth league players. Inj Prev 2000 Sep; 6 (3): 232–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rice JO, Walters C, Olson RE, et al. Epidural hematoma after minor oral trauma. J Oral Surg 1976 Jul; 34 (7): 639–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Groleau GA, Tso EL, Olshaker JS, et al. Baseball bat assault injuries. J Trauma 1993 Mar; 34 (3): 366–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morse SD. Acute central cervical spinal cord syndrome. Ann Emerg Med 1982 Aug; 11 (8): 436–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Worrell J. BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models. Arch Emerg Med 1985 Dec; 2 (4): 209–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Illingworth CM. BMX compared with ordinary bicycle accidents. Arch Dis Child 1985 May; 60 (5): 461–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kronisch RL, Chow TK, Simon LM, et al. Acute injuries in off-road bicycle racing. Am J Sports Med 1996 Jan-Feb; 24 (1): 88–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rivara FP, Thompson DC, Thompson RS, et al. Injuries involving off-road cycling. J Fam Pract 1997 May; 44 (5): 481–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kronisch RL, Pfeiffer RP, Chow TK, et al. Gender differences in acute mountain bike racing injuries. Clin J Sport Med 2002 May; 12 (3): 158–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Linn S, Smith D, Sheps S. Epidemiology of bicycle injury, head injury, and helmet use among children in British Columbia: a five year descriptive study. Canadian Hospitals Injury, Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP). Inj Prev 1998 Jun; 4 (2): 122–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shafi S, Gilbert JC, Loghmanee F, et al. Impact of bicycle helmet safety legislation on children admitted to a regional pediatric trauma center. J Pediatr Surg 1998 Feb; 33 (2): 317–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brown PG, Lee M. Trampoline injuries of the cervical spine. Pediatr Neurosurg 2000 Apr; 32 (4): 170–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bradshaw C, McCrory P. Obturator nerve entrapment. Clin J Sport Med 1997 Jul; 7 (3): 217–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Unterharnscheidt F. About boxing: review of historical and medical aspects. Tex Rep Biol Med 1970; 28: 421–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blonstein JL, Clarke E. Further observations on the medical aspects of amateur boxing. BMJ 1957; 1: 362–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Unterharnscheidt F. A neurologist’s reflections on boxing. V. Conclude remarks. Rev Neurol 1995 Sep-Oct; 23 (123): 1027–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ross RT, Ochsner Jr MG. Acute intracranial boxing-related injuries in US Marine Corps recruits: report of two cases. Mil Med 1999 Jan; 164 (1): 68–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jordan BD, Campbell E. Acute boxing injuries among professional boxers in New York State: a two year survey. Phys Sports Med 1988; 12: 53–67Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kelly JP, Nichols JS, Filley CM, et al. Concussion in sports: guidelines for the prevention of catastrophic outcome. JAMA 1991 Nov 27; 266 (20): 2867–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Warden DL, Bleiberg J, Cameron KL, et al. Persistent prolongation of simple reaction time in sports concussion. Neurology 2001 Aug 14; 57 (3): 524–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jordan BD. Neurologic aspects of boxing. Arch Neurol 1987 Apr; 44 (4): 453–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Roberts AH. Brain damage in boxers. London: Pittman Medical Scientific Publishing, 1969Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Haglund Y, Persson HE. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 3. A retrospective clinical neurophysiological study. Acta Neurol Scand 1990 Dec; 82 (6): 353–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Murelius O, Haglund Y. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 4. A retrospective neuropsychological study. Acta Neurol Scand 1991 Jan; 83 (1): 9–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mendez MF. The neuropsychiatric aspects of boxing. Int J Psychiatry Med 1995; 25 (3): 249–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Critchley M. Medical aspects of boxing, particularly from a neurological standpoint. BMJ 1957; 1: 357–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jordan BD, Zimmerman RD. Magnetic resonance imaging in amateur boxers. Arch Neurol 1988 Nov; 45 (11): 1207–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rodriguez G, Vitali P, Nobili F. Long-term effects of boxing and judo-choking techniques on brain function. Ital J Neurol Sci 1998 Dec; 19 (6): 367–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bodensteiner JB, Schaefer GB. Dementia pugilistica and cavum septi pellucidi: born to box? Sports Med 1997 Dec; 24 (6): 361–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Corsellis JAN, Bruton CJ, Freeman-Browne D. The aftermath of boxing. Psychol Med 1973; 3: 270–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Haglund Y, Bergstrand G. Does Swedish amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? 2. A retrospective study with CT and MRI. Acta Neurol Scand 1990 Nov; 82 (5): 297–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hof PR, Bouras C, Buee L, et al. Differential distribution of neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex of dementia pugilistica and Alzheimer’s disease cases. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1992; 85 (1): 23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jordan BD, Relkin NR, Ravdin LD, et al. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 associated with chronic traumatic brain injury in boxing. JAMA 1997 Jul 9; 278 (2): 136–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schmidt ML, Zhukareva V, Newell KL, et al. Tau isoform profile and phosphorylation state in dementia pugilistica recapitulate Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2001 May; 101 (5): 518–24Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Otto M, Holthusen S, Bahn E, et al. Boxing and running lead to a rise in serum levels of S-100B protein. Int J Sports Med 2000 Nov; 21 (8): 551–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Place HM, Ecklund JM, Enzenauer RJ. Cervical spine injury in a boxer: should mandatory screening be instituted? J Spinal Disord 1996 Feb; 9 (1): 64–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kewalramani LS, Krauss JF. Cervical spine injuries resulting from collision sports. Int Med Soc Paraplegia 1981; 19: 303–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Boden BP, Tacchetti R, Mueller FO. Catastrophic cheerleading injuries. Am J Sports Med 2003; 31: 881–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Upadhyay V, Tan A. Cricketing injuries in children: from the trivial to the severe. N Z Med J 2000 Mar 10; 113 (1105): 81–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sotiropoulos SV, Jackson MA, Tremblay GF, et al. Childhood lawn dart injuries: summary of 75 patients and patient report. Am J Dis Child 1990 Sep; 144 (9): 980–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tay JS, Garland JS. Serious head injuries from lawn darts. Pediatrics 1987 Feb; 79 (2): 261–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hwang V, Shofer FS, Durbin DR, et al. Prevalence of traumatic injuries in drowning and near drowning in children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003 Jan; 157 (1): 50–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Katoh S, Shingu H, Ikata T, et al. Sports-related spinal cord injury in Japan (from the nationwide spinal cord injury registry between 1990 and 1992). Spinal Cord 1996 Jul; 34 (7): 416–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Blanksby BA, Wearne FK, Elliott BC, et al. Aetiology and occurrence of diving injuries: a review of diving safety. Sports Med 1997 Apr; 23 (4): 228–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Guiot B, Fessler RG. Complex atlantoaxial fractures. J Neurosurg 1999 Oct; 91 (2 Suppl.): 139–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schmitt H, Gerner HJ. Paralysis from sport and diving accidents. Clin J Sport Med 2001 Jan; 11 (1): 17–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    DeVivo MJ, Sekar P. Prevention of spinal cord injuries that occur in swimming pools. Spinal Cord 1997 Aug; 35 (8): 509–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Blitvich JD, McElroy GK, Blanksby BA. Risk reduction in diving spinal cord injury: teaching safe diving skills. J Sci Med Sport 2000 Jun; 3 (2): 120–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Blitvich JD, McElroy GK, Blanksby BA, et al. Characteristics of ‘low risk’ and ‘high risk’ dives by young adults: risk reduction in spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1999 Aug; 37 (8): 553–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hughes PJ. Internal carotid artery occlusion following sports diving. J R Nav Med Serv 2000; 86 (3): 120–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gierup J, Larsson M, Lennquist S. Incidence and nature of horse-riding injuries. Acta Chir Scand 1976; 142: 57–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sorli JM. Equestrian injuries: a five year review of hospital admissions in British Columbia, Canada. Inj Prev 2000 Mar; 6 (1): 59–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kriss TC, Kriss VM. Equine-related neurosurgical trauma: a prospective series of 30 patients. J Trauma 1997 Jul; 43 (1): 97–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fleming PR, Crompton JL, Simpson DA. Neuro-ophthalmological sequelae of horse-related accidents. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2001 Aug; 29 (4): 208–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    McAbee GN, Ciminera PF. Intracranial hematoma in experienced teenage equestrians. Pediatr Neurol 1996 Oct; 15 (3): 235–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bond GR, Christoph RA, Rodgers BM. Pediatric equestrian injuries: assessing the impact of helmet use. Pediatrics 1995 Apr; 95 (4): 487–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bixby-Hammett DM. Pediatric equestrian injuries. Pediatrics 1992 Jun; 89 (6 Pt 2): 1173–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nelson DE, Bixby-Hammett D. Equestrian injuries in children and young adults. Am J Dis Child 1992 May; 146 (5): 611–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bixby-Hammett D, Brooks WH. Common injuries in horseback riding: a review. Sports Med 1990 Jan; 9 (1): 36–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Turner M, McCrory P, Halley W. Injuries in professional horse racing in Great Britain and the Republic of Ireland during 1992–2000. Br J Sports Med 2002 Dec; 36 (6): 403–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Andermahr J, Schiffer G, Burger C, et al. Spinal injuries in jockeys. 2 case reports and review of the literature [in German]. Unfallchirurg 2000 Aug; 103 (8): 688–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tsirikos A, Papagelopoulos PJ, Giannakopoulos PN, et al. Degenerative spondyloarthropathy of the cervical and lumbar spine in jockeys. Orthopedics 2001 Jun; 24 (6): 561–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Shute N. A super feeling: are there signs of hope in Christopher Reeve’s modest recovery? US News World Rep 2002 Sep 23; 133 (11): 58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Diamond PT, Gale SD. Head injuries in men’s and women’s lacrosse: a 10 year analysis of the NEISS database. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Brain Inj 2001 Jun; 15 (6): 537–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Webster DA, Bayliss GV, Spadaro JA. Head and face injuries in scholastic women’s lacrosse with and without eyewear. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999 Jul; 31 (7): 938–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mueller FO, Blyth CS. A survey of 1981 college lacrosse injuries. Phys Sports Med 1982; 10: 87–93Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rimel RW, Nelson WE, Persing JA, et al. Epidural hematoma in lacrosse. Phys Sports Med 1983; 11: 140–4Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    McCrory PR, Berkovic SF. Second impact syndrome. Neurology 1998 Mar; 50 (3): 677–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Clarke KS. Prevention: an epidemiologic view. In: Torg JS, editor. Athletic injuries to the head, neck and face. Philadelphia (PA): Lea and Febiger, 1982: 15–26Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Langburt W, Cohen B, Akhthar N, et al. Incidence of concussion in high school football players of Ohio and Pennsylvania. J Child Neurol 2001 Feb; 16 (2): 83–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Guskiewicz KM, Weaver NL, Padua DA, et al. Epidemiology of concussion in collegiate and high school football players. Am J Sports Med 2000 Sep-Oct; 28 (5): 643–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Meeuwisse WH, Hagel BE, Mohtadi NG, et al. The distribution of injuries in men’s Canada West university football: a 5-year analysis. Am J Sports Med 2000 Jul-Aug; 28 (4): 516–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Delaney JS, Lacroix VJ, Leclerc S, et al. Concussions among university football and soccer players. Clin J Sport Med 2002 Nov; 12 (6): 331–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Delaney JS, Lacroix VJ, Leclerc S, et al. Concussions during the 1997 Canadian Football League season. Clin J Sport Med 2000 Jan; 10 (1): 9–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Alves WM, Rimel RW, Nelson WE. University of Virginia prospective study of football-induced minor head injuries: status report. Clin Sports Med 1987; 6: 211–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pellman EJ, Powell JW, Viano DC, et al. Concussion in professional football: epidemiological features of game injuries and review of the literature: part 3. Neurosurgery 2004 Jan; 54 (1): 81–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pellman EJ, Viano DC, Tucker AM, et al. Concussion in professional football: location and direction of helmet impacts: part 2. Neurosurgery 2003 Dec; 53 (6): 1328–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Erlanger D, Kaushik T, Cantu R, et al. Symptom-based assessment of the severity of a concussion. J Neurosurg 2003 Mar; 98 (3): 477–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    McCrea M, Kelly JP, Randolph C, et al. Immediate neurocognitive effects of concussion. Neurosurgery 2002 May; 50 (5): 1032–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Collins MW, Field M, Lovell MR, et al. Relationship between postconcussion headache and neuropsychological test performance in high school athletes. Am J Sports Med 2003 Mar-Apr; 31 (2): 168–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    McCrea M, Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, et al. Acute effects and recovery time following concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA Concussion Study. JAMA 2003 Nov 19; 290 (19): 2556–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Guskiewicz KM, Ross SE, Marshall SW. Postural stability and neuropsychological deficits after concussion in collegiate athletes. J Athl Train 2001 Sep; 36 (3): 263–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lovell MR, Collins MW, Iverson GL, et al. Recovery from mild concussion in high school athletes. J Neurosurg 2003 Feb; 98 (2): 296–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Guskiewicz KM, McCrea M, Marshall SW, et al. Cumulative effects associated with recurrent concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA Concussion Study. JAMA 2003 Nov 19; 290 (19): 2549–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Macciocchi SN, Barth JT, Littlefield L, et al. Multiple concussions and neuropsychological functioning in collegiate football players. J Athl Train 2001 Sep; 36 (3): 303–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Collins MW, Lovell MR, Iverson GL, et al. Cumulative effects of concussion in high school athletes. Neurosurgery 2002 Nov; 51 (5): 1175–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Collins MW, Grindel SH, Lovell MR, et al. Relationship between concussion and neuropsychological performance in college football players. JAMA 1999 Sep 8; 282 (10): 964–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Field M, Collins MW, Lovell MR, et al. Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes. J Pediatr 2003 May; 142 (5): 546–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    McCrea M. Standardized mental status testing on the sideline after sport-related concussion. J Athl Train 2001 Sep; 36 (3): 274–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Chen JK, Johnston KM, Frey S, et al. Functional abnormalities in symptomatic concussed athletes: an fMRI study. Neuroimage 2004 May; 22 (1): 68–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Naunheim R, McGurren M, Standeven J, et al. Does the use of artificial turf contribute to head injuries? J Trauma 2002 Oct; 53 (4): 691–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wisniewski JF, Guskiewicz K, Trope M, et al. Incidence of cerebral concussions associated with type of mouthguard used in college football. Dent Traumatol 2004 Jun; 20 (3): 143–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hodgson VR. Reducing serious injury in sports. Intrascholastic Athletic Association, 1980; 7 (2)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pellman EJ, Viano DC, Tucker AM, et al. Concussion in professional football: reconstruction of game impacts and injuries. Neurosurgery 2003 Oct; 53 (4): 799–812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zhang L, Yang KH, King AI. A proposed injury threshold for mild traumatic brain injury. J Biomech Eng 2004 Apr; 126 (2): 226–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sallis RE, Jones K. Prevalence of headaches in football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000 Nov; 32 (11): 1820–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gerberich SG, Priest SD, Boen JR, et al. Concussion incidence and severity in secondary school varsity football players. Am J Public Health 1983; 73: 1370–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    McCrory P. Does second impact syndrome exist? Clin J Sport Med 2001 Jul; 11 (3): 144–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rabadi MH, Jordan BD. The cumulative effect of repetitive concussion in sports. Clin J Sport Med 2001 Jul; 11 (3): 194–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Cantu RC, Mueller FO. Catastrophic football injuries: 1977–1998. Neurosurgery 2000 Sep; 47 (3): 673–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Torg JS, Pavlov H, Genuario SE, et al. Neurapraxia of the cervical spinal cord with transient quadriplegia. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1986; 68: 1354–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Boockvar JA, Durham SR, Sun PP. Cervical spinal stenosis and sports-related cervical cord neurapraxia in children. Spine 2001 Dec 15; 26 (24): 2709–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Torg JS, Vegso JJ, Sennett B. The National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry: 14-year report on cervical quadriplegia (1971–1984). Clin Sports Med 1987 Jan; 6 (1): 61–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Burstein AA, Otis JC, Torg JS. Mechanisms and pathomechanics of athletic injuries to the cervical spine. In: Torg JS, editor. Athletic Injuries to the head, neck and face. Philadelphia (PA): Lea and Febiger, 1982: 139–42Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Torg JS, Pavlov H, O’Neill MJ, et al. The axial load teardrop fracture: a biomechanical, clinical and roentgenographic analysis. Am J Sports Med 1991 Jul-Aug; 19 (4): 355–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Macgregor DM. Golf related head injuries in children. Emerg Med J 2002 Nov; 19 (6): 576–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kelly EG. Major injuries occurring during use of a golf cart. Orthopedics 1996 Jun; 19 (6): 519–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tung MY, Hong A, Chan C. Golf buggy related head injuries. Singapore Med J 2000 Oct; 41 (10): 504–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Taniguchi A, Wako K, Naito Y, et al. Wallenberg syndrome and vertebral artery dissection probably due to trivial trauma during golf exercise [in Japanese]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1993 Mar; 33 (3): 338–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Jamieson DR, Ballantyne JP. Unique presentation of a prolapsed thoracic disk: Lhermitte’s symptom in a golf player. Neurology 1995 Jun; 45 (6): 1219–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ekin JA, Sinaki M. Vertebral compression fractures sustained during golfing. Mayo Clin Proc 1993; 68: 566–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sachdev P. Golfers’ cramp: clinical characteristics and evidence against it being an anxiety disorder. Mov Disord 1992 Oct; 7 (4): 326–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Noguchi T. A survey of spinal cord injuries resulting from sport. Paraplegia 1994 Mar; 32 (3): 170–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Bailes JE, Hadley MN, Quigley MR, et al. Management of athletic injuries of the cervical spine and spinal cord. Neurosurgery 1991 Oct; 29 (4): 491–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mueller FO, Cantu RC. Catastrophic injuries and fatalities in high school and college sports, fall 1982-spring 1988. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990 Dec; 22 (6): 737–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Konermann W, Sell S. The spine: a problem area in high performance artistic gymnastics: a retrospective analysis of 24 former artistic gymnasts of the German A team [in German]. Sportverletz Sportschaden 1992 Dec; 6 (4): 156–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Furnival RA, Street KA, Schunk JE. Too many pediatric trampoline injuries. Pediatrics 1999 May; 103 (5): E57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Smith GA. Injuries to children in the United States related to trampolines, 1990–1995: a national epidemic. Pediatrics 1998 Mar; 101 (3 Pt 1): 406–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Silver JR, Silver DD, Godfrey JJ. Trampolining injuries of the spine. Injury 1986 Mar; 17 (2): 117–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Smith GA, Shields BJ. Trampoline-related injuries to children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998 Jul; 152 (7): 694–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Torg JS, Das M. Trampoline and minitrampoline injuries to the cervical spine. Clin Sports Med 1985 Jan; 4 (1): 45–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Torg JS. Trampoline-induced quadriplegia. Clin Sports Med 1987 Jan; 6 (1): 73–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wechsler B, Kim H, Hunter J. Trampolines, children, and strokes. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2001 Aug; 80 (8): 608–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sinha A, McGlone RG, Montgomery K. Study of aeroball injuries. Br J Sports Med 1997 Sep; 31 (3): 200–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Foray J, Abrassart S, Femmy T, et al. Hang-gliding accidents in high mountains. Apropos of 200 cases [in French]. Chirurgie 1991; 117 (8): 613–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lautenschlager S, Karli U, Matter P. Paragliding accidents: a prospective analysis in Swiss mountain regions [in German]. Z Unfallchir Versicherungsmed 1993; Suppl. 1: 55–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sim FH, Chao EY. Injury potential in modern ice hockey. Am J Sports Med 1978; 6: 378–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Gerberich SG, Finke R, Madden M, et al. An epidemiologic study of high school ice hockey injuries. Child Nerv Syst 1987; 3: 59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Jorgensen V, Schmidt-Olsen S. The epidemiology of ice hockey injuries. Br J Sports Med 1986; 20: 7–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Molsa J, Airaksinen O, Nasman O, et al. Ice hockey injuries in Finland: a prospective epidemiologic study. Am J Sports Med 1997 Jul-Aug; 25 (4): 495–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Juhn MS, Brolinson PG, Duffey T, et al. American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine (AOASM) position statement. Violence and injury in ice hockey. Clin J Sport Med 2002; 12 (1): 46–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Schick DM, Meeuwisse WH. Injury rates and profiles in female ice hockey players. Am J Sports Med 2003 Jan-Feb; 31 (1): 47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Reid SR, Losek JD. Factors associated with significant injuries in youth ice hockey players. Pediatr Emerg Care 1999 Oct; 15 (5): 310–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Biasca N, Wirth S, Tegner Y. The avoidability of head and neck injuries in ice hockey: an historical review. Br J Sports Med 2002 Dec; 36 (6): 410–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Honey CR. Brain injury in ice hockey. Clin J Sport Med 1998 Jan; 8 (1): 43–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Wennberg RA, Tator CH. National Hockey League reported concussions, 1986–87 to 2001–02. Can J Neurol Sci 2003; 30: 206–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Goodman D, Gaetz M, Meichenbaum D. Concussions in hockey: there is cause for concern. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001 Dec; 33 (12): 2004–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tegner Y, Lorentzon R. Concussion among Swedish elite ice hockey players. Br J Sports Med 1996 Sep; 30 (3): 251–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Biasca N, Simmen HP, Bartolozzi AR, et al. Review of typical ice hockey injuries. Survey of the North American NHL and Hockey Canada versus European leagues. Unfallchirurg 1995 May; 98 (5): 283–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Sahjpaul RL, Abdulhak MM, Drake CG, et al. Fatal traumatic vertebral artery aneurysm rupture: case report. J Neurosurg 1998 Nov; 89 (5): 822–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Benson BW, Mohtadi NG, Rose MS, et al. Head and neck injuries among ice hockey players wearing full face shields vs half face shields. JAMA 1999 Dec 22–29; 282 (24): 2328–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Tator CH, Carson JD, Cushman R. Hockey injuries of the spine in Canada, 1966–1996. CMAJ 2000 Mar 21; 162 (6): 787–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Tator CH, Carson JD, Edmonds VE. New spinal injuries in hockey. Clin J Sport Med 1997 Jan; 7 (1): 17–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Molsa JJ, Tegner Y, Alaranta H, et al. Spinal cord injuries in ice hockey in Finland and Sweden from 1980 to 1996. Int J Sports Med 1999 Jan; 20 (1): 64–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Tator CH, Edmonds VE. National survey of spinal injuries in hockey players. CMAJ 1984 Apr 1; 130 (7): 875–80Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Tator CH, Edmonds VE, Lapczak L, et al. Spinal injuries in ice hockey players, 1966–1987. Can J Surg 1991 Feb; 34 (1): 63–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Varlotta GP, Lager SL, Nicholas S, et al. Professional roller hockey injuries. Clin J Sport Med 2000 Jan; 10 (1): 29–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hutchinson MR, Milhouse C, Gapski M. Comparison of injury patterns in elite hockey players using ice versus in-line skates. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998 Sep; 30 (9): 1371–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Naunheim RS, Standeven J, Richter C, et al. Comparison of impact data in hockey, football, and soccer. J Trauma 2000 May; 48 (5): 938–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Schieber RA, Branche-Dorsey CM, Ryan GW. Comparison of in-line skating injuries with rollerskating and skateboarding injuries. JAMA 1994 Jun 15; 271 (23): 1856–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Nguyen D, Letts M. In-line skating injuries in children: a 10-year review. J Pediatr Orthop 2001 Sep-Oct; 21 (5): 613–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Osberg JS, Schneps SE, Di Scala C, et al. Skateboarding: more dangerous than roller skating or in-line skating. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998 Oct; 152 (10): 985–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. NEISS data highlights. Washington, DC: United States Consumer Product Safety Commission, 1985; 12: 1–4Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Gartland S, Malik MH, Lovell ME. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing. Br J Sports Med 2001 Oct; 35 (5): 308–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Pieter W, Zemper ED. Incidence of reported cerebral concussion in adult taekwondo athletes. J R Soc Health 1998 Oct; 118 (5): 272–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Pieter W, Zemper ED. Head and neck injuries in young taekwondo athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1999 Jun; 39 (2): 147–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Pentore R, Nichelli P. De-afferented state syndrome (locked-in syndrome) following sudden cervical sprain trauma during a karate training session [in Italian]. Riv Neurol 1991 Mar-Apr; 61 (2): 66–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lannuzel A, Moulin T, Amsallem D, et al. Vertebral-artery dissection following a judo session: a case report. Neuropediatrics 1994 Apr; 25 (2): 106–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    McCarron MO, Patterson J, Duncan R. Stroke without dissection from a neck holding manoeuvre in martial arts. Br J Sports Med 1997 Dec; 31 (4): 346–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Meairs S, Timpe L, Beyer J, et al. Acute aphasia and hemiplegia during karate training. Lancet 2000 Jul 1; 356 (9223): 40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Pary LF, Rodnitzky RL. Traumatic internal carotid artery dissection associated with taekwondo. Neurology 2003; 60: 1392–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Echaniz-Laguna A, Fleury MC, Petrow P, et al. Internal carotid artery dissection caused by a kick during French boxing [in French]. Presse Med 2001; 30: 683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Malek AM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, et al. Endovascular treatment of a ruptured intracranial dissecting vertebral aneurysm in a kickboxer. J Trauma 2000; 48: 143–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Godt P, Vogelsang H. Uncommon judo injuries: cervical disc herniation and acute high cervical cord damage associated with congenital stenosis of the cervical spinal canal (author’s transl) [in German]. Unfallheilkunde 1979 May; 82 (5): 215–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    DeVera-Reyes JA. Three cases of chronic subdural hematoma caused by the practice of judo. Acta Luso Esp Neurol Psiquiatr 1970; 29: 53–6Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Koiwai EK. Fatalities associated with judo. Phys Sportsmed 1981; 9: 61–6Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Stiller JW, Weinberger BR. Boxing and chronic brain damage. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1985; 8: 339–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Varley GW, Spencer-Jones R, Thomas P, et al. Injury patterns in motorcycle road racers: experience on the Isle of Man 1989–1991. Injury 1993 Aug; 24 (7): 443–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Chapman MA, Oni J. Motor racing accidents at Brands Hatch, 1988/9. Br J Sports Med 1991 Sep; 25 (3): 121–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Horner CH, O’Brien AA. Motorcycle racing injuries on track and road circuits in Ireland. Br J Sports Med 1986 Dec; 20 (4): 157–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Schusman LC, Lutz LJ. Mountaineering and rock climbing accidents. Phys Sports Med 1982; 10: 52–61Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Foulke G. Altitude related illness. Am J Emerg Med 1985; 3: 217–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Hackett PH. High altitude cerebral edema and acute mountain sickness: a pathophysiology update. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999; 474: 23–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hackett PH, Yarnell PR, Hill R, et al. High-altitude cerebral edema evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging: clinical correlation and pathophysiology. JAMA 1998 Dec 9; 280 (22): 1920–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Butterwick DJ, Hagel B, Nelson DS, et al. Epidemiologic analysis of injury in five years of Canadian professional rodeo. Am J Sports Med 2002 Mar-Apr; 30 (2): 193–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Nebergall R. Rodeo. In: Calne PJ, Caine CG, Lindner KJ, editors. Epidemiology of sports injuries. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1996: 350–6Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Butterwick DJ, Nelson DS, LaFave MR, et al. Epidemiological analysis of injury in one year of Canadian professional rodeo. Clin J Sport Med 1996 Jul; 6 (3): 171–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Butterwick DJ, Meeuwisse WH. Effect of experience on rodeo injury. Clin J Sport Med 2002 Jan; 12 (1): 30–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Orchard J, Wood T, Seward H, et al. Comparison of injuries in elite senior and junior Australian football. J Sci Med Sport 1998 Jun; 1 (2): 83–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Orchard J. AFL 1996 injury report. Melbourne: Australian Football League Medical Officers Association, 1995: 7–8Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Seward H, Orchard J, Hazard H, et al. Football injuries in Australia at the elite level. Med J Aust 1993; 159: 298–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Marshall SW, Spencer RJ. Concussion in rugby: the hidden epidemic. J Athl Train 2001 Sep; 36 (3): 334–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    McCrory PR, Ariens T, Berkovic SF. The nature and duration of acute concussive symptoms in Australian football. Clin J Sport Med 2000 Oct; 10 (4): 235–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    McIntosh AS, McCrory P, Comerford J. The dynamics of concussive head impacts in rugby and Australian rules football. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000 Dec; 32 (12): 1980–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Pettersen JA. Does rugby headgear prevent concussion? Attitudes of Canadian players and coaches. Br J Sports Med 2002 Feb; 36 (1): 19–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    McIntosh AS, McCrory P. Effectiveness of headgear in a pilot study of under 15 rugby union football. Br J Sports Med 2001 Jun; 35 (3): 167–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    McIntosh A, McCrory P, Finch CF. Performance enhanced headgear: a scientific approach to the development of protective headgear. Br J Sports Med 2004 Feb; 38 (1): 46–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Pettersen JA, Skelton RW. Glucose enhances long-term declarative memory in mildly head-injured varsity rugby players. Psychobiology 2000; 28: 81–9Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Quarrie KL, Cantu RC, Chalmers DJ. Rugby union injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord. Sports Med 2002; 32 (10): 633–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Scher AT. Rugby injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord: a 10-year review. Clin Sports Med 1998 Jan; 17 (1): 195–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Newton HB. Neurologic complications of scuba diving. Am Fam Physician 2001 Jun 1; 63 (11): 2211–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kohshi K, Katoh T, Abe H, et al. Neurological accidents caused by repetitive breath-hold dives: two case reports. J Neurol Sci 2000 Sep 1; 178 (1): 66–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Murrison AW, Glasspool E, Pethybridge RJ, et al. Electroencephalographic study of divers with histories of neurological decompression illness. Occup Environ Med 1995 Jul; 52 (7): 451–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Sipinen SA, Ahovuo J, Halonen JP. Electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging after diving and decompression incidents: a controlled study. Undersea Hyperb Med 1999 Summer; 26 (2): 61–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Reuter M, Tetzlaff K, Hutzelmann A, et al. MR imaging of the central nervous system in diving-related decompression illness. Acta Radiol 1997 Nov; 38 (6): 940–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Lorenz J, Brooke ST, Petersen R, et al. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials during a helium-oxygen saturation dive to 450 meters of seawater. Undersea Hyperb Med 1995 Sep; 22 (3): 229–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Wilmshurst P, Bryson P. Relationship between the clinical features of neurological decompression illness and its causes. Clin Sci (Lond) 2000 Jul; 99 (1): 65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Walsh KP, Wilmshurst PT, Morrison WL. Transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale using the Amplatzer septal occluder to prevent recurrence of neurological decompression illness in divers. Heart 1999 Mar; 81 (3): 257–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Murrison A, Glasspool E, Francis J, et al. Somatosensory evoked potentials in acute neurological decompression illness. J Neurol 1995 Oct; 242 (10): 669–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Appenzeller O. Sportsman’s headache. Migraine Matters 1985; 3: 33–5Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Pestronk A, Pestronk S. Goggle migraine. N Engl J Med 1983; 308: 226–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Genelin A, Kathrein A, Daniaux A, et al. Current status of spinal injuries in winter sports [in German]. Schweiz Z Med Traumatol 1994; (1): 17–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Myles ST, Mohtadi NG, Schnittker J. Injuries to the nervous system and spine in downhill skiing. Can J Surg 1992 Dec; 35 (6): 643–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Yamakawa H, Murase S, Sakai H, et al. Spinal injuries in snowboarders: risk of jumping as an integral part of snowboarding. J Trauma 2001 Jun; 50 (6): 1101–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Tarazi F, Dvorak MF, Wing PC. Spinal injuries in skiers and snowboarders. Am J Sports Med 1999 Mar-Apr; 27 (2): 177–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Prall JA, Winston KR, Brennan R. Spine and spinal cord injuries in downhill skiers. J Trauma 1995 Dec; 39 (6): 1115–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Kondoh T, Kurihara E, Kohmura E. Cervical epidural hematoma after snowboarding injury: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2002 Dec; 42 (12): 550–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Seino H, Kawaguchi S, Sekine M, et al. Traumatic paraplegia in snowboarders. Spine 2001 Jun 1; 26 (11): 1294–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Nakaguchi H, Fujimaki T, Ueki K, et al. Snowboard head injury: prospective study in Chino, Nagano, for two seasons from 1995 to 1997. J Trauma 1999 Jun; 46 (6): 1066–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Macnab AJ, Cadman R. Demographics of alpine skiing and snowboarding injury: lessons for prevention programs. Inj Prev 1996 Dec; 2 (4): 286–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Levy AS, Hawkes AP, Hemminger LM, et al. An analysis of head injuries among skiers and snowboarders. J Trauma 2002 Oct; 53 (4): 695–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Hentschel S, Hader W, Boyd M. Head injuries in skiers and snowboarders in British Columbia. Can J Neurol Sci 2001 Feb; 28 (1): 42–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    O’Neill DF, McGlone MR. Injury risk in first-time snowboarders versus first-time skiers. Am J Sports Med 1999 Jan-Feb; 27 (1): 94–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Nakaguchi H, Tsutsumi K. Mechanisms of snowboarding-related severe head injury: shear strain induced by the opposite-edge phenomenon. J Neurosurg 2002 Sep; 97 (3): 542–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Fukuda O, Takaba M, Saito T, et al. Head injuries in snowboarders compared with head injuries in skiers: a prospective analysis of 1076 patients from 1994 to 1999 in Niigata, Japan. Am J Sports Med 2001 Jul-Aug; 29 (4): 437–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Johnson SM, Johnson AC, Barton RG. Avalanche trauma and closed head injury: adding insult to injury. Wilderness Environ Med 2001 Winter; 12 (4): 244–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Bridges EJ, Rouah F, Johnston KM. Snowblading injuries in Eastern Canada. Br J Sports Med 2003 Dec; 37 (6): 511–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Wright Jr JR, McIntyre L, Rand JJ, Hixson EG. Nordic ski jumping injuries: a survey of active American jumpers. Am J Sports Med 1991 Nov-Dec; 19 (6): 615–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Wright Jr JR, Hixson EG, Rand JJ. Injury patterns in nordic ski jumpers: a retrospective analysis of injuries occurring at the Intervale Ski Jump Complex from 1980 to 1985. Am J Sports Med 1986 Sep-Oct; 14 (5): 393–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Wester K. Serious ski jumping injuries in Norway. Am J Sports Med 1985 Mar-Apr; 13 (2): 124–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Dubravcic-Simunjak S, Pecina M, Kuipers H, et al. The incidence of injuries in elite junior figure skaters. Am J Sports Med 2003; 31: 511–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Cummings Jr RS, Shurland AT, Prodoehl JA, et al. Injuries in the sport of luge: epidemiology and analysis. Am J Sports Med 1997 Jul-Aug; 25 (4): 508–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Federiuk CS, Schlueter JL, Adams AL. Skiing, snowboarding, and sledding injuries in a northwestern state. Wilderness Environ Med 2002 Winter; 13 (4): 245–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Shorter NA, Mooney DP, Harmon BJ. Childhood sledding injuries. Am J Emerg Med 1999 Jan; 17 (1): 32–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Beilman GJ, Brasel KJ, Dittrich K, et al. Risk factors and patterns of injury in snowmobile crashes. Wilderness Environ Med 1999 Winter; 10 (4): 226–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Farley DR, Orchard TF, Bannon MP, et al. The care and cost of snowmobile-related injuries. Minn Med 1996 Dec; 79 (12): 21–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Russell A, Boop FA, Cherny WB, et al. Neurologic injuries associated with all-terrain vehicles and recommendations for protective measures for the pediatric population. Pediatr Emerg Care 1998 Feb; 14 (1): 31–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Lister DG, Carl III J, Morgan III JH, Denning DA, et al. Pediatric all-terrain vehicle trauma: a 5-year statewide experience. J Pediatr Surg 1998 Jul; 33 (7): 1081–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Janda DH, Bir CA, Cheney AL. An evaluation of the cumulative concussive effect of soccer heading in the youth population. Inj Control Saf Promot 2002 Mar; 9 (1): 25–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Tysvaer AT. Head and neck injuries in soccer: impact of minor trauma. Sports Med 1992 Sep; 14 (3): 200–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Kawanishi A, Nakayama M, Kadota K. Heading injury precipitating subdural hematoma associated with arachnoid cysts: two case reports. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 1999 Mar; 39 (3): 231–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Prabhu VC, Bailes JE. Chronic subdural hematoma complicating arachnoid cyst secondary to soccer-related head injury: case report. Neurosurgery 2002 Jan; 50 (1): 195–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Bruzzone E, Cocito L, Pisani R. Intracranial delayed epidural hematoma in a soccer player: a case report. Am J Sports Med 2000 Nov-Dec; 28 (6): 901–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Matser JT, Kessels AG, Lezak MD, et al. A dose-response relation of headers and concussions with cognitive impairment in professional soccer players. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2001 Dec; 23 (6): 770–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Matser EJ, Kessels AG, Lezak MD, et al. Neuropsychological impairment in amateur soccer players. JAMA 1999 Sep 8; 282 (10): 971–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Kirkendall DT, Jordan SE, Garrett WE. Heading and head injuries in soccer. Sports Med 2001; 31 (5): 369–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Boden BP, Lin W, Young M, Mueller FO. Catastrophic injuries in wrestlers. Am J Sports Med 2002 Nov-Dec; 30 (6): 791–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Acikgoz B, Ozgen T, Erbengi A, et al. Wrestling causing paraplegia. Paraplegia 1990 May; 28 (4): 265–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Snook GA. A survey of wrestling injuries. Am J Sports Med 1980; 8: 450–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Rogers L, Sweeney PJ. Stroke: a neurological complication of wrestling: a case of brainstem stroke in a 17-year-old athlete. Am J Sports Med 1979; 7: 352–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical NeurosciencesUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of Alberta and Capital HealthEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations