Sports Medicine

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 23–41 | Cite as

The Use of Vibration Training to Enhance Muscle Strength and Power

Review Article

Abstract

Vibration has been combined with conventional resistance training in an attempt to attain greater gains in neuromuscular performance than from conventional resistance training alone. Although there is a lack of strictly controlled studies on the vibration training effect, current findings in this area suggest that vibration may have a beneficiary acute and/or chronic training effect on strength and power enhancement. However, the effect of vibration on strength and power development appears dependent upon the vibration characteristics (method of application, amplitude and frequency) and exercise protocols (training type, intensity and volume) employed. Vibration amplitude and frequency determine the load that vibration imposes on the neuromuscular system. This vibration load should be in an optimal range to elicit strength and power enhancement. To activate the muscle most effectively, vibration frequency should be in the range of 30–50Hz. It is less clear to what the optimal amplitude should be, but smaller amplitudes may be insufficient to elicit an enhancement. It should also be noted that the method of vibration application (i.e. vibration applied directly or indirectly to a targeted muscle) may have an influence on the magnitude of amplitude and frequency that are delivered to the muscle and, therefore, may have an influence on vibration training effect.

The employment of a greater exercise intensity and volume within a vibration training programme may facilitate a larger enhancement in strength and power. In addition, benefits from vibration training may be greater in elite athletes than non-elite athletes.

Further studies are required to examine these inter-dependencies, especially in relation to chronic adaptation to dynamic exercises, which are the most relevant response to practitioners, but where the least amount of research has been undertaken.

Notes

Acknowledgements

No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Fleck SJ, Kraemer WJ. Designing resistance training programmes. 2nd ed. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1997Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nazarov V, Spivak G. Development of athlete’s strength abilities by means of biomechanical stimulation method [in Russian]. Theory Pract Physical Cult (Moscow) 1987; 12: 37–9Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Delecluse C, Roelants M, Verschueren S. Strength increase after whole-body vibration compared with resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003 Jun; 35 (6): 1033–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rittweger J, Mutschelknauss M, Felsenberg D. Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive whole body vibration exercise as compared to exhaustion by squatting exercise. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2003 Mar; 23: 81–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cardinale M, Bosco C. The use of vibration as an exercise intervention. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2003 Jan; 31 (1): 3–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    de Ruiter CJ, Van Raak SM, Schilperoort JV, et al. The effects of 11 weeks whole body vibration training on jump height, contractile properties and activation of human knee extensors. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003, Epub 2003 Aug 16Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Torvinen S, Sievanen H, Jarvinen TA, et al. Effect of 4-min vertical whole body vibration on muscle performance and body balance. Int J Sports Med 2002 Jul; 23: 374–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bongiovanni LG, Hagbarth KE, Stjernberg L. Prolonged muscle vibration reducing motor output in maximal voluntary contractions in man. J Physiol 1990 Apr; 423: 15–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jackson SW, Turner DL. Prolonged vibration reduces maximal voluntary knee extension performance in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral limb in man. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003 Jan; 88: 380–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harris CM. Introduction to the handbook. In: Harris CM, editor. Shock and vibration handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996: 1.1–1.27Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dimarogonas A. Vibration for engineers. 2nd ed. London: Prentice Hall International, 1996Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mester J, Spitzenpfeil P, Yue ZY. Vibration loads: potential for strength and power development. In: Komi PV, editor. Strength and power in sport. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002: 488–501Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Curry EL, Clelland JA. Effects of the asymmetric tonic neck reflex and high-frequency muscle vibration on isometric wrist extension strength in normal adults. Phys Ther 1981 Apr; 61 (4): 487–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Humphries B, Warman G, Purton J, et al. The influence of vibration on muscle activation and rate of force development during maximal isometric contractions. J Sports Sci Med 2004; 3: 16–22Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Issurin VB, Liebermann DG, Tenenbaum G. Effect of vibratory stimulation training on maximal force and flexibility. J Sports Sci 1994 Dec; 12: 561–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Torvinen S, Kannu P, Sievanen H, et al. Effect of a vibration exposure on muscular performance and body balance: randomized cross-over study. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2002 Mar; 22: 145–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Issurin VB, Tenenbaum G. Acute and residual effect of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and amateur athletes. J Sports Sci 1999 Mar; 17: 177–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    von Gierke HE, Goldman DE. Effects of shock and vibration on man. In: Harris CM, editor. Shock and vibration handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988: 44–1-44–58Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kihlberg S, Attebrant M, Gemne G, et al. Acute effects of vibration from a chipping hammer and a grinder on the hand-arm system. Occup Environ Med 1995 Nov; 52 (11): 731–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Samuelson B, Jorfeldt L, Ahlborg B. Influence of vibration on endurance of maximal isometric contraction. Clin Physiol 1989 Feb; 9: 21–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liebermann DG, Issurin VB. Effort perception during isotonic muscle contractions with superimposed mechanical vibration stimulation. J Human Movement Studies 1997; 32: 171–86Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    De Luca CJ. The use of surface electromyography in biomechanics. J Appl Biomech 1992; 13 (2): 135–63Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kupa EJ, Roy SH, Kandarian SC, et al. Effects of muscle fibre type and size on EMG median frequency and conductive velocity. J Appl Physiol 1995 Jul; 79: 23–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Linnamo V, Newton RU, Hakkinen K, et al. Neuromuscular responses to explosive and heavy resistance loading. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2000 Dec; 10 (6): 417–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eklund G, Hagbarth KE. Normal variability of tonic vibration reflexes in man. Exp Neurol 1966 Sep; 16 (1): 80–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Arcangel CS, Johnston R, Bishop B. The achilles tendon reflex and the H-reponse during and after tendon vibration. Phys Ther 1971 Aug; 51 (8): 889–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Olivier DJ, Lynn K, Hong CZ. Increased skin temperature after vibratory stimulation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1989 Apr; 68 (2): 81–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McCall GE, Grindeland RE, Roy RR, et al. Muscle afferent activity modulates bioassayble growth hormone in human plasma. J Appl Physiol 2000 Sep; 89: 1137–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Falempin M, In-Albon SF. Influence of brief daily tendon vibration on rats soleus muscle in non-weight-bearing situation. J Appl Physiol 1999 Jul; 87 (1): 3–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Necking LE, Lundstrom R, Lundborg G, et al. Skeletal muscle changes after short term vibration. Scand J Plast Reconstr Hand Surg 1996 Jun; 30: 99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Sport Science and HealthDublin City UniversityDublinIreland
  2. 2.School of Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringDublin City UniversityDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations