Sports Medicine

, Volume 34, Issue 12, pp 809–824 | Cite as

Effects of Aging on Muscle Fibre Type and Size

  • Michael R. DeschenesEmail author
Review Article


Aging has been associated with a loss of muscle mass that is referred to as ‘sarcopenia’. This decrease in muscle tissue begins around the age of 50 years, but becomes more dramatic beyond the 60th year of life. Loss of muscle mass among the aged directly results in diminished muscle function. Decreased strength and power contribute to the high incidence of accidental falls observed among the elderly and can compromise quality of life. Moreover, sarcopenia has been linked to several chronic afflictions that are common among the aged, including osteoporosis, insulin resistance and arthritis. Loss of muscle fibre number is the principal cause of sarcopenia, although fibre atrophy — particularly among type II fibres — is also involved. Several physiological mechanisms have been implicated in the development of sarcopenia. Denervation results in the loss of motor units and thus, muscle fibres. A decrease in the production of anabolic hormones such as testosterone, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 impairs the capacity of skeletal muscle to incorporate amino acids and synthesise proteins. An increase in the release of catabolic agents, specifically interleukin-6, amplifies the rate of muscle wasting among the elderly. Given the demographic trends evident in most western societies, i.e. increased number of those considered aged, management interventions for sarcopenia must become a major goal of the healthcare profession.


Testosterone Muscle Mass Motor Unit Satellite Cell Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author is supported by the National Institute on Aging (AG 1744C) and the Borgenicht Program for Aging Studies and Exercise Science. No potential conflict of interest exists.


  1. 1.
    US Bureau of the Census. Current population reports: population projections of the United States by age, sex, race, and hispanic origins 1995–2050. Washington, DC: US Bureau of the Census, 1996: 25–1130Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States. Hyattesville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics, 2001Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schneider EL, Guralnik JM. The aging of America: impact on health care costs. JAMA 1990; 263: 2335–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Central Statistics Office, Department of Health and Social Security. Social trends. London: Department of Health and Social Security, 1987: 17Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coin A, Sergi G, Beninca P, et al. Bone mineral density and body composition in underweight and normal elderly subjects. Osteoporos Int 2000; 11: 1043–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferruci L, Russo CR, Lauretani F, et al. A role for sarcopenia in late-life osteoporosis. Aging Clin Exp Res 2002; 14: 1–4Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marcus R. Relationship of age-related decreases in muscle mass and strength to skeletal status. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1995; 50: 86–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boden G, Chen X, De Santis RA, et al. Effects of age and body fat on insulin resistance in healthy men. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 728–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cefalu WT, Wang ZQ, Werbel S, et al. Contribution of visceral fat mass to the insulin resistance of aging. Metabolism 1995; 44: 954–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colman E, Katzel LI, Rogus E, et al. Weight loss reduces abdominal fat and improves insulin action in middle-aged and older men with impaired glucose tolerance. Metabolism 1995; 44: 1502–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baumgartner RN. Body composition in healthy aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000; 904: 437–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roubenoff R. Sarcopenia obesity: does muscle loss cause fat gain? Lessons from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000; 904: 553–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chumlea WC, Guo SS, Kuczmarski RJ, et al. Body composition estimates from NHANES III bioelectrical impedance data. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26: 1596–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Evans WJ, Campbell WW. Sarcopenia and age-related changes in body composition and functional capacity. J Nutr 1993; 123 (2 Suppl.): 465–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Toda Y, Segal N, Toda T, et al. A decline in lower extremity lean body mass per body weight is characteristic of women with early phase osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 2449–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Walsmith J, Roubenoff R. Cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Cardiol 2002, 99Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    US Bureau of the Census. Special tabulations on aging-extensive data on mobility and self-care. Washington, DC: US Bureau of the Census, 1994Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lipsitz LA, Nakajima I, Gagnon M, et al. Muscle strength and fall rates among residents of Japanese and American nursing homes: an international cross-cultural study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994; 42: 953–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Ross R. Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 889–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miller CW. Survival and ambulation following hip fracture. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1978; 60: 930–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dawson D, Hendershot G, Fulton J. Aging in the eighties: functional limitations of individuals age 65 and over. National Center for Health Statistics. Hyattsville (MD): Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, 1987Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Metter EJ, Talbot LA, Schrager M, et al. Skeletal muscle strength as a predictor of all-cause mortality in healthy men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002; 57: B359–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Metter EJ, Conwit R, Tobin J, et al. Age-associated loss of power and strength in the upper extremities in women and men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1997; 52: B267–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Izquierdo M, Ibanez J, Gorostiaga E, et al. Maximal strength and power characteristics in isometric and dynamic actions of the upper and lower extremities in middle-aged and older men. Acta Physiol Scand 1999; 167: 57–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Skelton DA, Greig CA, Davies JM, et al. Strength, power and related functional ability of healthy people aged 65–89 years. Age Ageing 1994; 23: 371–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marsh GD, Paterson DH, Govindasamy D, et al. Anaerobic power of the arms and legs of young and older men. Exp Physiol 1999; 84: 589–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Makrides L, Heigenhauser GJ, McCartney N, et al. Maximal short term exercise capacity in healthy subjects aged 15–70 years. Clin Sci (Lond) 1985; 69: 197–205Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Skelton DA, Kennedy J, Rutherford OM. Explosive power and asymmetry in leg muscle function in frequent fallers and non-fallers aged over 65. Age Ageing 2002; 31: 119–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ferretti G, Narici MV, Binzoni T, et al. Determinants of peak muscle power: effects of age and physical conditioning. Eur J Appl Physiol 1994; 68: 111–5Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vaillancourt DE, Larsson L, Newell KM. Effects of aging on force variability, single motor unit discharge patterns, and the structure of 10, 20, and 40 Hz EMG activity. Neurobiol Aging 2003; 24: 25–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Einsiedel LJ, Luff AR. Alterations in the contractile properties of motor units within the ageing rat medial gastrocnemius. J Neurol Sci 1992; 112: 170–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Krivickas LS, Suh D, Wilkins J, et al. Age- and gender-related differences in maximum shortening velocity of skeletal muscle fibers. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 80: 447–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Delbono O, O’Rourke KS, Ettinger WH. Excitation-calcium release uncoupling in aged single human skeletal muscle fibers. J Membr Biol 1995; 148: 211–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cunningham DA, Morrison D, Rice CL, et al. Ageing and isokinetic plantar flexion. Eur J Appl Physiol 1987; 56: 24–9Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grimby G, Saltin B. The ageing muscle. Clin Physiol 1983; 3: 209–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harries UJ, Bassey EJ. Torque-velocity relationships for knee extensors in women in their 3rd and 7th decades. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 60: 187–90Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Larsson L, Grimby G, Karlsson J. Morphological and functional characteristics of the ageing skeletal muscle in man. Acta Physiol Scand 1978; 457 Suppl.: 1–36Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lennmarken C, Bergman T, Larsson J, et al. Skeletal muscle function in man: force, relaxation rate, endurance and contraction time-dependence on sex and age. Clin Physiol 1985; 5: 243–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stalberg R, Borges O, Ericsson M, et al. The quadriceps femoris muscle in 20–70-year-old subjects: relationship between knee extension torque, electrophysiological parameters, and muscle fiber characteristics. Muscle Nerve 1989; 12: 382–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Young A, Stokes M, Crowe M. The size and strength of the quadriceps muscles of old and young men. Clin Physiol 1985; 5: 145–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Young A, Stokes M, Crowe M. Size and strength of the quadriceps muscles of old and young women. Eur J Clin Invest 1984; 14: 282–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lynch NA, Metter EJ, Lindle RS, et al. Muscle quality I: age-associated differences between arm and leg muscle groups. J Appl Physiol 1999; 86: 188–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lindle RS, Metter EJ, Lynch NA, et al. Age and gender comparisons of muscle strength in 654 women and men aged 20–93 yr. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83: 1581–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Porter MM, Myint A, Kramer JF, et al. Concentric and eccentric knee extension strength in older and younger men and women. Can J Appl Physiol 1995; 20: 429–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Poulin MJ, Vandervoort AA, Paterson DH, et al. Eccentric and concentric torques of knee and elbow extension in young and older men. Can J Sport Sci 1992; 17: 3–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Larsson L, Grimby G, Karlsson J. Muscle strength and speed of movement in relation to age and muscle morphology. J Appl Physiol 1979; 46: 451–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hakkinen K, Pastinen UM, Karsikis R, et al. Neuromuscular performance in voluntary bilateral and unilateral contraction and during electrical stimulation in men at different ages. Eur J Appl Physiol 1995; 70: 518–27Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rantanen T, Masaki K, Foley D, et al. Grip strength changes over 27 yr in Japanese-American men. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85: 2047–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hakkinen K, Kraemer WJ, Kallinen M, et al. Bilateral and unilateral neuromuscular function and muscle cross-sectional area in middle-aged and elderly men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1996; 51: B21–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Fielding RA, et al. Aging of skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88: 1321–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Aniansson A, Hedberg M, Henning GB, et al. Muscle morphology, enzymatic activity, and muscle strength in elderly men: a follow-up study. Muscle Nerve 1986; 9: 585–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Aniansson A, Grimby G, Hedberg M. Compensatory muscle fiber hypertrophy in elderly men. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73: 812–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bassey EJ, Harries UJ. Normal values for handgrip strength in 920 men and women aged over 65 years, and longitudinal changes over 4 years in 620 survivors. Clin Sci (Lond) 1993; 84: 331–7Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Lutz KJ, et al. A cross-sectional study of muscle strength and mass in 45- to 78-yr-old men and women. J Appl Physiol 1991; 71: 644–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kallman DA, Plato CC, Tobin JD. The role of muscle loss in the age-related decline of grip strength: cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1990; 45: M82–8Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Maughan RJ, Watson JS, Weir J. Strength and cross-sectional area of human skeletal muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 1983; 338: 37–49Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Reed RL, Pearlmutter L, Yochum K, et al. The relationship between muscle mass and muscle strength in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991; 39: 555–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brown AB, McCartney N, Sale DG. Positive adaptations to weight-lifting training in the elderly. J Appl Physiol 1990; 69: 1725–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kent-Braun JA, Ng AV. Specific strength and voluntary muscle activation in young and elderly women and men. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87: 22–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hakkinen K, Newton RU, Gordon S, et al. Changes in muscle morphology, electromyographic activity and force production characteristics during progressive strength training in young and older men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998; 53: B415–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hakkinen K, Alen M, Kallinen M, et al. Neuromuscular adaptation during prolonged strength training, detraining and re-strength-training in middle-aged and elderly people. Eur J Appl Physiol 2000; 83: 51–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Metter EJ, Lynch N, Conwit R, et al. Muscle quality and age: cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999; 54: B207–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Overend TJ, Cunningham DA, Kramer JF, et al. Knee extensor and knee flexor strength: cross-sectional area ratios in young and elderly men. J Gerontol 1992; 47: M204–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Davies CTM, Thomas DO, White MJ. Mechanical properties of young and elderly human muscle. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1986; 711: 219–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Frontera WR, Suh D, Krivickas LS, et al. Skeletal muscle fiber quality in older men and women. Am J Physiol 2000; 279: C611–8Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Larsson L, Li X, Frontera WR. Effects of aging on shortening velocity and myosin isoform composition in single human skeletal muscle cells. Am J Physiol 1997; 272: C638–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brooks SV, Faulkner JA. Skeletal muscle weakness in old age: underlying mechanisms. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26: 432–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Newton RU, Hakkinen K, Hakkinen A, et al. Mixed-methods resistance training increases power and strength of young and older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34: 1367–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fiatarone MA, Marks EC, Ryan ND, et al. High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians: effects on skeletal muscle. JAMA 1990; 263: 3029–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Frontera WR, Meredith CN, O’Reilly KP, et al. Strength conditioning in older men: skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improved function. J Appl Physiol 1988; 64: 1038–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hagerman FC, Walsh SJ, Staron RS, et al. Effects of highintensity resistance training on untrained older men I: strength, cardiovascular, and metabolic responses. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000; 55: B336–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Klitgaard H, Mantoni M, Schiaffino S, et al. Function, morphology, and protein expression of ageing skeletal muscle: a cross-sectional study of elderly men with different training backgrounds. Acta Physiol Scand 1990; 140: 41–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wiswell RA, Hawkins SA, Jaque SV, et al. Relationship between physiological loss, performance decrement, and age in master athletes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56: M618–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Proctor DN, Balagopal P, Nair KS. Age-related sarcopenia in humans is associated with reduced synthetic rates of specific muscle proteins. J Nutr 1998; 128 (2 Suppl.): 351S–5SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Izquierdo M, Hakkinen K, Anton A, et al. Maximal strength and power, endurance performance, and serum hormones in middle-aged and elderly men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 1577–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sunnerhagen KS, Hedberg M, Henning GB, et al. Muscle performance in an urban population sample of 40- to 79-year-old men and women. Scand J Rehabil Med 2000; 32: 159–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Backman E, Johansson V, Hager B, et al. Isometric muscle strength and muscular endurance in normal persons aged between 17 and 70 years. Scand J Rehabil Med 1995; 27: 109–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bemben MG, Massey BH, Bemben DA, et al. Isometric intermittent endurance of four muscle groups in men aged 20–74 yr. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 145–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lindstrom B, Lexell J, Gerdle B, et al. Skeletal muscle fatigue and endurance in young and old men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1997; 52: B59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bilodeau M, Henderson TK, Nolta BE, et al. Effect of aging on fatigue characteristics of elbow flexor muscles during sustained submaximal contraction. J Appl Physiol 2001; 91: 2654–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bilodeau M, Erb MD, Nichols JM, et al. Fatigue of elbow flexors muscles in younger and older adults. Muscle Nerve 2001; 24: 98–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gonzalez E, Delbono O. Age-dependent fatigue in single intact fast- and slow fibers from mouse EDL and soleus skeletal muscles. Mech Ageing Dev 2001; 122: 1019–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Schwendner KI, Mikesky AE, Holt Jr WS, et al. Differences in muscle endurance and recovery between fallers and nonfallers, and between young and older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1997; 52: M155–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lexell L, Taylor CC, Sjostrom M. What is the cause of ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year-old men. J Neurol Sci 1988; 84: 275–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lexell J, Henriksson-Larsen K, Winblad B, et al. Distribution of different fiber types in human skeletal muscles: effects of aging studied in whole muscle cross sections. Muscle Nerve 1983; 6: 588–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lexell J, Downham D, Sjostrom M. Distribution of different fibre types in human skeletal muscles: fibre type arrangement in m. vastus lateralis from three groups of healthy men between 15 and 83 years. J Neurol Sci 1986; 72: 211–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hortobagyi T, Zheng D, Weidner M, et al. The influence of aging on muscle strength and muscle fiber characteristics with special reference to eccentric strength. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1995; 50: B399–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sato T, Akatsuka H, Kito K, et al. Age changes in size and number of muscle fibers in human pectoral muscle. Mech Aging Dev 1984; 28: 99–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Coggan AR, Spina RJ, King DS, et al. Histochemical and enzymatic comparison of the gastrocnemius muscle of young and elderly men and women. J Gerontol Sci 1992; 47: B71–6Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Smerdu V, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Campione M, et al. Type IIx myosin heavy chain transcripts are expressed in type IIb fibers of human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 1994; 267: C1723–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Balagopal P, Schimke JC, Ades P, et al. Age effect on transcript levels and synthesis rate of muscle MHC and response to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol 2001; 280: E203–8Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hall ZW, Ralston E. Nuclear domains in muscle cells. Cell 1989; 59: 771–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rosenblatt JD, Parry DJ. Gamma irradiation prevents compensatory hypertrophy of overloaded mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73: 2538–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rosenblatt JD, Yong D, Parry DJ. Satellite cell activity is required for hypertrophy of overloaded adult rat muscle. Muscle Nerve 1994; 17: 608–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Allen DL, Yasui W, Tanaka T, et al. Myonuclear number and myosin heavy chain expression in rat soleus single muscle fibers after spaceflight. J Appl Physiol 1996; 81: 145–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hikida RS, Van Nostram S, Murray JD, et al. Myonuclear loss in atrophied soleus muscle fibers. Anat Rec 1997; 247: 350–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hikida RS, Walsh S, Barylski N, et al. Is hypertrophy limited in elderly muscle fibers? A comparison of elderly and young strength-trained men. Basic Appl Myol 1998; 8: 419–27Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Larsson L, Sjodin B, Karlsson J. Histochemical and biochemical changes in human skeletal muscle with age in sedentary males, age 22–65 years. Acta Physiol Scand 1978; 103: 31–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lexell J, Downham DY. The occurrence of fibre-type grouping in healthy human muscle: a quantitative study of cross-sections of whole vastus lateralis from men between 15 and 83 years. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1991; 81: 377–81Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Andersen JL, Terzis G, Kryger A. Increase in the coexpression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle fibers of the very old. Muscle Nerve 1999; 22: 449–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Klitgaard H, Zhou M, Schiaffino S, et al. Ageing alters the myosin heavy chain composition of single fibres from human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand 1990; 140: 55–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Andersen JL, Schiaffino S. Mismatch between myosin heavy chain mRNA and protein distribution in human skeletal fibers. Am J Physiol 1997; 41: C1881–9Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Williamson DL, Godard MP, Porter DA, et al. Progressive resistance training reduces myosin heavy chain coexpression in single muscle fibers from older men. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88(2): 627–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pette D, Staron RS. Transitions of muscle fiber phenotypic profiles. Histochem Cell Biol 2001; 115: 359–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schiaffino S, Reggiani C. Molecular diversity of myofibrillar proteins: gene regulation and functional significance. Physiol Rev 1996; 76: 371–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Brown WF. A method for estimating the number of motor units in thenar muscles and changes in motor unit count with ageing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1972; 35: 845–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Campbell MJ, McComas AJ, Petite F. Physiological changes in aging muscle. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1973; 36: 174–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Stalberg R, Fawcett PRW. Macro EMG in healthy subjects of different ages. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1982; 45: 870–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sperling I. Evaluation of upper extremity function in 70 year old men and women. Scand J Rehabil Med 1980; 12: 139–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tomlinson BE, Irving D. The numbers of limb motor neurons in the human lumbosacral cord throughout life. J Neurol Sci 1977; 34: 213–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Yuan H, Goto N, Akita H, et al. Morphometric analysis of human cervical motoneurons in the aging process. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn 2000; 77: 1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Urbanchek MG, Picken EB, Kalliainen LK, et al. Specific force deficit in skeletal muscles of old rats is partially explained by existence of denervated muscle fibers. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56: B191–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cardasis CA, LaFontaine DM. Aging neuromuscular junctions: a morphometric study of cholinesterase-stained whole mounts and ultrastructure. Muscle Nerve 1987; 10: 200–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Covault J, Merlie JP, Gordis C, et al. Molecular forms of NCAM and its RNA in developing and denervated skeletal muscle. J Cell Biol 1986; 102: 731–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Covault J, Sanes JR. Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) accumulates in denervated and paralyzed skeletal muscles Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1985; 82: 4544–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Andersson AM, Olsen M, Zhernosekov D, et al. Age-related changes in expression of neural cell adhesion molecule in skeletal muscle: a comparative study of newborn, adult and aged rats. Biochem J 1993; 290: 641–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kobayashi H, Robbins N, Rutishauser U. Neural cell adhesion molecule in aged mouse muscle. Neuroscience 1992; 48: 237–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Deschenes MR, Wilson MH. Age-related differences in synaptic plasticity following muscle unloading. J Neurobiol 2003; 57(3): 246–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Guillet C, Auguste P, Mayo W, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is a regulator of muscular strength in aging. J Neurosci 1999; 19: 1257–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Oppenheim RW, Prevette D, Qin-Wei Y, et al. Control of embryonic motoneuron survival in vivo by ciliary neurotrophic factor. Science 1991; 251: 1616–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sendtner M, Scmalbruch H, Stokli KA, et al. Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents degeneration of motor neurons in mouse mutant progressive motor neuronopathy. Nature 1992; 358: 502–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    McComas AJ. Invited review: motor unit estimation: methods, results, and present studies. Muscle Nerve 1991; 14: 585–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Nair KS. Muscle protein turnover: methodological issues and the effect of aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1995; 50: 107–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Balagopal P, Rooyackers OE, Adey DB, et al. Effects of aging on in vivo synthesis of skeletal muscle myosin heavy-chain and sarcoplasmic protein in humans. Am J Physiol 1997; 273: E790–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Welle S, Thornton C, Jozefowicz R, et al. Myofibrillar protein synthesis in young and old men. Am J Physiol 1993; 264: E693–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Welle S, Thornton C, Statt M, et al. Postprandial myofibrillar and whole body protein synthesis in young and old human subjects. Am J Physiol 1994; 267: E599–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Welle S, Bhatt K, Thornton C. Polyadenylated RNA, actin mRNA, and myosin heavy chain mRNA in young and old human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 1996; 270: E224–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Boffoli D, Scacco SC, Vergari R, et al. Decline with age of the respiratory chain activity in human skeletal muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta 1994; 1226: 73–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Orlander J, Kiessling KH, Larsson L, et al. Skeletal muscle metabolism and ultrastructure in relation to age in sedentary men. Acta Physiol Scand 1978; 104: 249–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Conley KE, Jubrias SA, Esselman PC. Oxidative capacity and ageing in human muscle. J Physiol 2000; 526: 203–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Essen-Gustavsson B, Borges O. Histochemical and metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle in relation to age. Acta Physiol Scand 1986; 126: 107–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Wanagat J, Cao Z, Pathare P, et al. Mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations colocalize with segmental electron transport system abnormalities, muscle fiber atrophy, fiber splitting, and oxidative damage in sarcopenia. FASEB J 2001; 15: 322–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Welle S, Bhatt K, Shah B, et al. Reduced amount of mitochondrial DNA in aged human muscle. J Appl Physiol 2003; 94: 1479–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Morley JE, Baumgartner RN, Roubenoff R, et al. Sarcopenia. J Lab Clin Med 2001; 137: 231–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hasten DL, Pak-Loduca J, Obert KA, et al. Resistance exercise acutely increases MHC and mixed muscle protein synthesis rates in 78–84 and 23–32 yr olds. Am J Physiol 2000; 278: E620–6Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Schulte JN, Yarasheski KE. Effects of resistance training on the rate of muscle protein synthesis in frail elderly people. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 2001; 11 Suppl.: S111–8Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Baulieu EE. Androgens and aging men. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002; 198: 41–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Gooren LJ. Endocrine aspects of ageing in the male. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1998; 145: 153–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Noth RH, Mazzaferri EL. Age and the endocrine system. Clin Geriatr Med 1985; 1: 223–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Gray A, Berlin JA, McKinlay JB, et al. An examination of research design effects on the association of testosterone and male aging: results of a meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 1991; 44: 671–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Vermeulen A, Kaufman JM. Ageing of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis in men. Horm Res 1995; 43: 25–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Seidman SN. Testosterone deficiency and mood in aging men: pathogenic and therapeutic interactions. World J Biol Psychiatry 2003; 4: 14–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Plymate SR, Tenover JS, Bremner WJ. Circadian variation in testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated non-sex hormone-binding globulin bound testosterone in healthy young and elderly men. J Androl 1989; 10: 366–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tenover JS, Matsumoto AM, Clifton DK, et al. Age-related alterations in the circadian rhythms of pulsatile luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in healthy men. J Gerontol 1988; 43: M163–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Kaufman JM, Deslypere JP, Giri M, et al. Neuroendocrine regulation of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in elderly men. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1990; 37: 421–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Vermeulen A, Deslypere JP, De Meirleir K. A new look to the andropause: altered function of the gonadotrophs. J Steroid Biochem 1989; 32: 163–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kaufman JM, Giri M, Deslypere JM, et al. Influence of age on the responsiveness of the gonadotrophs to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 72: 1255–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Bhasin S, Tenover JS. Age-associated sarcopenia: issues in the use of testosterone as an anabolic agent in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 1659–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Gruenewald DA, Matsumoto AM. Testosterone supplementation therapy for older men: potential benefits and risks. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51: 101–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Tenover JS. Effects of testosterone supplementation in the aging male. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 75: 1092–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Urban RJ, Bodenburg YH, Gilkison C, et al. Testosterone administration to elderly men increases skeletal muscle strength and protein synthesis. Am J Physiol 1995; 269: E820–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Tenover JS. Androgen administration to aging men. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1994; 23: 877–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kraemer WJ, Gordon SE, Fleck SJ, et al. Endogenous anabolic hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise in males and females. Int J Sports Med 1991; 12: 228–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Vermeulen A. Ageing, hormones, body composition, metabolic effects. World J Urol 2002; 20: 23–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Rudman D, Kutner MH, Rogers CM, et al. Impaired growth hormone secretion in the adult population: relation to age and adiposity. J Clin Invest 1981; 67: 1361–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Iranmanesh A, Lizarralde G, Veldhuis JD. Age and relative adiposity are specific negative determinants of the frequency and amplitude of growth hormone (GH) secretory bursts and the half-life of endogenous GH in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 73: 1081–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Weltman A. Elements in the pathophysiology of diminished growth hormone (GH) secretion in aging humans. Endocrine 1997; 7: 41–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Rudman D. Growth hormone, body composition, and aging. J Am Geriatr Soc 1985; 33: 800–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Welle S. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I as anabolic agents. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1998; 1: 257–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Sara VR, Hall K. Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins. Physiol Rev 1990; 70: 591–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Harris TB, Kiel D, Roubenoff R, et al. Association of insulin-like growth factor-I with body composition, weight history, and past health behaviors in the very old: the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45: 133–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Cappola AR, Bandeen-Roche K, Wand GS, et al. Association of IGF-I levels with muscle strength and mobility in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 4139–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kiel DP, Puhl J, Rosen CJ, et al. Lack of an association between insulin-like growth factor-I and body composition, muscle strength, physical performance or self-reported mobility among older persons with functional limitations. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998; 46: 822–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rosen CJ. Growth hormone and aging. Endocrine 2000; 12: 197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen K, Newton RU, et al. Effects of heavy-resistance training on hormonal response patterns in younger vs older men. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87: 982–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Bjorntorp P. Alterations in the ageing corticotropic stress-response axis. Novartis Found Symp 2002; 242: 46–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Mauro A. Satellite cell of skeletal muscle fibers. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 1961; 9: 493–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Schultz E. Satellite cell behavior during skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21 (5 Suppl.): S181–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Gibson MC, Schultz E. Age-related differences in absolute numbers of skeletal muscle satellite cells. Muscle Nerve 1983; 6: 574–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Chakravarthy MV, Davis BS, Booth FW. IGF-I restores satellite cell proliferative potential in immobilized old skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 1365–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Schultz E, Lipton BH. Skeletal muscle satellite cells: changes in proliferation potential as a function of age. Mech Ageing Dev 1982; 20: 377–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Allen RE, Rankin LL. Regulation of satellite cells during skeletal muscle growth and development. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1990; 194: 81–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Adams GR. Invited review: autocrine/paracrine IGF-I and skeletal muscle adaptation. J Appl Physiol 2002; 93: 1159–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Goldspink G. Gene expression in skeletal muscle. Biochem Soc Trans 2002; 30: 285–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Yang S, Alnaqeeb M, Simpson H, et al. Cloning and characterization of an IGF-I isoform expressed in skeletal muscle subjected to stretch. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 1996; 17: 487–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Welle S, Bhatt K, Shah B, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I and myostatin mRNA expression in muscle: comparison between 62–77 and 21–31 yr old men. Exp Gerontol 2002; 37: 833–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Hameed M, Orrell RW, Cobbold M, et al. Expression of IGF-I splice variants in young and old human skeletal muscle after high resistance exercise. J Physiol 2003; 547: 247–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Owino V, Yang SY, Goldspink G. Age-related loss of skeletal muscle function and the ability to express the autocrine form of insulin-like growth factor-I (MGF) in response to mechanical overload. FEBS Lett 2001; 505: 259–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Barton-Davis ER, Shoturma DI, Musaro A, et al. Viral mediated expression of insulin-like growth factor I blocks the aging-related loss of skeletal muscle function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95: 15603–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Musaro A, McCullagh K, Paul A, et al. Localized IGF-I transgene expression sustains hypertrophy and regeneration in senescent skeletal muscle. Nat Genet 2001; 27: 195–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Hameed M, Harridge SD, Goldspink G. Sarcopenia and hypertrophy: a role for insulin-like growth factor-I in aged muscle? Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2002; 30: 15–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Roubenoff R, Harris TB, Abad LW, et al. Monocyte cytokine production in an elderly population: effect of age and inflammation. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998; 53: M20–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ferrucci L, Penninx BWJH, Volpato S, et al. Change in muscle strength explains accelerated decline of physical function in older women with high interleukin-6 serum levels. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 1947–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Tamura S, Ouchi KF, Mori K, et al. Involvement of human interleukin 6 in experimental cachexia induced by a human uterine cervical carcinoma xenograft. Clin Cancer Res 1995; 1: 1353–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Tsujinaka T, Fujita J, Ebisui C, et al. Interleukin 6 receptor antibody inhibits muscle atrophy and modulates proteolytic systems in interleukin 6 transgenic mice. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 244–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Roubenoff R. Catabolism of aging: is it an inflammatory process? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2003; 6: 295–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Morley JE. Anorexia, body composition, and ageing. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2001; 4: 9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Rooyackers OE, Adey DB, Ades PA, et al. Effect of age on in vivo rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 15364–9PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyThe College of William & Mary and the Center for Excellence in Aging and Geriatric HealthWilliamsburgUSA

Personalised recommendations