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Sports Medicine

, Volume 34, Issue 11, pp 697–704 | Cite as

Non-Intentional Doping in Sports

  • Mauricio YonamineEmail author
  • Paula Rodrigues Garcia
  • Regina Lúcia de Moraes Moreau
Leading Article

Abstract

Compulsory drug testing was introduced in 1968 by the International Olympic Committee. Since then, several doping cases have been reported in sports competition world wide. Positive results are based on the detection of prohibited substances, their metabolites and markers in biological (mainly urine) samples supplied by athletes. In some cases, the evidences were not contested and athletes admitted the use of banned substances. However, in other cases, athletes denied the use of doping to enhance performance and claimed to have inadvertently or passively absorbed the drug. Unfortunately, no current accepted analytical method is capable of distinguishing between a sample from a cheater and one from an athlete who was passively exposed to a doping agent.

Athletes’ allegations have included the passive inhalation of drug smoke (e.g. marijuana) or the ingestion of food or products sold as nutritional supplements that contained prohibited substances. In the scientific literature, several studies have been performed to investigate the possibility of an accidental exposure being the reason for the appearance of detectable quantities of banned substances in urine samples. Based on these studies, this article discusses those cases where the athlete’s claims could be possible in generating a positive result in doping control and in which circumstances it would be improbable to happen.

Keywords

Cocaine Anabolic Agent International Olympic Committee Doping Control Poppy Seed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors have provided no information on sources of funding or on conflicts of interest directly relevant to the content of this review.

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Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauricio Yonamine
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paula Rodrigues Garcia
    • 1
  • Regina Lúcia de Moraes Moreau
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Analytical Toxicology, College of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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