Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 33, Issue 7, pp 539–552 | Cite as

The Impact of Resistance Training on Distance Running Performance

  • Alan P. Jung
Review Article

Abstract

Traditionally, distance running performance was thought to be determined by several characteristics, including maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2max), lactate threshold (LT), and running economy. Improvements in these areas are primarily achieved through endurance training. Recently, however, it has been shown that anaerobic factors may also play an important role in distance running performance. As a result, some researchers have theorised that resistance training may benefit distance runners. Because resistance training is unlikely to elicit an aerobic stimulus of greater than 50% of V̇O2max, it is unlikely that resistance training would improve V̇O2max in trained distance runners. However, it appears that V̇O2max is not compromised when resistance training is added to an endurance programme. Similarly, LT is likely not improved as a result of resistance training in trained endurance runners; however, improvements in LT have been observed in untrained individuals as a result of resistance training. Trained distance runners have shown improvements of up to 8% in running economy following a period of resistance training. Even a small improvement in running economy could have a large impact on distance running performance, particularly in longer events, such as marathons or ultra-marathons. The improvement in running economy has been theorised to be a result of improvements in neuromuscular characteristics, including motor unit recruitment and reduced ground contact time. Although largely theoretical at this point, if resistance training is to improve distance running performance, it will likely have the largest impact on anaerobic capacity and/or neuromuscular characteristics. The primary purpose of this review is to consider the impact of resistance training on the factors that are known to impact distance running performance. A second purpose is to consider different modes of resistance exercise to determine if an optimal protocol exists.

Keywords

Resistance Training Endurance Performance Distance Runner Lactate Threshold Resistance Training Exercise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author received no funding in the writing or preparation of this manuscript and has no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Wenger HA, Bell GJ. The interactions of intensity, frequency and duration of exercise in altering cardiorespiratory fitness. Sports Med 1986; 3: 346–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jones AM, Carter H. The effect of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness. Sports Med 2000; 29(6): 373–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Costill DL. The relationship between selected physiological variables and distance running performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1967; 7: 61–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Farrell PA, Wilmore JH, Coyle EF, et al. Plasma lactate accumulation and distance running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1979; 11: 338–44Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daniels JT. A physiologist’s view of running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1985; 17(3): 332–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Morgan DM, Baldini FD, Martin PE, et al. Ten kilometer performance and predicted velocity at V̇O2max among well trained males runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21: 78–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bassett DR, Howley ET. Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32(1): 70–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bulbulian R, Wilcox AR, Darabos BL. Anaerobic contribution to distance running performance of trained cross-country runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986; 18(1): 107–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Noakes T. Implications of exercise testing for prediction of athletic performance: a contemporary perspective. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: 319–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Paavolainen L, Hakkinen K, Hamalainen I, et al. Explosive strength training improves 5km running time by improving running economy and muscle power. J Appl Physiol 1999; 86(5): 1527–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Johnston RE, Quinn TJ, Kertzer R, et al. Strength training in female distance runners: impact on running economy. J Strength Cond Res 1997; 11(4): 224–9Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hickson RC, Rosenkoetter MA, Brown MM. Strength training effects on aerobic power and short-term endurance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1980; 12(5): 336–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hurley BF, Seals DR, Ehsan AA, et al. Effects of high-intensity strength training on cardiovascular function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1984; 16(5): 483–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hickson RC, Dvorak BA, Gorostiaga EM, et al. Potential for strength and endurance training to amplify endurance performance. J Appl Physiol 1988; 65(5): 2285–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marcinik EJ, Potts J, Schlabach G, et al. Effects of strength training on lactate threshold and endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991; 23(6): 739–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hennessy LC, Watson AWS. The interference effects of training for strength and endurance simultaneously. J Strength Cond Res 1994; 8(1): 12–9Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bishop D, Jenkins DG. The influence of resistance training on the critical power function and time to fatigue at critical power. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1996; 28(4): 101–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bishop D, Jenkins DG, Mackinnon LT, et al. The effects of strength training on endurance performance and muscle characteristics. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31(6): 886–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCarthy JP, Agre JC, Graf BK, et al. Compatibility of adaptive response with combining strength and endurance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27(3): 429–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gettman LR, Ayres JJ, Pollock ML, et al. The effect of circuit weight training on strength, cardiorespiratory function, and body composition of adult men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1978; 10(3): 171–6Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gettman LR, Ward P, Hagan RD. A comparison of combined running and weight training with circuit weight training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1982; 14(3): 229–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haennel R, Teo KK, Quinney A, et al. Effects of hydraulic circuit training on cardiovascular function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21(5): 605–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kaikkonen H, Yrjama M, Siljander E, et al. The effect of heart rate controlled low resistance circuit weight training and endurance on maximal aerobic power in sedentary adults. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2000; 10: 211–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Paavolainen L, Hakkinen K, Rusko H. Effects of explosive type strength training on physical performance characteristics in cross-country skiers. Eur J Appl Physiol 1991; 62: 251–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stone MH, Wilson GD, Blessing D, et al. Cardiovascular responses to short-term Olympic style weight training in young men. Can J Appl Sports Sci 1983; 8(3): 134–9Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hoff J, Helgerud J, Wisloff U. Maximal strength training improves work economy in trained female cross-country skiers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31(6): 870–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Saltin B, Astrand PO. Maximal oxygen uptake in athletes. J Appl Physiol 1967; 23: 353–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tabata I, Nishimura K, Kouzaki M, et al. Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and V̇O2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 28: 1327–30Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Finn C. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on maximum oxygen uptake and endurance performance [online]. Available from URL: http://www.sportsci.org/index.html?jour/0201/0201.htm&1 [Accessed 2003 Mar 25]
  30. 30.
    Pate RR, Branch JD. Training for endurance sport. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992; 24 (9 Suppl.): S340–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lindsay FH, Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, et al. Improved athletic performance in highly trained cyclists after interval training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28(11): 1427–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Physiology of sport and exercise. 2nd ed. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1999Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tesch PA, Komi PV, Hakkinene K. Enzymatic adaptations consequent to long-term strength training. Int J Sports Med 1987; 8: 66–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dudley GA. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20(5): S158–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kraemer WJ, Deschenes MR, Fleck SJ. Physiological adaptations to resistance exercise: implications for athletic conditioning. Sports Med 1988; 6: 246–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sale D. Neural adaptations to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20 5 Suppl.): S135–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tesch PA, Thorsson A, Essen-Gustavsson B. Enzyme activities of FT and ST muscle fibers in heavy-resistance trained athletes. J Appl Physiol 1989; 67(1): 83–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sale DG, Jacobs I, MacDougall JD, et al. Comparison of two regimens of concurrent strength and endurance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990; 22(3): 348–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Abernathy PJ, Jurimae J, Logan PA, et al. Acute and chronic response of skeletal muscle to resistance exercise. Sports Med 1994; 17(1): 22–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    MacDougall JD, Sale DG, Moroz JR, et al. Mitochondrial volume density in human skeletal muscle following heavy resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1979; 11: 164–6Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Collins MA, Cureton KJ, Hill DW, et al. Relationship of heart rate to oxygen uptake during weight lifting exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991; 23(5): 636–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Burleson MA, O’Bryant HS, Stone MH, et al. Effect of weight training exercise and treadmill exercise on post-exercise oxygen consumption. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30(4): 518–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Beckham SG, Earnest CP. Metabolic cost of free weight circuit weight training. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2000; 40: 118–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hunter G, Demment R, Miller D. Development of strength and maximum oxygen uptake during simultaneous training for strength and endurance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1987; 27(3): 269–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dudley GA, Fleck SJ. Strength and endurance training: are they mutually exclusive? Sports Med 1987; 4: 79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hortobagyi T, Katch FI, Lachance PF. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1991; 31: 20–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kraemer WJ, Patton JF, Gordon SE, et al. Compatibility of high-intensity strength and endurance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. J Appl Physiol 1995; 78(3): 976–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sale DG, MacDougall JD, Jacobs I, et al. Interaction between concurrent strength and endurance training. J Appl Physiol 1990; 68(1): 260–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nakao M, Inoue Y, Murakami H. Longitudinal study of the effect of high intensity weight training on aerobic capacity. Eur J Appl Physiol 1995; 70: 20–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yoshida T, Udo M, Iwai K, et al. Physiological characteristics related to endurance running performance in female distance runners. J Sports Sci 1993; 11(1): 57–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Conley DL, Krahenbuhl GS. Running economy and distance running performance of highly trained athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1980; 12: 357–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Daniels J, Daniels N. Running economy of elite male and elite female runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992; 24: 483–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Johnston RE, Quinn TJ, Kertzer R, et al. Improving running economy through strength training. Strength Cond 1995; 17(4): 7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dolezal BA, Potteiger JA. Resistance training for endurance runners during the off-season. Strength Cond 1986; 18(3): 7–10Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cavanagh PR, Kram R. Mechanical and muscular factors affecting the efficiency of human movement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1985; 17(3): 326–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Anderson T. Biomechanics and running economy. Sports Med 1996; 22(2): 76–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hakkinen K, Komi PV. Effect of explosive type strength training on electromyographic and force production characteristics of leg extensor muscles during concentric and various stretch-shortening cycle exercises. Scan J Sports Sci 1985; 7(2): 65–76Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kyrolainen H, Komi PV, Kim DH. Effects of power training on neuromuscular performance and mechanical efficiency. Scand J Med Sports 1991; 1: 78–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Green HJ, Patla AE. Maximal aerobic power: neuromuscular and metabolic considerations. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992; 24(1): 38–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Paavolainen L, Nummela A, Rusko H, et al. Neuromuscular characteristics and fatigue during 10km running. Int J Sports Med 1999; 20: 516–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kyrolainen H, Belli A, Komi PV. Biomechanical factors affecting running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33(8): 1330–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance. 3rd ed. Philadelphia (PA): Lea & Febiger, 1991Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hakkinen K. Neuromuscular adaptation during strength training, aging, detraining, and immobilization. Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med 1994; 6: 161–98Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Paavolainen LM, Nummela AT, Rusko HK. Neuromuscular characteristics and muscle power as determinants of 5-km running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31(1): 124–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Noakes TD, Myburgh KH, Schall R. Peak treadmill running velocity during the V̇O2max test predicts running performance. J Sports Sci 1990; 8: 35–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Houmard JA, Costill DL, Mitchell JB, et al. The role of anaerobic ability in middle distance running performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 1991; 62: 40–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kolbe T, Dennis SC, Selley E, et al. The relationship between critical power and running performance. J Sports Sci 1995; 13: 265–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tanaka H, Swensen T. Impact of resistance training on endurance: a new form of cross training? Sports Med 1998; 25(3): 191–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Scringeour AG, Noakes TD, Adams B, et al. The influence of weekly training distance on fractional utilization of maximum aerobic capacity in marathon and ultramarathon runners. Eur J Appl Phys 1986; 55: 202–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Billat LV, Koralsztein JP. Significance of the velocity at V̇O2max and time to exhaustion at this velocity. Sports Med 1996; 22: 90–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Paavolainen L, Nummela A, Rusko H. Muscle power factors and V̇O2max as determinants of horizontal and uphill running performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2000; 10: 286–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rusko HK, Nummela AT. Measurement of maximal and sub-maximal anaerobic capacity: concluding chapter. Int J Sports Med 1996; 17Suppl. 2: S125–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rutherford OM, Greig CA, Sargeant AJ, et al. Strength training and power output: transference effects in the human quadriceps muscle. J Sports Sci 1986; 4: 101–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wilson GJ, Murphy AJ, Walshe A. The specificity of strength training: the effect of posture. Eur J Appl Physiol 1996; 73: 346–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA

Personalised recommendations