Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp 427–438 | Cite as

Movement Velocity in Resistance Training

  • Marta I. R. Pereira
  • Paulo S. C. Gomes
Review Article

Abstract

Guidelines for resistance training include the number of exercises, sets, repetitions, and frequency of training, but only vaguely mention movement velocity. Nevertheless, different velocities imply different performances, i.e. a different number of repetitions or different loads. Studies investigating the effect of different movement velocities on resistance training have not reached a consensus. Some studies indicate specificity in strength gains while others indicate generality. Some indicate slow training to be better, others indicate fast training, and still others indicate no differences. Most of these studies were conducted on isokinetic or hydraulic equipment. Very few used isotonic equipment for training, and their results seem to tend towards generality and no differences in gains of strength between velocities. Defining the training velocity is mostly important for athletic performances where a wide range of velocities is needed and transfer of gains would greatly optimise training. At the other end of the spectrum, there are the most frail and elderly, to whom power loss may impair even daily functions, but training with fast velocities might increase injury risk and, therefore, transfer of gains from slow training would be greatly beneficial. Movement velocity for resistance training with isotonic equipment needs to be further investigated so that recommendations may be made.

Keywords

Resistance Training Peak Torque Vertical Jump Slow Velocity General Gain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior (CAPES), Ministry of Education, Brazil, for their financial support to the first author. The authors have no conflicts of interest directly relevant to the content of this review.

References

  1. 1.
    Bryant CX, Peterson JA, Graves JE. Muscular strength and endurance. In: American College of Sports Medicine, editor. ACSM’s resource manual for guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Baltimore (MA): Williams & Wilkins, 1998: 448–455Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Braith RW, Graves JE, Pollock ML, et al. Comparison of 2 vs 3 days/week of variable resistance training during 10- and 18-week programs. Int J Sports Med 1989; 10(6): 450–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    DeMichele PL, Pollock ML, Graves JE, et al. Isometric torso rotation strength: effect of training frequency on its development. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997; 78: 64–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gillam GM. Effects of frequency of weight training on muscle strength enhancement. J Sports Med 1981; 21: 432–6Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Graves JE, Pollock ML, Foster D, et al. Effect of training frequency and specificity on isometric lumbar extension strength. Spine 1990; 15(6): 504–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hass CJ, Garzarella L, de Hoyos D, et al. Single versus multiple sets in long-term recreational weightlifters. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32(1): 235–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ostrowski KJ, Wilson GJ, Weatherby R, et al. The effect of weight training volume on hormonal output and muscular size and function. J Strength Cond Res 1997; 11(3): 148–54Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pollock ML, Graves JE, Bamman MM, et al. Frequency and volume of resistance training: effect on cervical extension strength. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74: 1080–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Starkey DB, Pollock ML, Ishida Y, et al. Effect of resistance training volume on strength and muscle thickness. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28(10): 1311–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    American College of Sports Medicine. Position stand: the recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30(6): 975–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activiy and health: a report of the surgeon general. Atlanta (GA): US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1996: 29Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carpinelli RN, Otto RM. Strength training: single versus multiple sets. Sports Med 1998; 26(2): 73–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baechle TR, Earle RW, Allerheiligen WB. Strength training and spotting techniques. In: Baechle TR, editor. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1994: 346Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fleck SJ, Kraemer WJ. Designing resistance training programs. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1997Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pipes TV, Wilmore JH. Isokinetic vs isotonic strength training in adult men. Med Sci Sports 1975; 7(4): 262–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Petersen SR, Bagnall KM, Wenger HA, et al. The influence of velocity-specific resistance training on the in vivo torque-velocity relationship and the cross-sectional area of quadriceps femoris. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1989; May: 456–62Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smith MJ, Melton P. Isokinetic versus isotonic variable-resistance training. Am J Sports Med 1981; 9(4): 275–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moffroid MT, Whipple RH. Specificity of speed of exercise. Phys Ther 1970; 50(12): 1692–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lesmes GR, Costill DL, Coyle EF, et al. Muscle strength and power changes during maximal isokinetic training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1978; 10(4): 266–9Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Caiozzo VJ, Perrine JJ, Edgerton VR. Training-induced alterations of the in vivo force-velocity relationship of human muscle. J Appl Physiol 1981; 51(3): 750–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Coyle EF, Feiring DC, Rotkis TC, et al. Specificity of power improvements through slow and fast isokinetic training. J Appl Physiol 1981; 51(6): 1437–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Adeyanju K, Crews TR, Meadors WJ. Effects of two speeds of isokinetic training on muscular strength, power and endurance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1983; 23(3): 352–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kanehisa H, Miyashita M. Effect of isometric and isokinetic muscle training on static strength and dynamic power. Eur J Appl Physiol 1983; 50(3): 365–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kanehisa H, Miyashita M. Specificity of velocity in strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol 1983; 52(1): 104–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Seaborne D, Taylor AW. The effect of speed of isokinetic exercise on training transfer to isometric strength in the quadriceps muscle. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1984; 24(3): 183–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Garnica RA. Muscular power in young women after slow and fast isokinetic training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986; 8(1): 1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Timm KE. Investigation of the physiological overflow effect from speed-specific isokinetic activity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1987; 9(3): 106–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Narici MV, Roi GS, Landoni L, et al. Changes in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps. Eur J Appl Physiol 1989; 59: 310–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ewing JL, Wolfe DR, Rogers MA, et al. Effect of velocity of isokinetic training on strength, power, and quadriceps muscle fiber characteristics. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 61: 159–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Prevost MC, Nelson AG, Maraj BKV. The effect of two days of velocity-specific isokinetic training on torque production. J Strength Cond Res 1999; 13(1): 35–9Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Petersen SR, Miller GD, Wenger HA. The acquisition of muscular strength: the influence of training velocity and initial V̇O2max. Can J Appl Sport Sci 1984; 9(4): 176–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bell GJ, Petersen SR, Maclean I, et al. Effect of high velocity resistance training on peak torque, cross sectional area and myofibrillar ATPase activity. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1992; 32: 10–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Aagard P, Simonsen EB, Trolle M, et al. Specificity of training velocity and training load on gains in isokinetic knee joint strength. Acta Physiol Scand 1996; 156: 123–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fielding RA, LeBrasseur NK, Cuoco A, et al. High-velocity resistance training increases skeletal muscle peak power in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 655–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Behm DG. An analysis of intermediate speed resistance exercises for velocity-specific strength gains. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1991; 5(1): 1–5Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Young WB, Bilby GE. The effect of voluntary effort to influence speed of contraction on strength, muscular power, and hypertrophy development. J Strength Cond Res 1993; 7(3): 172–8Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weir JP, Housh TJ, Evans SA, et al. The effect of dynamic constant external resistance training on the isokinetic torque-velocity curve. Int J Sports Med 1993; 14(3): 124–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Morrissey MC, Harman EA, Frykman PN, et al. Early phase differential effects of slow and fast barbell squat training. Am J Sports Med 1998; 26(2): 221–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pousson M, Amiridis IG, Cometti G, et al. Velocity-specific training in elbow flexors. Eur J Appl Physiol 1999; 80: 367–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Westcott WL, Winett RA, Anderson ES, et al. Effects of regular and slow speed resistance training on muscle strength. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2001; 41: 154–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pereira MIR, Gomes PSC. Effects of two movement velocities of isotonic exercise on gains in strength and muscular endurance [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34 (5 Suppl.): S289Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kannus P. Isokinetic evaluation of muscular performance: implications for muscle testing and rehabilitation. Int J Sports Med 1994; 15 (1 Suppl.): S11–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pereira MIR, Silva EB, Santos TM, et al. Efeito do tipo de protocolo sobre a força concêntrica isocinética de extensão de joelhos [abstract]. XXIII Simpósio Internacional de Ciências do Esporte: 2000 Oct 5–8; São PauloGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wilson GJ, Newton RU, Murphy AJ, et al. The optimal load for the development of dynamic athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993; 25(11): 1279–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Almasbakk B, Hoff J. Coordination, the determinant of velocity specificity? J Appl Physiol 1996; 80(5): 2046–52Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moss BM, Refsnes PE, Abildgaard A, et al. Effects of maximal effort strength training with different loads on dynamic strength, cross-sectional area, load-power and load-velocity relationships. Eur J Appl Physiol 1997; 75: 193–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Toji H, Suei K, Kaneko M. Effects of combined training loads on relations among force, velocity, and power development. Can J Appl Physiol 1997; 22(4): 328–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jones K, Bishop P, Hunter G, et al. The effects of varying resistance-training load on intermediate- and high-velocity-specific adaptations. J Strength Cond Res 2001; 15(3): 349–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    McBride JM, Triplett-McBride T, Davie A, et al. The effect of heavy- vs light-load jump squats on the development of strength, power, and speed. J Strength Cond Res 2002; 16(1): 75–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dvir Z. Isokinetics: muscle testing, interpretation and clinical applications. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1996Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bell GJ, Wenger HA. Physiological adaptation to velocity-controlled resistance training. Sports Med 1992; 13(4): 234–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Duncan PW, Chandler JM, Cavanaugh DK, et al. Mode and speed specificity of eccentric and concentric exercise training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1989; 11(2): 70–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ryan LM, Magidow PS, Duncan PW. Velocity-specific and mode-specific effects of eccentric isokinetic training of the hamstrings. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1991; 13(1): 33–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lacerte M, deLateur BJ, Alquist AD, et al. Concentric versus combined concentric-eccentric isokinetic training programs: effect on peak torque of human quadriceps femoris muscle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 73: 1059–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mann R, Herman J. Kinematic analysis of Olympic sprint performance: men’s 200 meters. Int J Sports Biomech 1985; 1: 151–62Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Morriss CJ, Tolfrey K, Coppack RJ. Effects of short-term isokinetic training on standing long-jump performance in untrained men. J Strength Cond Res 2001; 15(4): 498–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Van Oteghen SL. Two speeds of isokinetic exercise as related to the vertical jump performance of women. Res Q 1973; 46(1): 78–84Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Palmieri GA. Weight training and repetition speed. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1987; 1(2): 36–8Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Blazevich A. Effect of movement pattern and velocity of strength training exercises on training adaptations during concurrent resistance and sprint/jump training [dissertation]. Lismore (NSW): School of Exercise Science and Sports Management, Southern Cross University, 2000Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Suzuki T, Bean JF, Fielding RA. Muscle power of the ankle flexors predicts functional performance in community-dwelling older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001; 49: 1161–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Judge JO, Underwood M, Gennosa T. Exercise to improve gait velocity in older persons. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74: 400–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Salem GJ, Wang M-Y, Young JT, et al. Knee strength and lower- and higher-intensity functional performance in older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32(10): 1679–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Taaffe DR, Curet C, Wheeler S, et al. Once-weekly resistance exercise improves muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 1208–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fiatarone MA, Marks EC, Ryan ND, et al. High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians: effects on skeletal muscle. JAMA 1990; 263(22): 3029–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Häkkinen K, Kallinen M, Izquierdo M, et al. Changes in agonist-antagonist EMG, muscle CSA, and force during strength training in middle-aged and older people. J Appl Physiol 1998; 84(4): 1341–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Izquierdo M, Häkkinen K, Ibanez J, et al. Effects of strength training on muscle power and serum hormones in middle-aged and older men. J Appl Physiol 2001; 90: 1497–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJ, Newton RU, et al. Changes in electromyographic activity, muscle fiber and force production characteristics during heavy resistance/power strength training in middle-aged and older men and women. Acta Physiol Scand 2001; 171: 51–62PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Data Information BV 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Health and Graduate Program in Physical EducationUniversidade Gama FilhoRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations