Sports Medicine

, Volume 31, Issue 11, pp 785–807 | Cite as

Caffeine and Exercise

Metabolism, Endurance and Performance
  • Terry E. GrahamEmail author
Review Article


Caffeine is a common substance in the diets of most athletes and it is now appearing in many new products, including energy drinks, sport gels, alcoholic beverages and diet aids. It can be a powerful ergogenic aid at levels that are considerably lower than the acceptable limit of the International Olympic Committee and could be beneficial in training and in competition. Caffeine does not improve maximal oxygen capacity directly, but could permit the athlete to train at a greater power output and/or to train longer. It has also ben shown to increase speed and/or power output in simulated race conditions. These effects have been found in activities that last as little as 60 seconds or as long as 2 hours. There is less information about the effects of caffeine on strength; however, recent work suggests no effect on maximal ability, but enhanced endurance or resistance to fatigue. There is no evidence that caffeine ingestion before exercise leads to dehydration, ion imbalance, or any other adverse effects.

The ingestion of caffeine as coffee appears to be ineffective compared to doping with pure caffeine. Related compounds such as theophylline are also potent ergogenic aids. Caffeine may act synergistically with other drugs including ephedrine and anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that male and female athletes have similar caffeine pharmacokinetics, i.e., for a given dose of caffeine, the time course and absolute plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites are the same. In addition, exercise or dehydration does not affect caffeine pharmacokinetics. The limited information available suggests that caffeine non-users and users respond similarly and that withdrawal from caffeine may not be important. The mechanism(s) by which caffeine elicits its ergogenic effects are unknown, but the popular theory that it enhances fat oxidation and spares muscle glycogen has very little support and is an incomplete explanation at best. Caffeine may work, in part, by creating a more favourable intracellular ionic environment in active muscle. This could facilitate force production by each motor unit.


Caffeine Theophylline Adenosine Receptor Muscle Glycogen Caffeine Ingestion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author gratefully acknowledges the vital support of his co-authors in the various publications cited from his work, and the outstanding technical support of Ms Premila Sathasivam. His work has been supported by Natural Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada, by Sport Canada, and by Gatorade Sport Science Institute.


  1. 1.
    Graham TE, Rush JWE, Van Soeren MH. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism and performance. Can J Appl Physiol 1994; 19: 111–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Graham TE, McLean C. Gender differences in the metabolic responses to caffeine. In: Tarnopolsky M, editor. Gender differences in metabolism: practical and nutritional implications. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999: 301–27Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nehlig A, Debry G. Caffeine and sports activity: a review. Int J Sports Med 1994; 15: 215–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tarnopolsky MA. Caffeine and endurance performance. Sports Med 1994; 18: 109–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Conlee RK. Amphetamine, caffeine, and cocaine. In: Lamb DR, Williams MH, editors. Ergogenics: enhancement of performance in exercise and sport. Ann Arbor: Wm. C. Brown, 1991: 285–330Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Graham TE. The possible actions of methylxanthines on various tissues. In: Reilly T, Orme M, editors. The clinical pharmacology of sport and exercise. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV, 1997: 257–70Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Spriet LL. Caffeine and performance. Int J Sport Nutr 2000; 5: S84-S99Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Apgar JL, Tarka JSM. Methylxanthine composition and consumption patterns of cocoa and chocolate products. In: Spiller GA, editor. Caffeine. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1998: 163–92Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lundsberg LS. Caffeine consumption. In: Spiller GA, editor. Caffeine. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1998: 199–224Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harland BF. Caffeine and nutrition. Nutrition 2000; 16: 522–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Perkins R, Williams MH. Effect of caffeine upon maximal muscular endurance of females. Med Sci Sports 1975; 7: 221–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weiss B, Laties VG. Enhancement of human performance by caffeine and the amphetamines. Pharmacol Rev 1962; 14: 1–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Data on file. The National School Survey on Drugs and Sport. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Centre of Drug-free Sport (Canadian Centre Ethics in Sport), 1993: 1–77Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Palmer TM, Stiles GL. Review: neurotransmitter receptors VII: Adenosine receptors. Neuropharmacology 1995; 34: 683–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shryock JC, Belardinelli L. Adenosine and adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular system: biochemistry, physiology, and pharmacology. Am J Cardiol 1997; 79: 2–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ralevic V, Burnstock G. Receptors for purines and pyrimidines. Pharmacol Rev 1998; 50: 413–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fredholm BB. Adenosine, adenosine receptors and the actions of caffeine. Pharmacol Toxicol 1995; 76: 93–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fredholm BB, Battig K, Holmen J, et al. Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Physiol Rev 1999; 51 (1): 83–133Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dewey KG, Romero-Abal ME, Quan de Serrano J, et al. Effects of discontinuing coffee intake on iron status of iron-deficient Guatemalan toddlers: a randomized intervention. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66: 168–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Spiller AM. The chemical components of coffee. In: Spiller GA, editor. Caffeine. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1998: 97–161Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Trice I, Haymes EM. Effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise-induced changes during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Int J Sport Nutr 1995; 5: 37–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Costill DL, Dalsky GP, Fink WJ. Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports 1978; 10: 155–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wiles JD, Bird SR, Hopkins J, et al. Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500-m treadmill running. Br J Sports Med 1992; 26: 116–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Casal DC, Leon AS. Failure of caffeine to affect substrate utilization during prolonged running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1985; 17: 174–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Butts NK, Crowell D. Effect of caffeine ingestion on cardiorespiratory endurance in men and women. Res Q Exerc Sport 1985; 56: 301–5Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Graham TE, Hibbert E, Sathasivam P. The metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85: 883–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raguso CA, Coggan AR, Sidossis LS, et al. Effect of theophylline on substrate metabolism during exercise. Metabolism 1996; 45 (9): 1153–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Marsh GD, McFadden RG, Nicholson RL, et al. Theophylline delays skeletal muscle fatigue during progressive exercise. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147: 876–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Greer F, Friars D, Graham TE. Comparison of caffeine and theophylline ingestion: exercise metabolism and endurance. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 1837–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wemple RD, Lamb DR, McKeever KH. Caffeine vs caffeine free sports drinks: effects on urine production at rest and during prolonged exercise. Int J Sports Med 1997; 18: 40–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kovacs EMR, Stegen JHCH, Brouns F. Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and performance. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85: 709–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sasaki H, Maeda H, Usui S, et al. Effect of sucrose and caffeine ingestion on performance of prolonged strenuous running. Int J Sports Med 1987; 8: 261–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wells CL, Schrader TA, Stern JR, et al. Physiological responses to a 20-mile run under three fluid replacement treatments. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1985; 17: 364–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Erickson MA, Schwarzkopf RJ, McKenzie RD. Effects of caffeine, fructose, and glucose ingestion on muscle glycogen utilization during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19: 579–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gaesser GA, Rich RG. Influence of caffeine on blood lactate response during incremental exercise. Int J Sports Med 1985; 6: 207–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vandenberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M, et al. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. J Appl Physiol 1996; 80: 452–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sawynok J, Yaksh TL. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant: a review of pharmacology and mechanisms of action. Pharmacol Rev 1993; 45: 43–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dulloo AG, Miller DS. Ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin: ‘over the-cover’ drugs that interact to stimulate thermogenesis in the obese. Nutrition 1989; 5: 7–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dulloo AG, Miller DS. Aspirin as a promoter of ephedrine induced thermogenesis: potential use in the treatment of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45: 564–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bell DG, Jacobs I, Zamecnik J. Effects of caffeine, ephedrine and their combination on time to exhaustion during high intensity exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1998; 77: 427–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weir J, Noakes TD, Myburgh K, et al. A high carbohydrate diet negates the metabolic effects of caffeine during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19: 100–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ivy JL, Costill DL, Fink WJ, et al. Influence of caffeine and carbohydrate feedings on endurance performance. Med Sci Sports 1979; 11: 6–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cohen BS, Nelson AG, Prevost MC, et al. Effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance racing in heat and humidity. Eur J Appl Physiol 1996; 73: 358–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Berglund B, Hemmingsson P. Effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise performance at low and high altitudes in cross-country skiing. Int J Sports Med 1982; 3: 234–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    MacIntosh BR, Wright BM. Caffeine ingestion and performance of a 1500 meter swim. Can J Appl Physiol 1995; 20: 168–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bruce CR, Anderson ME, Fraser SF, et al. Enhancement of 2000-m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32: 1958–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Collomp K, Ahmaidi S, Chatard JC, et al. Benefits of caffeine ingestion on sprint performance in trained and untrained swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992; 64: 377–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Collomp K, Ahmaidi S, Audran M, et al. Effects of caffeine ingestion on performance and anaerobic metabolism during the Wingate test. Int J Sports Med 1991; 12: 439–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Greer F, McLean C, Graham TE. Caffeine, performance and metabolism during repeated Wingate exercise tests. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85: 1502–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Anselme F, Collomp K, Mercier B, et al. Caffeine increases maximal anaerobic power and blood lactate concentration. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992; 65: 188–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cadarette BS, Levine L, Berube CL, et al. Effects of varied dosages of caffeine on endurance exercise to fatigue. In: Knuttgen HG, Vogel JA, Poortmans J, editors. Biochemistry of exercise. 13th ed. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1982: 871–6 (International series of sport sciences)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pasman WJ, van Baak MA, Jeukendrup AE, et al. The effect of different dosages of caffeine on endurance performance time. Int J Sports Med 1995; 16: 225–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Graham TE, Spriet LL. Metabolic, catecholamine, and exercise performance responses to various doses of caffeine. J Appl Physiol 1995; 78: 867–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sasaki H, Takaoka I, Ishiko T. Effects of sucrose or caffeine ingestion on running performance and biochemical responses to endurance running. Int J Sports Med 1987; 8: 203–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Graham TE, Spriet LL. Performance and metabolic responses to a high caffeine dose during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol 1991; 71: 2292–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fredholm BB. Adenosine actions and adenosine receptors after 1 week treatment with caffeine. Acta Physiol Scand 1982; 115: 283–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zhang Y, Wells JN. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on peripheral adenosine receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990; 254 (3): 757–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dodd SL, Brooks E, Powers SK, et al. The effects of caffeine on graded exercise performance in caffeine naive versus habituated subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol 1991; 62: 424–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Van Soeren MH, Sathasivam P, Spriet LL, et al. Caffeine metabolism and epinephrine responses during exercise in users and nonusers. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75: 805–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bangsbo J, Jacobsen K, Nordberg N, et al. Acute and habitual caffeine ingestion and metabolic responses to steady-state exercise. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72: 1297–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tarnopolsky MA, Cupido C. Caffeine potentiates low frequency skeletal muscle force in habitual and nonhabitual caffeine consumers. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 1719–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hetzler RK, Warhaftig-Glynn N, Thompson DL, et al. Effects of acute caffeine withdrawal on habituated male runners. J Appl Physiol 1994; 76: 1043–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Van Soeren MH, Graham TE. Effect of caffeine on metabolism, exercise endurance, and catecholamine responses after withdrawal. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85 (1493): 1501Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Strain EC, Griffins RR. Caffeine use disorders. In: Tasman A, Kay J, Lieberman JA, editors. Psychiatry. Vol. 1. Philadelphia (PA): W.B. Saunders Co., 1997: 779–94Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Somani SM, Kamimori GH. The effects of exercise on absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of drugs. In: Somani SM, editor. Pharmacology in exercise and sports. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1996: 1–38Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Arnaud MJ. Metabolism of caffeine and other components of coffee. In: Garattini S, editor. Caffeine, coffee, and health. New York (NY): Raven Press, 1993: 43–96Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lane JD, Steege JF, Rupp SL, et al. Menstrual cycle effects on caffeine elimination in the human female. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992; 43: 543–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Collomp K, Anselme F, Audran M, et al. Effects of moderate exercise on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991; 40: 279–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kalow W. Pharmacogenetic variability in brain and muscle. J Pharm Pharmacol 1994; 46: 425–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mitsumoto H, DeBoer GE, Bunge G, et al. Fiber-type specific caffeine sensitivities in normal human skinned muscle fibers. Anesthesiology 1990; 72: 50–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Carey GB. Cellular adaptations in fat tissue of exercise trained miniature swine: role of excess energy intake. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88: 881–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Carey GB, Sidmore KA. Exercise attenuates the anti-lipolytic effect of adenosine in adipocytes isolated form miniature swine. Int J Obes 1994; 18: 155–60Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mauriege P, Prud’homme D, Lemieux S, et al. Regional differences in adipose tissue lipolysis from lean and obese women: existence of postreceptor alterations. Am J Physiol 1995; 269 (2 Pt 1): E341-E350Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    LeBlanc J, Jobin M, Cote J, et al. Enhanced metabolic response to caffeine in exercise-trained human subjects. J Appl Physiol 1985; 59: 832–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Spriet LL, MacLean DA, Dyck DJ, et al. Caffeine ingestion and muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 1992; 262 (6 Pt 1): E891-E898Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mohr T, van Soeren M, Graham TE, et al. Caffeine ingestion and metabolic responses of tetraplegic humans during electrical cycling. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85: 979–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Falk B, Burnstein R, Rosenblum J, et al. Effects of caffeine ingestion on body fluid balance and thermoregulation during exercise. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1990; 68: 889–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gemmill CL. The effects of caffeine and theobromine derivatives on muscle glycolysis. J Pharmacol Exp 1947; 91: 292–7Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Haldi J, Bachmann G, Ensor C, et al. The effect of various amounts of caffeine on the gaseous exchange and the respiratory quotient in man. J Nutr 1941; 21: 307–20Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Asmussen E, Boje O. The effect of alcohol and some drugs on the capacity for work. Acta Physiol Scand 1948; 15: 109–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Collomp K, Caillaud C, Audran M, et al. Influence de la prise aigue ou chronique de cafeine sur la performance et les catecholamines au cours d’un exercice maximal. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil 1990; 184 (1): 87–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jackman M, Wendling P, Friars D, et al. Metabolic, catecholamine, and endurance responses to caffeine during intense exercise. J Appl Physiol 1996; 81: 1658–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Powers SK, Byrd RJ, Tulley R, et al. Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and performance during graded exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1983; 50: 301–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Flinn S, Gregory J, McNaughton LR, et al. Caffeine ingestion prior to incremental cycling to exhaustion in recreational cyclists. Int J Sports Med 1990; 11: 188–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Eke-Okoro ST. The H-reflex studied in the presence of alcohol, aspirin, caffeine, force and fatigue. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 1982; 22: 579–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jacobson BH, Weber MD, Claypool L, et al. Effect of caffeine on maximal strength and power in elite male athletes. Br J Sports Med 1992; 26: 276–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Supinski GS, Deal Jr EC, Kelsen SG. The effects of caffeine and theophylline on diaphragm contractility. Am Rev Respir Disord 1984; 130: 429–33Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lopes JM, Aubier M, Jardim J, et al. Effect of caffeine on skeletal muscle function before and after fatigue. J Appl Physiol 1983; 54: 1303–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kalmar JM, Cafarelli E. Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular fatigue. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87: 801–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tarnopolsky MA, Atkinson SA, MacDougall JD, et al. Physiological responses to caffeine during endurance running in habitual caffeine users. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21: 418–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Engels H-J, Haymes EM. Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolic responses to prolonged walking in sedentary males. Int J Sport Nutr 1992; 2: 386–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Robertson D, Frolich JC, Carr RK, et al. Effects of caffeine on plasma renin activity, catecholamines and blood pressure. N Engl J Med 1978; 298: 181–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hughes JR, Higgins ST, Bickel WK, et al. Caffeine self administration, withdrawal, and adverse effects among coffee drinkers. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991; 48: 611–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ammon HPT. Biochemical mechanism of caffeine tolerance. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 1991; 324 (5): 261–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Evans SM, Griffiths RR. Caffeine withdrawal: a parametric analysis of caffeine dosing conditions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 289: 285–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Essig D, Costill DL, Van Handel PJ. Effects of caffeine ingestion on utilization of muscle glycogen and lipid during leg ergometer cycling. Int J Sports Med 1980; 1: 86–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Graham TE, Helge JW, MacLean DA, et al. Caffeine ingestion does not alter carbohydrate or fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise. J Physiol (London) 2000; 529: 837–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    van Soeren M, Mohr T, Kjaer M, et al. Acute effects of caffeine ingestion at rest in humans with impaired epinephrine responses. J Appl Physiol 1996; 80: 999–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chesley A, Howlett RA, Heigenhauser JF, et al. Regulation of muscle glycogenolytic flux during intense aerobic exercise after caffeine ingestion. Am J Physiol 1998; 275 (2 Pt 2): R596-R603Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Laurent D, Scheider KE, Prusaczyk WK, et al. Effects of caffeine on muscle glycogen utilization and the neuroendocrine axis during exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 2170–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Vergauwen L, Richter EA, Hespel P. Adenosine exerts a glycogen-sparing action in contracting rat skeletal muscle. AmJ Physiol 1997; 272 (5 Pt 1): E762-E768Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Anderson DE, Hickey MS. Effects of caffeine on the metabolic and catecholamine responses to exercise in 5 and 28 degrees C. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26: 453–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chesley A, Hultman E, Spriet LL. Effects of epinephrine infusion on muscle glycogenolysis during intense aerobic exercise. Am J Physiol (1 Pt 1) 1995; 268: E127-E134Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    van Baak MA, Saris WHM. The effect of caffeine on endurance performance after nonselective β-adrenergic blockade. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (2): 499–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Daniels JW, Mole PA, Shaffrath JD, et al. Effects of caffeine on blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm blood flow during dynamic leg exercise. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85: 154–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lindinger MI, Sjogaard G. Potassium regulation during exercise and recovery. Sports Med 1991; 11 (6): 382–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sjogaard G. Exercise-induced muscle fatigue: the significance of potassium. Acta Physiol Scand 1990; 140: 1–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sjogaard G. Muscle fatigue. Med Sport Sci 1987; 26: 98–109Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lindinger MI, Graham TE, Spriet LL. Caffeine attenuates the exercise-induced increase in plasma [K+] in humans. J Appl Physiol 1993; 74: 1149–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lindinger MI, Willmets RG, Hawke TJ. Stimulation of Na+, K+-pump activity in skeletal muscle by methylxanthines: evidence and proposed mechanisms. Acta Physiol Scand 1996; 156: 347–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Benowitz NL. Clinical pharmacology of caffeine. Annu Rev Med 1990; 41: 277–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Battig K, Welzl H. Psychopharmacological profile of caffeine. In: Garattini S, editor. Caffeine, coffee, and health. New York (NY): Raven Press, 1993: 213–54Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    van der Stelt O, Snel J. Effects of caffeine on human information processing: a cognitive-energetic approach. In: Garattini S, editor. Caffeine, coffee, and health. New York (NY): Raven Press, 1993: 291–316Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human Biology and Nutritional SciencesUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations