Sports Medicine

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 211–234

Reliability of Power in Physical Performance Tests

  • Will G. Hopkins
  • Elske J. Schabort
  • John A. Hawley
Review Article


The reliability of power in tests of physical performance affects the precision of assessment of athletes, patients, clients and study participants. In this meta-analytic review we identify the most reliable measures of power and the factors affecting reliability. Our measures of reliability were the typical (standard) error of measurement expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) and the percent change in the mean between trials. We meta-analysed these measures for power or work from 101 studies of healthy adults. Measures and tests with the smallest CV in exercise of a given duration include field tests of sprint running (∼0.9%), peak power in an incremental test on a treadmill or cycle ergometer (∼0.9%), equivalent mean power in a constant-power test lasting 1 minute to 3 hours on a treadmill or cycle ergometer (0.9 to 2.0%), lactate-threshold power (∼1.5%), and jump height or distance (∼2.0%). The CV for mean power on isokinetic ergometers was relatively large (>4%). CV were larger for nonathletes versus athletes (1.3 ×), female versus male nonathletes (1.4 ×), shorter (∼1-second) and longer (∼1-hour) versus 1-minute tests (≤1.6 ×), and respiratory- versus ergometer-based measures of power (1.4 to 1.6 ×). There was no clear-cut effect of time between trials. The importance of a practice trial was evident in studies with >2 trials: the CV between the first 2 trials was 1.3 times the CV between subsequent trials; performance also improved by 1.2% between the first 2 trials but by only 0.2% between subsequent trials. These findings should help exercise practitioners and researchers select or design good measures and protocols for tests of physical performance.

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Will G. Hopkins
    • 1
  • Elske J. Schabort
    • 2
  • John A. Hawley
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, School of Medical SciencesUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  2. 2.Sports Science Institute of South AfricaCape TownSouth Africa
  3. 3.Exercise Metabolism Group, School of Medical SciencesRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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