Sports Medicine

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 145–154

Detraining: Loss of Training-Induced Physiological and Performance Adaptations. Part II

Long Term Insufficient Training Stimulus
Leading Article

Abstract

This part II discusses detraining following an insufficient training stimulus period longer than 4 weeks, as well as several strategies that may be useful to avoid its negative impact. The maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) of athletes declines markedly but remains above control values during long term detraining, whereas recently acquired V̇O2max gains are completely lost. This is partly due to reduced blood volume, cardiac dimensions and ventilatory efficiency, resulting in lower stroke volume and cardiac output, despite increased heart rates. Endurance performance is accordingly impaired. Resting muscle glycogen levels return to baseline, carbohydrate utilisation increases and the lactate threshold is lowered, although it remains above untrained values in the highly trained. At the muscle level, capillarisation, arterial-venous oxygen difference and oxidative enzyme activities decline in athletes and are completely reversed in recently trained individuals, contributing significantly to the long term loss in V̇O2max. Oxidative fibre proportion is decreased in endurance athletes, whereas it increases in strength athletes, whose fibre areas are significantly reduced. Force production declines slowly, and usually remains above control values for very long periods. All these negative effects can be avoided or limited by reduced training strategies, as long as training intensity is maintained and frequency reduced only moderately. On the other hand, training volume can be markedly reduced. Cross-training may also be effective in maintaining training-induced adaptations. Athletes should use similar-mode exercise, but moderately trained individuals could also benefit from dissimilar-mode cross-training. Finally, the existence of a cross-transfer effect between ipsilateral and contralateral limbs should be considered in order to limit detraining during periods of unilateral immobilisation.

References

  1. 1.
    Mujika I. Detraining: loss of training-induced physiological and performance adaptations. Part I. Short term insufficient training stimulus. Sports Med 2000: 30 (2): 79–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fardy PS. Effects of soccer training and detraining upon selected cardiac and metabolic measures. Res Q 1969; 40 (3): 502–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Drinkwater BL, Horvath SM. Detraining effects on young women. Med Sci Sports 1972; 4 (2): 91–5Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coyle EF, Martin III WH, Sinacore DR, et al. Time course of loss of adaptations after stopping prolonged intense endurance training. J Appl Physiol 1984; 57 (6): 1857–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coyle EF, Martin III WH, Bloomfield SA, et al. Effects of detraining on responses to submaximal exercise. J Appl Physiol 1985; 59 (3): 853–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Martin III WH, Coyle EF, Bloomfield SA, et al. Effects of physical deconditioning after intense endurance training on left ventricular dimensions and stroke volume. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986; 7 (5): 982–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pavlik G, Bachl N, Wollein W, et al. Effect of training and detraining on the resting echocardiographic parameters in runners and cyclists. J Sports Cardiol 1986; 3: 35–45Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allen GD. Physiological and metabolic changes with six weeks detraining. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1989; 21 (1): 4–9Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miyamura M, Ishida K. Adaptive changes in hypercapnic ventilatory response during training and detraining. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 60: 353–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fringer MN, Stull GA. Changes in cardiorespiratory parameters during periods of training and detraining in young adult females. Med Sci Sports 1974; 6 (1): 20–5Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miyashita M, Haga S, Mizuta T. Training and detraining effects on aerobic power inmiddle-aged and older men. J Sports Med 1978; 18: 131–7Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Klausen K, Andersen LB, Pelle I. Adaptive changes in work capacity, skeletal muscle capillarization and enzyme levels during training and detraining. Acta Physiol Scand 1981; 113: 9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fournier M, Ricci J, Taylor AW, et al. Skeletal muscle adaptation in adolescent boys: sprint and endurance training and detraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1982; 14 (6): 453–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Simoneau J-A, Lortie G, Boulay MR, et al. Effects of two high-intensity intermittent training programs interspaced by detraining on human skeletal muscle and performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 1987; 56: 516–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang J-S, Jen CJ, Chen H-I. Effects of chronic exercise and deconditioning on platelet function in women. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83 (6): 2080–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ready AE, Quinney HA. Alterations in anaerobic threshold as the result of endurance training and detraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1982; 14 (4): 292–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Després JP, Bouchard C, Savard R, et al. Effects of exercise training and detraining on fat cell lipolysis in men andwomen. Eur J Appl Physiol 1984; 53: 25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thompson PD, Cullinane EM, Eshleman R, et al. The effects of caloric restriction or exercise cessation on the serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations of endurance athletes. Metabolism 1984; 33 (10): 943–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Coyle EF, Hemmert MK, Coggan AR. Effects of detraining on cardiovascular responses to exercise: role of blood volume. J Appl Physiol 1986; 60 (1): 95–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cullinane EM, Sady SP, Vadeboncoeur L, et al. Cardiac size and V̇O2max do not decrease after short-term exercise cessation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986; 18 (4): 420–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Houmard JA, Hortobágyi T, Johns RA, et al. Effect of shortterm training cessation on performance measures in distance runners. Int J Sports Med 1992; 13 (8): 572–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Raven PB, Welch-O’Connor RM, Shi X. Cardiovascular function following reduced aerobic activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30 (7): 1041–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Michael E, Evert J, Jeffers K. Physiological changes of teenage girls during five months of detraining. Med Sci Sports 1972; 4 (4): 214–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Penny GD, Wells MR. Heart rate, blood pressure, serum lactate, and serum cholesterol changes after the cessation of training. J Sports Med 1975; 15: 223–8Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smith DP, Stransky FW. The effect of training and detraining on the body composition and cardiovascular response of young women to exercise. J Sports Med 1976; 16: 112–20Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hardman AE, Hudson A. Brisk walking and serum lipid and lipoprotein variables in previously sedentary women: effect of 12 weeks of regular brisk walking followed by 12 weeks of detraining. Br J Sports Med 1994; 28 (4): 261–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Giannattasio C, Seravalle G, Cattaneo BM, et al. Effect of detraining on the cardiopulmonary reflex in professional runners and hammer throwers. Am J Cardiol 1992; 69: 677–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mujika I, Chatard J-C, Busso T, et al. Effects of training on performance in competitive swimming. Can J Appl Physiol 1995; 20: 395–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Costill DL, King DS, Thomas R, et al. Effects of reduced training on muscular power in swimmers. Physician Sports Med 1985; 13 (2): 94–101Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Madsen K, Pedersen PK, Djurhuus MS, et al. Effects of detraining on endurance capacity and metabolic changes during prolonged exhaustive exercise. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75 (4): 1444–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Houston ME, Bentzen H, Larsen H. Interrelationships between skeletal muscle adaptations and performance as studied by detraining and retraining. Acta Physiol Scand 1979; 105: 163–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bangsbo J, Mizuno M. Morphological and metabolic alterations in soccer players with detraining and retraining and their relation to performance. In: Reilly T, Lees A, Davids K, et al., editors. Science and football: proceedings of the First World Congress of Science and Football; 1987 Apr 12–17; Liverpool, 114–24Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chi MM-Y, Hintz CS, Coyle EF, et al. Effect of detraining on enzymes of energy metabolism in individual human muscle fibers. Am J Physiol 1983; 244: C276–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Amigó N, Cadefau JA, Ferrer I, et al. Effect of summer intermission on skeletal muscle of adolescent soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1998; 38: 298–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Houston ME, Froese EA, Valeriote SP, et al. Muscle performance, morphology and metabolic capacity during strength training and detraining: a one leg model. Eur J Appl Physiol 1983; 51: 25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wibom R, Hultman E, Johansson M, et al. Adaptation of mitochondrial ATP production in human skeletal muscle to endurance training and detraining. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73 (5): 2004–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Staron RS, Hagerman FC, Hikida RS. The effects of detraining on an elite power lifter: a case study. J Neurol Sci 1981; 51: 247–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Häkkinen K, Alén M. Physiological performance, serum hormones, enzymes and lipids of an elite power athlete during training with and without androgens and during prolonged detraining: a case study. J Sports Med 1986; 26: 92–100Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Larsson L, Ansved T. Effects of long-termphysical training and detraining on enzyme histochemical and functional skeletal muscle characteristics in man. Muscle Nerve 1985; 8: 714–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dahlström M, Esbjörnsson M, Jansson E, et al. Muscle fiber characteristics in female dancers during and active and an inactive period. Int J Sports Med 1987; 8 (2): 84–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Häkkinen K, Komi PV, Tesch PA. Effect of combined concentric and eccentric strength training and detraining on forcetime, muscle fiber and metabolic characteristics of leg extensor muscles. Scand J Sports Sci 1981; 3 (2): 50–8Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Häkkinen K, Alén M, Komi PV. Changes in isometric forceand relaxation-time, electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of human skeletal muscle during strength training and detraining. Acta Physiol Scand 1985; 125: 573–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Narici MV, Roi GS, Landoni L, et al. Changes in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps. Eur J Appl Physiol 1989; 59: 310–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Häkkinen K, Komi PV. Electromyographic changes during strength training and detraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1983; 15 (6): 455–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sysler BL, Stull GA. Muscular endurance retention as a function of length of detraining. Res Q 1970; 41 (1): 105–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shaver LG. Cross-transfer effects of conditioning and deconditioning on muscular strength. Ergonomics 1975; 18 (1): 9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hodikin AV. Maintaining the training effect during work stoppage. Teoriya i Praktika Fiziocheskoi Kultury 1982; 3: 45–8Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ishida K, Moritani T, Itoh K. Changes in voluntary and electrically induced contractions during strength training and detraining. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 60: 244–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Staron RS, Leonardi MJ, Karapondo DL, et al. Strength and skeletal muscle adaptations in heavy-resistance-trained women after detraining and retraining. J Appl Physiol 1991; 70 (2): 631–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Colliander EB, Tesch PA. Effects of detraining following short term resistance training on eccentric and concentric muscle strength. Acta Physiol Scand 1992; 144: 23–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tucci JT, Carpenter DM, Pollock ML, et al. Effect of reduced frequency of training and detraining on lumbar extension strength. Spine 1992; 17 (12): 1497–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Faigenbaum AD, Westcott WL, Micheli LJ, et al. The effects of strength training and detraining on children. J Strength Cond Res 1996; 10 (2): 109–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Housh TJ, Housh DJ, Weir JP, et al. Effects of eccentric-only resistance training and detraining. Int J Sports Med 1996; 17 (2): 145–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kjaer M, Mikines KJ, Linstow MV, et al. Effect of 5 wk of detraining on epinephrine response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in athletes. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72 (3): 1201–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Neufer PD, Costill DL, Fielding RA, et al. Effect of reduced training on muscular strength and endurance in competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19 (5): 486–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Houmard JA, Kirwan JP, Flynn MG, et al. Effects of reduced training on submaximal and maximal running responses. Int J Sports Med 1989; 10 (1): 30–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Houmard JA, Costill DL, Mitchell JB, et al. Reduced training maintains performance in distance runners. Int J Sports Med 1990; 11 (1): 46–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Houmard JA, Costill DL, Mitchell JB, et al. Testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase levels in male distance runners during reduced training. Int J Sports Med 1990; 11 (1): 41–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    McConell GK, Costill DL, Widrick JJ, et al. Reduced training volume and intensity maintain aerobic capacity but not performance in distance runners. Int J Sports Med 1993; 14 (1): 33–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Martin DT, Scifres JC, Zimmerman SD, et al. Effects of interval training and a taper on cycling performance and isokinetic leg strength. Int J Sports Med 1994; 15 (8): 485–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ciuti C, Marcello C, Macis A, et al. Improved aerobic power by detraining in basketball players mainly trained for strength. Sports Med Training Rehabil 1996; 6: 325–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hickson RC, Rosenkoetter MA. Reduced training frequencies and maintenance of increased aerobic power. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1981; 13 (1): 13–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hickson RC, Kanakis JC, Davis JR, et al. Reduced training duration effects on aerobic power, endurance and cardiac growth. J Appl Physiol 1982; 53 (1): 225–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hickson RC, Foster C, Pollock ML, et al. Reduced training intensities and loss of aerobic power, endurance, and cardiac growth. J Appl Physiol 1985; 58 (2): 492–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Houmard JA, Tyndall GL, Midyette JB, et al. Effect of reduced training and training cessation on insulin action and muscle GLUT-4. J Appl Physiol 1996; 81 (3): 1162–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Graves JE, Pollock ML, Leggett SH, et al. Effect of reduced training frequency on muscular strength. Int J Sports Med 1988; 9: 316–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schneider V, Arnold B, Martin K, et al. Detraining effects in college football players during the competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 1998; 12 (1): 42–5Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Van Handel PJ, Katz A, Troup JP, et al. Oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid response to training and taper. In: Ungerechts BE, Wilke K, Reischle K, editors. Swimming science V. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1988: 269–75Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Neufer PD. The effect of detraining and reduced training on the physiological adaptations to aerobic exercise training. Sports Med 1989; 8 (5): 302–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Houmard JA. Impact of reduced training on performance in endurance athletes. Sports Med 1991; 12 (6): 380–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shepley B, MacDougall JD, Cipriano N, et al. Physiological effects of tapering in highly trained athletes. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72 (2): 706–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Houmard JA, Johns RA. Effects of taper on swim performance: practical implications. Sports Med 1994; 17 (4): 224–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mujika I. The influence of training characteristics and tapering on the adaptation in highly trained individuals: a review. Int J Sports Med 1998; 19 (7): 439–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mujika I, Goya A, Padilla S, et al. Physiological responses to a 6-day taper in middle-distance runners: influence of training intensity and volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (2): 511–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cavanaugh DJ, Musck KI. Arm and leg power of elite swimmers increase after taper as measured by biokinetic variable resistance machines. J Swimming Res 1989; 5: 7–10Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Costill DL, Thomas R, Robergs RA, et al. Adaptations to swimming training: influence of training volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991; 23 (3): 371–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    D’Acquisto LJ, Bone M, Takahasi S, et al. Changes in aerobic power and swimming economy as a result of reduced training volume. In: MacLaren D Reilly T, Lees A, editors. Swimming science VI. London: E & FN Spon, 1992: 201–5Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Johns RA, Houmard JA, Kobe RW, et al. Effects of taper on swim power, stroke distance and performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992; 24 (10): 1141–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gibala MJ, MacDougall JD, Sale DG. The effects of tapering on strength performance in trained athletes. Int J Sports Med 1994; 15 (8): 492–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Houmard JA, Scott BK, Justice CL, et al. The effects of taper on performance in distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26 (5): 624–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mujika I, Busso T, Lacoste L, et al. Modeled responses to training and taper in competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28 (2): 251–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bryntesson P, Sinning WE. The effects of training frequencies on the retention of cardiovascular fitness. Med Sci Sports 1973; 5: 29–33Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Loy SF, Hoffmann JJ, Holland GJ. Benefits and practical use of cross-training in sports. Sports Med 1995; 19 (1): 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Moroz DE, Houston ME. The effects of replacing endurance running training with cycling in female runners. Can J Sport Sci 1987; 12: 131–5Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Claude AB, Sharp RL. The effectiveness of cycle ergometer training in maintaining aerobic fitness during detraining from competitive swimming. J Swimming Res 1991; 7 (3): 17–20Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hellenbrandt FA, Parrish AM, Houtz SJ. Cross education: the influence of unilateral exercise on the contralateral limb. Arch Phys Med 1947; 28: 76–85Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Coleman AE. Effect of unilateral isometric and isotonic contractions on the strength of the contralateral limb. Res Q 1969; 40: 490–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Krotkiewski M, Aniansson A, Grimby G, et al. The effect of unilateral isokinetic strength training on local adipose and muscle tissue morphology, thickness, and enzymes. Eur J Appl Physiol 1979; 42: 271–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Moritani T, deVries HA. Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course ofmuscle strength gain. Am J Phys Med 1979; 58: 115–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kannus P, Alosa D, Cook L, et al. Effect of one-legged exercise on the strength, power and endurance of the contralateral leg. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992; 64: 117–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Housh DJ, Housh TJ. The effect of unilateral velocity-specific concentric strength training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1993; 17: 252–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Weir JP, Housh TJ, Weir LL. Electromyographic evaluation of joint angle specificity and cross-training after isometric training. J Appl Physiol 1994; 77: 197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Coyle EF. Detraining and retention of training-induced adaptations. In: Blair SN, et al., editors. Resource manual for guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia (PA): Lea & Febiger, 1988: 83–9Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Convertino VA, Bloomfield SA, Greenleaf JE. An overview of the issues: physiological effects of bed rest and restricted physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29 (2): 187–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Greenleaf JE. Physiology of fluid and electrolyte responses during inactivity: water immersion and bed rest. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1984; 16 (1): 20–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Convertino VA. Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29 (2): 191–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bloomfield SA. Changes inmusculoskeletal structure and function with prolonged bed rest. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29 (2): 197–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sullivan MJ, Binkley PF, Unverferth DV, et al. Prevention of bedrest-induced physical deconditioning by daily dobutamine infusions. J Clin Invest 1985; 76: 1632–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bamman MM, Hunter GR, Stevens BR, et al. Resistance exercise prevents plantar flexor deconditioning during bed rest. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29 (11): 1462–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Greenleaf JE. Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29 (2): 207–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Research and Development, Medical ServicesAthletic Club of BilbaoBasque Country, Spain
  2. 2.Mediplan SportVitoria - GasteizBasque Country, Spain

Personalised recommendations