Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 28, Issue 6, pp 413–427 | Cite as

Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training

A Review
  • Michael LeverittEmail author
  • Peter J. Abernethy
  • Benjamin K. Barry
  • Peter A. Logan
Review Artcile

Abstract

Concurrent strength and endurance training appears to inhibit strength development when compared with strength training alone. Our understanding of the nature of this inhibition and the mechanisms responsible for it is limited at present. This is due to the difficulties associated with comparing results of studies which differ markedly in a number of design factors, including the mode, frequency, duration and intensity of training, training history of participants, scheduling of training sessions and dependent variable selection. Despite these difficulties, both chronic and acute hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phenomenon of strength inhibition during concurrent training. The chronic hypothesis contends that skeletal muscle cannot adapt metabolically or morphologically to both strength and endurance training simultaneously. This is because many adaptations at the muscle level observed in response to strength training are different from those observed after endurance training. The observation that changes in muscle fibre type and size after concurrent training are different from those observed after strength training provide some support for the chronic hypothesis. The acute hypothesis contends that residual fatigue from the endurance component of concurrent training compromises the ability to develop tension during the strength element of concurrent training. It is proposed that repeated acute reductions in the quality of strength training sessions then lead to a reduction in strength development over time. Peripheral fatigue factors such as muscle damage and glycogen depletion have been implicated as possible fatigue mechanisms associated with the acute hypothesis. Further systematic research is necessary to quantify the inhibitory effects of concurrent training on strength development and to identify different training approaches that may overcome any negative effects of concurrent training.

Keywords

Adis International Limited Resistance Training Strength Training Endurance Training Muscle Glycogen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hickson RC. Interference of strength development by simultaneously training for strength and endurance. Eur J Appl Physiol 1980; 45: 255–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dudley GA, Djamil R. Incompatibility of endurance and strength training modes of exercise. J Appl Physiol 1985; 59: 1446–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Craig BW, Lucas J, Pohlman R, et al. Effects of running, weightlifting and a combination of both on growth hormone release. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1991; 5: 198–203Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hennessy LC, Watson AWS. The interference effects of training for strength and endurance simultaneously. J Strength Cond Res 1994; 8: 12–9Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kraemer WJ, Patton JF, Gordon SE, et al. Compatibility of high-intensity strength and endurance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. J Appl Physiol 1995; 78: 976–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sale DG, MacDougal JD, Jacobs I, et al. Interaction between concurrent strength and endurance training. J Appl Physiol 1990; 68: 260–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bell GJ, Petersen SR, Wessel J, et al. Physiological adaptations to concurrent endurance training and low velocity resistance training. Int J Sports Med 1991; 12: 384–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abernethy PJ, Quigley BM. Concurrent strength and endurance training of the elbow extensors. J Strength Cond Res 1993; 7: 234–40Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    McCarthy JP, Agre JC, Graf BK, et al. Compatibility of adaptive responses with combining strength and endurance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 429–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nelson AG, Arnall DA, Loy SF, et al. Consequences of combining strength and endurance training regimens. Phys Ther 1990; 70: 287–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bell G, Syrotuik D, Socha T, et al. Effect of strength training and concurrent strength and endurance training on strength, testosterone, and cortisol. J Strength Cond Res 1997; 11: 57–64Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hunter G, Demment R, Miller D. Development of strength and maximum oxygen uptake during simultaneous training for strength and endurance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1987; 27: 269–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thomas JR, Nelson JK. Research methods in physical activity. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1990Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dudley GA, Fleck SJ. Strength and endurance training: are they mutually exclusive? Sports Med 1987; 4: 79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chromiak JA, Mulvaney DR. A review: the effects of combined strength and endurance training on strength development. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1990; 4: 55–60Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abernethy PJ, Jurimae J. Cross sectional and longitudinal uses of isoinertial, isometric, and isokinetic dynamometry. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 1180–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hickson RC, Dvorak BA, Gorostiaga EM, et al. Potential for strength and endurance training to amplify endurance performance. J Appl Physiol 1988; 65: 2285–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marcinik EJ, Potts J, Schlabach G, et al. Effects of strength training on lactate threshold and endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991; 23: 739–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bishop D, Jenkins DG, Mackinnon LT, et al. The effects of strength training on endurance performance and muscle characteristics. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31: 886–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT. Monitoring overtraining in athletes: recommendations. Sports Med 1995; 20: 321–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abernethy PJ, Thayer R, Taylor AW, et al. Acute and chronic responses of skeletal muscle to endurance and sprint exercise: a review. Sports Med 1990; 10: 365–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abernethy PJ, Jurimae J, Logan PA, et al. Acute and chronic response of skeletal muscle to resistance exercise. Sports Med 1994; 17: 22–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Benzi G, Panceri P, de Bernardi M, et al. Mitochondrial enzymatic adaptation of skeletal muscle to endurance training. J Appl Physiol 1975; 38: 565–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gollnick PD, Armstrong RB, Saltin B, et al. Effect of training on enzyme activity and fiber composition of human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 1973; 34: 107–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tesch PA, Komi PV, Hakkinen K. Enzymatic adaptations consequent to long term strength training. Int J Sports Med 1987; 8: 66–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Costill DL, Fink W, Pollock ML. Muscle fibre composition and enzymatic activities of elite distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1976; 8: 96–100Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Houston ME. The use of histochemistry in muscle adaptation: a critical assessment. Can J Appl Sport Sci 1978; 3: 109–19Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Karapondo D, Staron R, Hagerman F. The time course for fast twitch fiber type conversions in resistance trained men and women [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991; 23: S130Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Staron RS, Karapondo DL, Kraemer WJ, et al. Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy resistance training in men and women. J Appl Physiol 1994; 76: 1247–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bottinelli R, Schiaffino S, Reggiaini C. Force velocity relations and myosin heavy chain isoform compositions of skinned fibres from rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol 1991; 437: 655–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Steinen GJM, Kiers JL, Bottinelli R, et al. Myofibrillar ATPase in skinned human skeletal muscle fibres: fibre type and temperature dependence. J Physiol 1996; 493: 299–307Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jurimae J, Abernethy PJ, Blake K, et al. Changes in the myosin heavy chain isoform profile of the triceps brachii muscle following 12 weeks of resistance training. Eur J Appl Physiol 1996; 74: 287–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tesch PA. Skeletal muscle adaptations consequent to long-term heavy resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: S132–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fitts RH, Mcdonald KS, Schluter JM. The determinants of skeletal muscle force and power: their adaptability with changes in activity pattern. J Biomech 1991; 24: S11–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hakkinen K, Komi PV, Tesch PA. Effect of combined concentric and eccentric training and detraining on force time, muscle fibre, and metabolic characteristics of leg extensor muscles. Scand J Sport Sci 1981; 3: 50–8Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    MacDougal JD, Elder GCB, Sale DG, et al. Effects of strength training and immobilization on human muscle fibres. Eur J Appl Physiol 1980; 43: 25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Costill DL, Coyle EF, Fink WF, et al. Adaptations in skeletal muscle following strength training. J Appl Physiol 1979; 46: 96–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Staron RS, Hikida RS, Hagerman FC, et al. Human skeletal muscle adaptability to various workloads. J Histochem Cytochem 1984; 32: 146–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Almon RR, Dobois DC. Fiber-type discrimination in diuse and glucocorticoid-induced atrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990; 22: 304–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hackney AC, Premo MC, McMurray RG. Influence of aerobic versus anaerobic exercise on the relationship between reproductive hormones in men. J Sports Sci 1995; 13: 305–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tabata I, Atomi Y, Mutoh Y, et al. Effect of physical training on the responses of serum adrenocorticotrophic hormone during prolonged exhausting exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 61: 188–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kraemer WJ, Fleck SJ, Dziados JE, et al. Changes in hormonal concentrations after different heavy-resistance exercise protocols in women. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75: 594–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen K, Newton RU, et al. Acute hormonal responses to heavy resistance exercise in younger and older men. Eur J Appl Physiol 1998; 77: 206–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kraemer WJ, Staron RS, Hagerman FC, et al. The effects of short-term resistance training on endocrine function in men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol 1998; 78: 69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A. Acute hormonal responses to heavy resistance exercise in men and women at different ages. Int J Sports Med 1995; 16: 507–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Bush JA, et al. Testosterone and cortisol in relationship to dietary nutrients and resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 1997; 82: 49–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Henriksson J, Reitman JS. Quantitative measures of enzyme activities in type I and type II muscle fibres of man after training. Acta Physiol Scand 1976; 97: 392–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gollnick PD, Piehl K, Saltin B. Selective glycogen depletion pattern in human muscle fibres after exercise of varying intensity and at varying pedalling rates. J Physiol 1974; 241: 45–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Enoka RM, Stuart DG. Henneman’s ‘size principle’: current issues. Trends Neurosci 1984; 7: 226–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bandy WD, Lovelace-Chandler V, McKitrick-Bandy B. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to resistance training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990; 12: 248–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ono M, Miyashita M, Asami T. Inhibitory effect of long distance running training on the vertical jump and other performances among aged males. In: Komi PV, editor. Biomechanics v-b. Baltimore (MD): University Park Press, 1976: 94–100Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Atha J. Strengthening muscle. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1981; 9: 1–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jacobs I. Adaptations to strength training. In: Macleod D, editor. Intermittent high intensity exercise: preparation, stresses, and damage limitation. London: E & FN Spoon, 1993: 27–32Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Collins MA, Snow TK. Are adaptations to combined endurance and strength training affected by the sequence of training? J Sports Sci 1993; 11: 485–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sale DG, Jacobs I, MacDougal JD, et al. Comparison of two regimens of concurrent strength and endurance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990; 22: 348–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kroon GW, Naeije M. Recovery following exhaustive dynamic exercise in human biceps muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol 1988; 58: 228–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Carroll TJ, Abernethy PJ, Logan PA, et al. Resistance training frequency: strength and myosin heavy chain responses to two and three bouts per week. Eur J Appl Physiol 1998; 78: 270–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Logan PA, Abernethy PJ. Time course changes in strength and indices of acute fatigue following heavy resistance exercise [abstract]. Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport; 1996 Oct 28–31; Canberra, 238–9Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rooney KJ, Herbert RD, Balnave RJ. Fatigue contributes to the strength training stimulus. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26: 1160–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Abernethy PJ. Influence of acute endurance activity on isokinetic strength. J Strength Cond Res 1993; 7: 141–6Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Leveritt M, Abernethy PJ. Acute effects of high intensity endurance exercise on subsequent resistance activity. J Strength Cond Res 1999; 13: 47–51Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Leveritt M, MacLaughlin H, Abernethy PJ. Effect of endurance exercise on strength performance after 8 and 32 hours [abstract]. Sports Medicine Australia (Queensland Branch) State Conference; 1998 May 2–4; Coolum, 41Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Edwards RHT, Hill DK, Jones DA, et al. Fatigue of long duration in human skeletal muscle after exercise. J Physiol 1977; 272: 769–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    MacLaren DPM, Gibson H, Parry-Billings M, et al. A review of metabolic and physiological factors in fatigue. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1989; 17: 29–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sahlin K. Metabolic factors in fatigue. Sports Med 1992; 13: 99–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Foxdal P, Sjodin A, Sjodin B. Comparison of blood lactate concentrations obtained during incremental and constant intensity exercise. Int J Sports Med 1996; 17: 360–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Francaux MA, Jacqmin PA, Sturbois XG. Variations in lactate apparent clearance during rest and exercise in normal man. Arch Int Physiol Biochem Biophys 1993; 101: 303–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Clarkson PM, Tremblay I. Exercise induced muscle damage, repair, and adaptation in humans. J Appl Physiol 1988; 65: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Newham DJ, Jones DA, Clarkson PM. Repeated high force eccentric exercise: effects on muscle pain and damage. J Appl Physiol 1987; 63: 1381–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sargeant AJ, Dolan P. Human muscle function following prolonged eccentric exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1987; 56: 704–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Byrnes WC, Clarkson PM, White JS, et al. Delayed onset muscle soreness following repeated bouts of downhill running. J Appl Physiol 1985; 59: 710–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ebbeling CB, Clarkson PM. Exercise induced muscle damage and adaptation. Sports Med 1989; 7: 207–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sherman WM, Armstrong LE, Murray TM, et al. Effect of a 42.2-km foot race and subsequent rest or exercise on muscular strength and work capacity. J Appl Physiol 1984; 57: 1668–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hermansen L, Hultman E, Saltin B. Muscle glycogen during prolonged severe exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 1967; 71: 129–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bergstrom J, Hermansen L, Hultman E, et al. Muscle glycogen and physical performance. Acta Physiol Scand 1967; 70: 140–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Costill DL, Miller JM. Nutrition for endurance sport: carbohydrate and fluid balance. Int J Sports Med 1980; 1: 2–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Coyle EF. Carbohydrate feeding during exercise. Int J Sports Med 1992; 13: S126–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tesch PA, Colliander EB, Kaiser P. Muscle metabolism during heavy resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1986; 55: 362–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    MacDougal JD, Ray S, McCartney N, et al. Substrate utilization during weightlifting [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20: S66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lambert CP, Flynn MG, Boone JB, et al. The effects of carbohydrate feeding on multiple-bout resistance exercise. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1991; 5: 192–7Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hepburn D, Maughan RJ. Glycogen availability as a limiting factor in the performance of isometric exercise. J Physiol 1982; 342: 52–3PGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Leveritt M, Abernethy PJ. Effects of carbohydrate restriction on strength performance. J Strength Cond Res 1999; 13: 52–7Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Symons JD, Jacobs I. High-intensity exercise performance is not impaired by low intramuscular glycogen. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21: 550–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Grisdale RK, Jacobs I, Cafarelli E. Relative effects of glycogen depletion and previous exercise on muscle force and endurance capacity. J Appl Physiol 1990; 69: 1276–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Young K, Davies CTM. Effect of diet on human muscle weakness following prolonged exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1984; 53: 81–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jacobs I, Kaiser P, Tesch P. Muscle strength and fatigue after selective glycogen depletion in human skeletal muscle fibres. Eur J Appl Physiol 1981; 46: 47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Leveritt
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Peter J. Abernethy
    • 2
  • Benjamin K. Barry
    • 2
  • Peter A. Logan
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Sport and Exercise ScienceWaikato PolytechnicHamiltonNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Human Movement StudiesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Exercise Physiology and Applied NutritionAustralian Institute of SportCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations