Overtraining and Recovery
- 2.1k Downloads
Fiercer competition between athletes and a wider knowledge of optimal training regimens dramatically influence current training methods. A single training bout per day was previously considered sufficient, whereas today athletes regularly train twice a day or more. Consequently, the number of athletes who are overtraining and have insufficient rest is increasing.
Positive overtraining can be regarded as a natural process when the end result is adaptation and improved performance; the supercompensation principle — which includes the breakdown process (training) followed by the recovery process (rest) — is well known in sports. However, negative overtraining, causing maladaptation and other negative consequences such as staleness, can occur.
Physiological, psychological, biochemical and immunological symptoms must be considered, both independently and together, to fully understand the ’staleness’ syndrome. However, psychological testing may reveal early-warning signs more readily than the various physiological or immunological markers.
The time frame of training and recovery is also important since the consequences of negative overtraining comprise an overtraining-response continuum from short to long term effects. An athlete failing to recover within 72 hours has presumably negatively overtrained and is in an overreached state. For an elite athlete to refrain from training for >72 hours is extremely undesirable, highlighting the importance of a carefully monitored recovery process.
There are many methods used to measure the training process but few with which to match the recovery process against it. One such framework for this is referred to as the total quality recovery (TQR) process. By using a TQR scale, structured around the scale developed for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), the recovery process can be monitored and matched against the breakdown (training) process (TQR versus RPE). The TQR scale emphasises both the athlete’s perception of recovery and the importance of active measures to improve the recovery process. Furthermore, directing attention to psychophysiological cues serves the same purpose as in RPE, i.e. increasing self-awareness.
This article reviews and conceptualises the whole overtraining process. In doing so, it (i) aims to differentiate between the types of stress affecting an athlete’s performance; (ii) identifies factors influencing an athlete’s ability to adapt to physical training; (iii) structures the recovery process. The TQR method to facilitate monitoring of the recovery process is then suggested and a conceptual model that incorporates all of the important parameters for performance gain (adaptation) and loss (maladaptation).
KeywordsAdis International Limited Recovery Process Elite Athlete Training Load Breakdown Process
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bompa T. Theory and methodology of training: the key to athletic performance. Dubuque (IA): Kendall/Hunt, 1983Google Scholar
- 2.Raglin JS. Overtraining and staleness: psychometric monitoring of endurance athletes. In. Singer RB, Murphey B, Tennant LK, editors. Handbook of research on sport psychology. New York (NY): Macmillan, 1993; 840–50Google Scholar
- 3.Lehman M, Foster C, Keul J. Overtraining in endurance athletes: a brief review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993; 26: 854–61Google Scholar
- 10.Maslach C. Burned-out. Hum Behav 1976; 5: 16–22Google Scholar
- 11.Smith RE. Toward a cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout. J Sport Psychol 1986; 8: 36–50Google Scholar
- 14.Marion A. Overtraining and sport performance. Coaches Report 1995; 2: 12–9Google Scholar
- 17.Kuipers H. How much is too much? Performance aspects of overtraining. Res Q Exerc Sport 1996; 67 Suppl. 3: 65–9Google Scholar
- 20.Shephard RJ, Shek PN. Potential impact of physical acitivity and sport on the immune system: a brief review. Br J Sports Med 1994; 28: 347–55Google Scholar
- 21.Raglin JS, Eksten F, Garl T. Mood state responses to a preseason conditioning program in male collegiate basketball players. Int J Sport Psychol 1995; 26: 214–25Google Scholar
- 22.O’Connor PJ. Overtraining and staleness. In. Morgan WP, editor. Physical activity and mental health. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1998: 145–60Google Scholar
- 23.Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT, Hanrahan S. Mood states as an indication of staleness and recovery. Int J Sport Psychol 1997; 28: 1–12Google Scholar
- 29.Kallus KW. Recovery-stress-questionnaire: manual. Würzburg: University of Würzburg, 1995Google Scholar
- 32.Harre D. Principles of sport training. Berlin: Sportverlag, 1982Google Scholar
- 34.Borg G. Physical performance and perceived exertion [dissertation]. Lund, Sweden: Gleerup, 1962Google Scholar
- 36.Martens R, Vealey R, Burton D. Competetive anxiety in sport. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1990Google Scholar
- 37.Harre D. Trainingslehre. Berlin, Germany: Sportverlag, 1973Google Scholar
- 38.Israel S. Zür problematic des übertrainings aus internistischer und leistungsphysiologicher sicht. Medizin Sport 1976; 16: 1–12Google Scholar
- 39.Kinderman W. Das übertraining-ausdruck einer vegitativen fehlsteuerung. Z Sportmedizin 1986; H8: 138–45Google Scholar
- 40.Brooks GA, Fahey TD. Exercise physiology: human bioenergetics and its applications. New York (NY): Macmillan, 1985Google Scholar
- 42.Uneståhl L-E. Integrerad mental träning (Integrated mental training) [Swedish]. Malmö, Sweden: Skogsgrafiska AB, 1995Google Scholar
- 44.Weinberg R, Gould D. Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1995Google Scholar
- 45.Evjenth O, Hamberg J. Muscle stretching in manual therapy. Vol. 1 & 2. Örebro, Sweden: Alfta Rehab förlag, 1985Google Scholar
- 47.Kenttä G. Överträningssyndrom: en psykofysiologisk process (Overtraining: a psychophysiological process) [Swedish]. Luleå, Sweden: Högskolan i Luleå, 1996Google Scholar
- 48.Noble BJ, Robertson RJ. Perceived exertion. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1996Google Scholar
- 50.Hassmén P. Perceived exertion: applications in sports and exercise [dissertation]. Edsbruk, Sweden: Akademitryck AB, 1991Google Scholar
- 52.Hendrickson CD, Verde TJ. Inadequate recovery from vigorous exercise: recognizing overtraining. Physician Sportsmed 1994; 22: 56–8, 61-2, 64Google Scholar