Sports Medicine

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 385–408 | Cite as

Peripheral Nerve Injuries in the Athlete

  • Joseph H. Feinberg
  • Scott F. Nadler
  • Lisa S. Krivickas
Review Article


Peripheral nerves are susceptible to injury in the athlete because of the excessive physiological demands that are made on both the neurological structures and the soft tissues that protect them. The common mechanisms of injury are compression, traction, ischaemia and laceration. Seddon’s original classification system for nerve injuries based on neurophysiological changes is the most widely used. Grade 1 nerve injury is a neuropraxic condition, grade 2 is axonal degeneration and grade 3 is nerve transection.

Peripheral nerve injuries are more common in the upper extremities than the lower extremities, tend to be sport specific, and often have a biomechanical component. While the more acute and catastophic neurological injuries are usually obvious, many remain subclinical and are not recognised before neurological damage is permanent. Early detection allows initiation of a proper rehabilitation programme and modification of biomechanics before the nerve injury becomes irreversible. Recognition of nerve injuries requires an understanding of peripheral neuroanatomy, knowledge of common sites of nerve injury and an awareness of the types of peripheral nerve injuries that are common and unique to each sport.

The electrodiagnostic exam, usually referred to as the ‘EMG’, consists of nerve conduction studies and the needle electrode examination. It is used to determine the site and degree of neurological injury and to predict outcome. It should be performed by a neurologist or physiatrist (physician specialising in physical medicine and rehabilitation), trained and skilled in this procedure. Timing is essential if the study is to provide maximal information. Findings such as decreased recruitment after injury and conduction block at the site of injury may be apparent immediately after injury but other findings such as abnormal spontaneous activity may take several weeks to develop. The electrodiagnostic test assists with both diagnosis of the injury and in predicting outcome.

Proximal nerve injuries have a poorer prognosis for neurological recovery. The most common peripheral nerve injury in the athlete is the burner syndrome. Though primarily a football injury, burners have been reported in wrestling, hockey, basketball and weight-lifting as a result of acute head, neck and/or shoulder trauma. Most burners are self-limiting, but they occasionally produce permanent neurological deficits. The axillary nerve is commonly injured with shoulder dislocations but is also susceptible to injury by direct compression. The sciatic and common peroneal nerves can be injured by trauma. The suprascapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median and tibial nerves are susceptible to entrapment. The long thoracic and femoral nerves can be injured by severe traction.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Brems J. Rotator cuff tear: evaluation and treatment. Orthopedics 1988; 11(1); 69–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sunderland S. The anatomy and physiology of nerve injury. Muscle Nerve 1990; 13:771–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seddon H. Three types of nerve injury. Brain 1943; 66: 237–88Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dumitru D, editor. Electrodiagnostic medicine. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus, 1995: 341–84Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dorfman LJ. Quantitative clinical electrophysiology in the evaluation of nerve injury and regeneration. Muscle Nerve 1990; 13: 822–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bonney G. Iatrogenic Injuries of Nerves. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1986; 68: 9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wall EJ, Massie JB, Kwan MK, et al. Experimental stretch neuropathy: changes in nerve conduction under tension. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1992; 74: 126–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lundborg G. Ischemic nerve injury: experimental studies on intraneural microvascular pathophysiology and nerve function in a limb subjected to temporary circulatory arrest. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg Suppl 1970; 6: 3–113Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilbourn AJ. Electrodiagnostic testing of neurologic injuries in athletes. Clin Sports Med 1990; 9(2): 229–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dumitru D, editor. Electrodiagnostic medicine. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus, 1995: 177–209Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hirasaswa Y, Sakakida K. Sports and peripheral nerve injury. Am J Sports Med 1983; 11: 420–6Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johnson DC. The upper extremity in swimming. In: Pettrone FA, editor. Symposium on upper extremity injuries in athletes. St Louis: Mosby, 1986: 36–46Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karas S. Thoracic outlet syndrome. Clin Sports Med 1990; 9: 297–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leffert RD. Thoracic outlet syndrome and the shoulder. Clin Sports Med 1983; 2: 439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Strukel R, Garrick J. Thoracic outlet compression in athletes. Am J Sports Med 1978; 6(2): 35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hershman EB, Wilbourn AJ, Bergfeld JA. Acute brachial neuropathy in athletes. Am J Sports Med 1989; 17(5): 655–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bennett JB, Mehloff TL. Thoracic outlet syndrome. In: DeLee JL, Drez D, editors. Orthopedic sports medicine: principles and practices. Vol. I. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1994: 794Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Travlos J, Goldberg I, Boome R. Brachial plexus lesions associated with dislocated shoulders. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1990; 72:68–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liveson J. Nerve lesions associated with shoulder dislocation: an electrodiagnostic study of 11 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1984; 47: 742–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barnes R. Traction injuries of the brachial plexus in adults. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1949 Feb; 31(1): 10–6Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bateman JE. Nerve injuries about the shoulder in sports. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1967; 19(4): 785–92Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hoyt W. Etiology of shoulder injuries in athletes. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1967 Jun; 49: 755–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brown JT. Nerve injuries complicating dislocation of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1972; 34: 526Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pasila M, Jaroma H, Kiviluoto O, et al. Early complications of primary shoulder dislocations. Acta Orthop Scand 1978; 49(3): 260–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Parsonage MJ, Turner JWA. Neuralgic amyotrophy: the shoulder-girdle syndrome. Lancet 1948; I: 973–8Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Flaggman PD, Kelly JJ. Brachial plexus neuropathy. Arch Neurol 1980 Mar; 37: 160–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tsairis P, Dyck P, Mulder D. Natural history of brachial plexus neuropathy. Arch Neurol 1972; 27: 109–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rockett F. Observations on the burner: traumatic cervical radiculopathy. Clin Orthop 1982; 164: 18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Archambault JL. Brachial plexus stretch injury. J Am Coll Health 1983; 31: 256–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Speer KP, Bassett FH. The prolonged burner syndrome. Am J Sports Med 1990; 18(6): 591–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Watkins RG. Nerve injuries in football players. Clin Sports Med 1986; 5: 215–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chrisman OD, Snook GA. Lateral-flexion neck injuries in athletic competition. JAMA 1965; 192: 117Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    DiBenedetto M, Markey K. Electrodiagnostic localization of traumatic upper trunk brachial plexopathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1984 Jan; 65: 15–7Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Andrish JT, Bergfeld J, Romo L. A method for the management of cervical injuries in football: a preliminary report. Am J Sports Med 1977; 5(2): 89–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wroble RR, Albright JP. Neck and low back injuries in wrestling. Clin Sports Med 1986 Apr; 5(2): 295–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Clancy W, Bergfeld JA, Brand R, et al. Upper trunk brachial plexus injuries in contact sports. Am J Sports Med 1977; 5(5): 209–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sallis R, Jones K, Knopp W. Burners: offensive strategy for an underreported injury. Phys Sportsmed 1992 Nov; 20(11): 47–55Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meyer S, Schulte K, Callaghan J, et al. Cervical spinal stenosis and stingers in collegiate football players. Am J Sports Med 1994; 22(2): 158–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Robertson W, Eichman P, Clancy W. Upper trunk brachial plexopathy in football players. JAMA 1979 Apr; 241(14): 1480–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Markey KL, DiBenedetto M, Curl WW. Upper trunk brachial plexopathy: the stinger syndrome. Am J Sports Med, 1993; 21(5): 650–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Poindexter D, Johnson E. Football shoulder and neck injury: a study of the stinger. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1984 Oct; 65: 601–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Logigian EL, McInnes JM, Berger AR, et al. Stretch-induced spinal accessory nerve palsy. Muscle Nerve 1988 Feb; 11(2): 146–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tsairis P. Peripheral nerve injury in athletes. In: Jordan BD, Tsairis P, Warren RF, editors. Sports neurology. Rockville (MD): Aspen Publishers, 1989: 180Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jerosch J, Castro EH, Geske B. Damage of long thoracic and dorsal scapular nerve after traumatic shoulder dislocation: case report and review of the literature [review]. Acta Orthop Belg 1990; 56(3–4): 625–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Johnson JTH, Kendall HO. Isolated paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1955; 37(3): 567–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goodman CE, Kenrick MM, Blum MV. Long thoracic nerve palsy: a follow-up study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1975 Aug; 56(8): 352–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Prescott MU, Zollinger RW. Alar scapula: an unusual surgical complication. Am J Surg 1944; 65: 98–103Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Overpeck D, Ghormley R. Paralysis of the serratus magnus muscle. JAMA 1940 May: 1994–6Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gregg JR, Labosky D, Harry M, et al. Serratus anterior paralysis in the young athlete. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1979; 61: 825–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goodman CE. Unusual nerve injuries in recreational activities. Am J Sports Med 1983; 11(4): 224–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Foo CL, Swann M. Isolated paralysis of the serratus anterior. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1983 Nov; 65(5): 552–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schultz J, Leonard J. Long thoracic neuropathy from athletic activity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 73: 87–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ilfield F, Holder H. Winged scapula: case occurring in soldier from knapsack. JAMA 1942 Oct: 448–9Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Woodhead A. Paralysis of the serratus anterior in a world class marksman. Am J Sports Med 1985; 13(5): 359–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    White S, Witten C. Long thoracic nerve palsy in a professional ballet dancer. Am J Sports Med 1993; 21(4): 626–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jerosch J, Castro WH, Geske B, et al. Damage of the long thoracic and scapular nerve after traumatic shoulder dislocation: case report and review of the literature (revised). Acta Orthop Belg 1990; 56(3–4): 625–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hauser C, Martin W. Two additional cases of traumatic winged scapula occurring in the armed forces. JAMA 1943: 667–8Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fardin P, Negrin P, Daines R. The isolated paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle: clinical and electromyographical follow-up of 10 cases. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 1978; 18:379–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goss CJ, editor. Gray’s anatomy. 29th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Feinberger, 1973: 960–4Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rengarchary S, Burr D, Lucas S, et al. Suprascapular entrapment neuropathy: a clinical, anatomical, and comparative study. Neurosurgery 1979; 5(4): 447–51Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Callahan J, Scully T, Shapiro SA, et al. Suprascapular nerve entrapment. J Neurosurg 1991; 74: 893–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hirayama T, Takemitsu Y. Compression of the suprascapular nerve by a ganglion at the suprascapular notch. Clin Orthop 1981; 155:95–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hadley M, Sonntag V, Pittman H. Suprascapular nerve entrapment. J Neurosurg 1986; 64: 843–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Torres-Ramos F, Biundo J. Suprascapular neuropathy during progressive resistive exercises in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 73: 1107–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Takagishi K, Maeda K, Ojimi H, et al. Ganglion causing paralysis of the suprascapular nerve. Acta Orthop Scand 1991; 62(4): 391–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ganzhorn RW, Hocker JT, Horowitz M, et al. Suprascapular nerve entrapment. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1981; 63: 492–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Thompson R, Schneider W, Kennedy T. Entrapment neuropathy of the inferior branch of the suprascapular nerve by ganglia. Clin Orthop 1982 Jun; 166: 185–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jackson D, Farrage J, Hynninen BC, et al. Suprascapular neuropathy in athletes: case reports. Clin J Sports Med 1995; 5(2): 134–7Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Liveson J, Bronson M, Pollack M. Suprascapular nerve lesions at the spinoglenoid notch: report of three cases and review of the literature. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991; 54: 241–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Vastamaki M, Goransson H. Suprascapular nerve entrapment. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1993 Dec; 297: 135–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zuckerman J, Polonsky L, Edelson G. Suprascapular nerve palsy in a young athlete. Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1993; 53(2): 11–2Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Biundo J, Harris M. Peripheral nerve entrapment, occupation-related syndromes and sports injuries, and bursitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1993; 5: 224–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Alon M, Weiss S, Fishel B, et al. Bilateral suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome due to an anomalous transverse scapular ligament. Clin Orthop 1988; 234: 31–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Aiello I, Serra G, Traina GC, et al. Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve at the spinoglenoid notch. Ann Neurol 1982; 12(3): 314–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ferretti A, Cerullo G, Russo G. Suprascapular neuropathy in volleyball players. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987; 69: 260–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Garcia G, McQueen D. Bilateral suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1981; 63: 491–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Neviaser R, Neviaser T, Neviaser J. Concurrent rupture of the rotator cuff and anterior dislocation of the shoulder in the older patient. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1988; 70: 1308–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Fritz R, Helms C, Steinbach LS, et al. Suprascapular nerve entrapment: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology 1992; 182: 437–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kukowski B. Suprascapular nerve lesion as an occupational neuropathy in a semiprofessional dancer. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993 Jul; 74(70): 768–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kopell H, Thompson W. Pain and the frozen shoulder. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1959; 109: 92–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Clein LJ. Suprascapular entrapment neuropathy. J Neurosurg 1975; 43: 337–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Post M, Mayer J. Suprascapular nerve entrapment: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Orthop 1987; 223: 126–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kiss G, Komar J. Suprascapular nerve compression at the spinoglenoid notch. Muscle Nerve 1990; 13: 556–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Henlin J, Rousselot J, Monnier G, et al. Suprascapular nerve entrapment at the spinoglenoid notch [in French]. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1992; 148(5): 362–7Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Glennon T. Isolated injury of the infraspinatus branch of the suprascapular nerve. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 73: 201–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Steinman I. Painless infraspinatus atrophy due to suprascapular nerve entrapment. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988; 69: 641–3Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mestdagh H, Drizenko A, Ghestem P. Anatomical basis of suprascapular nerve syndrome. Anat Clin 1981; 3: 67–71Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Agre J, Ash N, Cameron MC, et al. Suprascapular neuropathy after intensive progressive resistive exercise: case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1987; 68(4): 236–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ringel S, Treihaft M, Carry M, et al. Suprascapular neuropathy in pitchers. Am J Sports Med 1990; 18(1): 80–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Smith AN. Suprascapular neuropathy in a collegiate pitcher. J Athl Train 1995; 30(1): 43–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bryan WJ, Wild JJ. Isolated infraspinatus atrophy: a common cause of posterior shoulder pain and weakness in throwing athletes. Am J Sports Med 1989; 17: 130–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Laulund T, Fedders O, Sogaard I, et al. Suprascapular nerve compression syndrome. Surg Neurol 1984; 22: 308–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zoltan J. Injury to the suprascapular nerve associated with anterior dislocation of the shoulder: case report and review of the literature. J Trauma 1979; 19(3): 203–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Artico M. Isolated lesion of the axillary nerve. Neurosurg 1991; 29: 697–700Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kessler K, Uribe J. Complete isolated axillary nerve palsy in college and professional football players: a report of six cases. Clin J Sports Med 1994; 4(4): 272–4Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Cahill B, Palmer R. Quadrilateral space syndrome. J Hand Surg Am 1983; 8(1): 65–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kirby J, Kraft G. Entrapment neuropathy of anterior branch of axillary nerve: report of case. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1972; 53(7): 338–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bennett G. Shoulder and elbow lesions of the professional baseball pitcher. JAMA 1941; 117: 510–4Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Redler M, Ruland L, McCue F. Quadrilateral space syndrome in a throwing athlete. Am J Sports Med 1986; 14(6): 511–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Neuralgic amyotrophy: still a clinical syndrome [editorial]. Lancet 1980; II(8197): 729–30Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jerosch J, Castro EH, Colemont J. A lesion of the musculocutaneous nerve: a rare complication of anterior shoulder dislocation. Acta Orthop Belg 1989; 55(2): 230–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Corner NB, Milner SM, Macdonald R, et al. Isolated musculocutaneous nerve lesion after shoulder dislocation. J R Army Med Corps 1990 Jun; 136(2): 107–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Blom S, Dahlback L. Nerve injuries in dislocations of the shoulder joint and fractures of the neck of the humerus. Acta Chirurg Scand 1970; 136: 461–6Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Braddom R. Musculocutaneous nerve injury after heavy exercise. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1978; 59: 290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mastiglia F. Musculocutaneous neuropathy after strenuous physical activity. Med J Aust 1986; 145: 153–4Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bassett F, Nunley J. Compression of the musculocutaneous nerve at the elbow. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1982; 64(7): 1050–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Felsenhal G, Mondell D, Reischer M, et al. Forearm pain secondary to compression syndrome of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1984; 65: 139–41Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kim S, Goodrich A. Isolated proximal musculocutaneous nerve palsy: case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1984; 65: 735–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hrdlicka A. Incidence of the supracondyloid process in whites and other races. Am J Anthropol 1923; 6: 405–6Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bilge T, Yalaman O, Bilge S, et al. Entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve at the level of the ligament of Struthers. Neurosurgery 1990; 27(5): 787–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Suranyi L. Median nerve compression by Struthers ligament. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983; 46: 1047–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Regan WD, Morrey BF. Entrapment neuropathies about the elbow. In: DeLee JL, Drez D, editors. Orthopedic sports medicine. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1994: 844–59Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Enzenauer RJ, Nordstrom DM. Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome associated with forearm band treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Orthopedics 1991; 14(7): 788–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pianka G, Hershman EB. Neurovascular injuries. In: Nicholas JA, Hershman EB, editors. Upper extremity in sports medicine. St Louis: Mosby, 1990: 691–722Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Braithwaite IJ. Bilateral median nerve palsy in a cyclist. Br J Sport Med 1992; 26(1): 27–8Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Burnham RS, Steadward R. Upper extremity peripheral nerve entrapments among wheelchair athletes: prevalence, location and risk factor. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994; 75(5): 519–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Dobyns JH, O’Brien ET, Linschied RL, et al. Bowler’s thumb diagnosis and treatment: a review of seventeen cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1972; 54: 751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Belsky M, Millender LH. Bowler’s thumb in a baseball player. Orthopedics 1980; 3: 122Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Naso SJ. Compression of the digital nerve: a new entity in tennis players. Orthop Rev 1984; 13: 47Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wadsworth TG, Williams JR. Cubital tunnel external compression syndrome. BMJ 1973; 1: 662–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Weinstein SM, Herring SA. Nerve problems and compartment syndromes in the hand, wrist and forearm. Clin Sport Med 1992; 11(1): 161–88Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Dangles CJ, Bilos ZJ. Ulnar neuritis in a world champion weightlifter. Am J Sports Med 1980; 8: 443–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hang YS. Tardy ulnar neuritis in a little league baseball player. Am J Sports Med 1981; 9: 244–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Glousman RE. Ulnar nerve problems in the athlete’s elbow. Clin Sports Med 1990; 9: 365–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jobe FW, Nuber G. Throwing injuries of the elbow. Clin Sports Med 1986; 5: 621–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Campbell WW, Pridgeon RM, Salmi SK. Entrapment neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at its point of exit from the flexor carpiulnaris muscle. Muscle Nerve 1988; 11: 467–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Eckman PB, Perlstein G, Altrocchi PH. Ulnar neuropathy in bicycle riders. Arch Neurol 1975; 32: 130–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Dozono K, Hachisuka K, Hatada K, et al. Peripheral neuropathies in the upper extremities of paraplegic wheelchair marathon racers. Paraplegia 1995; 33(4): 208–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Prochaska V, Crosby LA, Murphy RD. High radial nerve palsy in a tennis player. Orthop Rev 1992; 22(1): 90–2Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Manske PR. Compression of the radial nerve by the triceps muscle. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1977; 59: 835–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Mitsunaga MM, Nakano K. High radial nerve palsy following strenuous muscular activity. Clin Orthop 1988; 234: 39–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Roles N, Maudsley R. Radial tunnel syndrome: resistant tennis elbow as nerve entrapment. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1972; 54: 499–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Younge DH, Moise P. The radial tunnel syndrome. Int Orthop 1994; 18:268–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Brozin IH, Martfel J, Goldberg I, et al. Traumatic closed femoral nerve neuropathy. J Trauma 1982; 22(2): 158–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Miller EH, Benedict FE. Stretch of the femoral nerve in a dancer. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1985; 67: 315–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sammarco GJ, Stephens MM. Neuropraxia of the femoral nerve in a modern dancer. Am J Sports Med 1991; 19: 413–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Goodson JD. Pudendal neuritis from biking. N Engl J Med 1981; 304: 365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Lorei MP, Hershman EB. Peripheral nerve injuries in athletes: treatment and prevention. Sports Med 1993; 16(2): 130–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Gilham NR, Villar RN. Postero-lateral subluxation of the superior tibio-fibular joint. Br J Sports Med 1989; 23(3): 195–6Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Myles ST, Mohtadi NGH, Schnittker J. Injuries to the nervous system and spine in downhill skiing. Can J Surg 1992; 35(6): 643–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Nobel W. Peroneal palsy due to hematoma in the common peroneal nerve sheath after distal torsional fractures and inversion ankle sprains: report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1966; 48: 1484–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Meals RA. Peroneal nerve palsy complicating ankle sprain. J Bone Joint Surg 1977; 59A(7): 966–8Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Leach RE, Purnell MB, Akiyoshi S. Peroneal nerve entrapment in runners. Am J Sports Med 1989; 17(2): 287–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Moller BN, Kadin S. Entrapment of the common peroneal nerve. Am J Sports Med 1987; 15(1): 90–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Torre PR, Williams GG, Blackwell T, et al. Bungee jumper’s foot drop peroneal nerve palsy caused by bungee cord jumping. Ann Emerg Med 1993; 22: 1766–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Detmer DE, Sharpe K, Sufit RL, et al. Chronic compartment syndrome: diagnosis, management, and outcomes. Am J Sports Med 1985; 13(3): 162–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Styf J. Entrapment of the superficial peroneal nerve. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1989; 7IB: 131–5Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Garfin S, Mubarak SJ, Owen CA. Exertional anterolateral compartment syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1977; 59A: 404–5Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lindenbaum BL. Ski boot compression syndrome. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1978; 140: 109–10Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Mann RA. Entrapment neuropathies of the foot. In: DeLee JC, Drez D, editors. Orthopaedic sports medicine. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1994: 1831–41Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Murphy PC, Baxter DE. Nerve entrapment of the foot and ankle in runners. Clin Sports Med 1985; 4(4): 753–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Rask MR. Medial plantar neurapraxia (jogger’s foot). Clin Orthop Relat Res 1978; 134: 193–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Henricson AS, Westlin NE. Chronic calcaneal pain in athletes: entrapment of the calcaneal nerve. Am J Sports Med 1984; 12(2): 152–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Spindler KP, Pappas J. Neurovascular problems. In: Nicholas JA, Hershman EB, editors. The lower extremity and spine in sports medicine. St Louis: Mosby, 1995: 1345–58Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    MacGregor J, Moncur JA. Meralgia paraesthetica — a sports lesion in girl gymnasts. Br J Sports Med 1977; 1: 16–9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph H. Feinberg
    • 1
  • Scott F. Nadler
    • 2
  • Lisa S. Krivickas
    • 3
  1. 1.Kessler Institute for RehabilitationWest OrangeUSA
  2. 2.New Jersey Medical SchoolNewarkUSA
  3. 3.Cleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations