Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 268–277 | Cite as

Physiological Factors Associated with Middle Distance Running Performance

  • L. Jerome Brandon
Review Article

Summary

Middle distance running involves popular race distances with performance dependent on a number of physiological factors. The physiological characteristics of successful runners are different from those of sprinters and long distance runners. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), running economy and the anaerobic threshold are variables that have been shown to limit performance during long distance running, and rapid velocity and anaerobic variables have been shown to limit performance during sprinting. Success with middle distance running is dependent on an integrative contribution from aerobic and anaerobic variables which allows a runner to maintain a rapid velocity during a race. The relative contributions of the 2 energy systems are functions of distance, intensity and the physiological abilities of the runner. Middle distance runners can be successful with physiological profiles that include a variety of aerobic and anaerobic capabilities, and this characteristic separates them from long distance runners.

Keywords

Anaerobic Threshold Distance Runner Anaerobic Power Middle Distance Middle Distance Running 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Boileau RA, Mayhew JL, Riner WF, et al. Physiological characteristics of elite middle and long distance runners. Can J Appl Sports Sci 1982; 7: 167–72Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brandon LJ, Boileau RA. Influence of metabolic, mechanical and physique variables on middle distance running. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1992; 32: 1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yoshida T, Udo M, Iwai K, et al. Significance of the contribution of aerobic and anaerobic components to several distance running performances in female athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 60: 249–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hough TJ, Thorland WG, Pohnson GO, et al. The contribution of selected physiological variables to middle distance running performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1980; 28: 20–6Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Farrell PA, Wilmore JH, Coyle EF, et al. Plasma lactate accumulation and distance running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1979; 11: 338–44Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Costill DL, Thomason H, Roberts E. Fractional utilization of the aerobic capacity during distance running. Med Sci Sports 1973; 5: 246–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Conley DL, Krahenbuhl GS. Running economy and distance running performance of highly trained athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1980; 12: 357–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21(5): 563–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Green S, Dawson B. Measurement of anaerobic capacities in humans: definition, limitations and unsolved problems. Sports Med 1993; 15(5): 312–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Medbø JI, Tabata I. Anaerobic energy release in working muscle during 30 s to 3 min of exhausting bicycling. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75(4): 1654–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cureton KJ, Boileau RA, Lohman TG, et al. Determinants of distance running performance in children: analysis of a path model. Res Q 1977; 48: 270–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nevili ME, Boobis LH, Brooks S, et al. Effect of training on muscle metabolism during treadmill sprinting. J Appl Physiol 1989; 67: 2376–82Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brandon LJ, Boileau RA. The contribution of selected variables to middle and long distance run performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1987; 27: 157–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hill AV. Muscular movement in man: the factors governing speed and recovery from fatigue. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1927Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Houmard JA, Craib MW, O’Brien KF, et al. Peak running velocity submaximal energy expenditure, V̇O2max and 8 km distance running performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1991; 31: 345–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Costill DL. The relationship between selected physiological variables and distance running performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1967; 7: 61–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hagerman FC. Energy metabolism and fuel utilization. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992; 24: S309–S314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cunningham LN. Relationship of running economy, ventilatory threshold, and maximal oxygen consumption to running performance in high school females. Res Q 1990; 61: 369–74Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lacour JR, Magunacelaya SP, Barthelemy JC, et al. The energetics of middle distance running. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 60: 38–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    DiPrampero PE, Atchou G, Bruckner JC, et al. The energetics of endurance running. Eur J Appl Physiol 1986; 55: 259–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bulbulian R, Wilcox AR, Darabos BL. Anaerobic contributions to distance running performance of trained cross-country athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986; 18: 128–33Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crielaard JM, Pirnay F. Anaerobic and aerobic power of top athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 1981; 47: 295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lacour JR, Bouvat E, Barthelemey JC. Post-competition blood lactate concentrations as indicators of anaerobic energy expenditure during 400-m and 800-m races. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 6: 172–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DiPrampero PE, Capelli C, Pagliaro P, et al. Energetics of best performances in middle-distance running. J Appl Physiol 1993; 74: 2318–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Humphreys J, Holman R. Focus on middle distance running. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1985Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Camus G. Relationship between record time and maximal oxygen consumption in middle-distance running. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992; 64: 534–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kumagai S, Tanaka K, Matsuzaka Y, et al. Relationships of the anaerobic threshold with the 5 km, 10 km, and 10 mile races. Eur J Appl Physiol 1982; 49: 13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise physiology, energy, nutrition, and human performance. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1991Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Astrand PO, Rodahl K. Textbook of work physiology, physiological bases of exercise. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maffulli N, Capasso G, Lancia A. Anaerobic threshold and performance in middle and long distance running. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1991; 31: 332–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Daniels JT. A physiologist’s view of running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1985; 17: 332–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Daniels J, Oldridge N. The effects of alternate exposure to altitude and sea level on world class middle-distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1970; 2: 107–12Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Daniels J, Daniels N. Running economy of elite male and female runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992; 24: 483–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Joyner MJ. Physiological limiting factors and distance running: influence of gender and age on record performances. In: Hollosky JO, editor. Exercise and sport sciences reviews. Vol. 21. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1993Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Snell P. Middle distance running. In: Reilly T, Secher N, Snell P, et al, editors. Physiology of sports. London: E & FN Spon, 1990Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Joyner MJ. Modeling: optimal marathon performance on the basis of physiological factors. J Appl Physiol 1991; 70(2): 683–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Billat V, Renoux JC, Pinoteau J, et al. Reproduceability of running time to exhaustion at V̇O2max in subelite runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26(2): 254–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ribisl PM, Kachadorian WA. Maximal oxygen intake prediction in young and middle-aged males. J Sports Med 1969; 9: 17–22Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brynes WC, Kearney JT. Measures of max V̇O2 and their relationship to running performance among three subject groups. Am Corr Ther J 1974; 28: 145–50Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Deason J, Powers SK, Lawler J, et al. Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1991; 31: 499–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Burke EJ. Validity of selected laboratory and field tests of physical working cpacity. Res Q 1976; 47: 95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Foster C, Costill DL, Daniels T, et al. Skeletal muscle enzymes activity, fiber composition and V̇O2max in relation to distance running performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 1978; 39: 73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Morgan DW, Baldini FD, Martin PE, et al. Ten kilometer performance and predicted velocity at V̇O2max among well-trained male runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21(1): 78–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bunc V, Heller J. Energy cost of running in similarly trained men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol 1989; 59: 178–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Morgan DW, Martin PE, Krahenbuhl GS. Factors affecting running economy. Sports Med 1989; 7: 310–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bailey SP, Pate RR. Feasibility of improving running economy. Sports Med 1991; 12: 228–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pate RR, Macera A, Bailey SP, et al. Physiological, anthropometrie, and training correaltes of running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992; 24: 1128–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zacharogiannis E, Farrally M. Ventilatory threshold, heart rate deflection point and middle distance running performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1993; 33: 337–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fay L, Londeree BR, Lafontaine TP, et al. Physiological parameters related to distance running performance in female athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989; 21: 319–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Krieder RB, Miller GW, Williams MH, et al. Effects of phosphate loading on oxygen uptake, ventilation anaerobic threshold, and run performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990; 22: 250–6Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tanaka K, Matsuura Y, Natsuzaka A, et al. A longitudinal assessment of anaerobic threshold and distance-running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1984; 16: 278–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bosch AN, Goslin BR, Noakes TD, et al. Physiological differences between black and white runners during a treadmill marathon. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 61: 68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Coetzer P, Noakes TD, Sanders B, et al. Superior fatigue resistance of elite black South African distance runners. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75: 1822–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Maffulli N, Testa V, Lancia A, et al. Indices of sustained aerobic power in young middle distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991; 23: 1090–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gollnick PD. Peripheral factors as limitations to exercise capacity. Can J Appl Sports Sci 1982; 7: 14–21Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bar-Or O, Dotan R, Inbar O, et al. Anaerobic capacity and muscle fiber composition in man. Int J Sports Med 1980; 1: 82–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hough TJ, Johnson GO, McDowell SL, et al. The relationship between anaerobic running capacity and peak plasma lactate. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1992; 32: 117–22Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Vandewalle H, Kapitaniak B, Grun S, et al. Comparison between a 30-s all-out test and a time-work test on a cycle ergometer. Eur J Appl Physiol 1989; 58: 375–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rusko H, Nummela A, Mero A. A new method for the evaluation of anaerobic running power in athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 1993; 66: 97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Margaria R, Aghemo P, Rovelli E. Measurement of muscular power (anaerobic) in man. J Appl Physiol 1966; 21: 1662–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Taunton JE, Maron H, Wilkerson JG. Anaerobic performance in middle and long distance runners. Can J Appl Sports Sci 1981; 6: 109–13Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Houmard JA, Costill DL, Mitchell JB, et al. The role of anaerobic ability in middle distance running performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 1991; 62: 40–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ariyoshi M, Yamaji KA, Shephard RJ. Influence of running pace upon performance: effect upon treadmill endurance time and O2 cost. Eur J Appl Physiol 1979; 41: 83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shephard RJ. Aerobic versus anaerobic training for success in various athletic events. Can J Appl Sports Sci 1978; 3: 9–15Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cunningham DA, Faulknar JA. The effect of training on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during a short exhaustive run. Med Sci Sports 1969; 1: 65–9Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Medbo JI, Burgers S. Effect of training on the anaerobic capacity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990; 22: 501–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Katch VL, Weltman A. Interrelationships between anaerobic power output, anaerobic capacity and aerobic power. Ergonomics 1979; 22: 325–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    McKinzie DC, Parkhouse WS, Hearst WE. Anaerobic performance characteristics of elite Canadian 800 meter runners. Can J Appl Sports Sci 1982; 7: 158–60Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Jerome Brandon
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Sports Medicine and Sport Sciences, 137 Physical Education BuildingGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations