Sports Medicine

, Volume 1, Issue 5, pp 350–389 | Cite as

Nutrition and Sports Performance

  • J. R. Brotherhood
Review Articles

Summary

During the past 20 years there have been great developments in the scientific understanding of the role of nutrition in health and physical performance. Epidemiological and physiological studies have provided evidence that certain forms of dietary behaviour may be linked with an increased risk of developing disorders such as high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and some cancers. This has resulted in dietary recommendations that are intended to reduce the incidence of these disorders in the community. The science of nutrition in relation to sports performance has progressed from empirical studies investigating the effects of dietary manipulations, such as restriction and supplementation, to the direct investigation of the physiological basis of the specific nutritional demands of hard physical exercise.

This review is based on the premise that it is ‘what comes out’ rather than ‘what goes in’, which provides the clues to ideal nutrition for athletic performance. Various aspects of the physical demands of athletic exercise are viewed as stresses that induce specific biochemical, and hence nutritional, strains in the athlete.

Training is the predominant demand in the athletic lifestyle. This is characterised by acute bouts of high power output. During one hour of hard training an athlete may expend 30% of his or her total 24-hour energy output. These high power outputs have important implications for energy substrate and water requirements.

Carbohydrate, specifically muscle glycogen, is an obligatory fuel for the high power outputs demanded by athletic sports. Muscle glycogen is a limiting factor in hard exercise because it is held in limited amounts, utilised rapidly by intense exercise, and fatigue occurs when it is depleted to low levels in the active muscles. Liver glycogen may also be exhausted by hard exercise and low blood glucose contributes to fatigue.

High sweat rates are demanded during severe exercise and large water deficits commensurate with energy expenditure are incurred during extended periods of hard training and competition. Salt, potassium, and magnesium are lost in nutritionally significant amounts in the sweat, but vitamins and trace elements are not. Adaptive mechanisms protect athletes against electrolyte depletion. Iron loss in sweat may contribute to the iron deficiency seen in some endurance runners.

Protein is degraded and amino acids are oxidised during physical exercise. Protein is also retained during muscle building training. Recent investigations indicate that the minimal protein requirements of athletes may be substantially higher than those for sedentary persons. Nonetheless, all the protein that athletes need will be supplied by a conventional diet and protein supplements are not required.

There is no evidence that athletes have extraordinary vitamin requirements. Some endurance runners, adolescent and female athletes are at risk of iron depletion with or without obvious anaemia. These people require nutritional counselling and may benefit from supervised iron supplementation.

The major nutritional demands arising from hard athletic exercise are for carbohydrate and water. Liberal carbohydrate and water consumption is essential for full recovery between training sessions and in preparation for competition. The pre-competition meal provides limited benefits other than promoting full hydration. Large intakes of simple carbohydrates close to competition may precipitate hypoglycaemia and impair performance. During exercise, water consumption to replace sweat losses is the major concern.

The formulation of nutritional guidelines for athletes, based on the physiological demands of athletic exercise, indicates that the ideal dietary pattern for athletes coincides in most repects with internationally recognised recommendations for a healthy diet. A review of the limited published information on dietary habits of athletes indicates that, in general, they do not select diets that promote either good health or optimal performance.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adolf, E.F.: Physiology of Man in the Desert (Interscience, New York 1947). Reprinted (Hafner Publishing, New York 1969).Google Scholar
  2. Ahlborg, B.; Bergström, J.; Brohult, J.; Ekelund, L.-G.; Hultman, E. and Maschio, G.: Human muscle glycogen content and capacity for prolonged exercise after different diets. Särtryck ur Försvarsmedicin 3: 85–100 (1967).Google Scholar
  3. Alexandrov, I.I. and Shishina, N.N.: Study of energy metabolism and nutritional status of young athletes; in Parizkováand Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp. 124–130 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).Google Scholar
  4. American College of Sports Medicine: Prevention of heat injuries during distance running. Journal of Sports Medicine 16: 345–346 (1976).Google Scholar
  5. American Dietetic Association: Nutrition and physical fitness. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 76: 437–443 (1980).Google Scholar
  6. Asmussen, E.; Klausen, K.; Nielsen, L.E.; Techow, O.S.A. and Tonder, P.J.: Lactate production and anaerobic work capacity after prolonged exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 90: 731–742 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Åstrand, P.O.: Something old and something new — very new. Nutrition Today 3: 9–11 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Åstrand, P.O.: Nutrition and physical performance; in Rechcigl (Ed) Nutrition and the World Food Problem, pp.63–84 (Karger, Basel 1979).Google Scholar
  9. Åstrand, P.O. and Rodahl, K.: Textbook of Work Physiology (McGraw-Hill, New York 1977).Google Scholar
  10. Baker, E.R.: Menstrual function and hormonal status in athletic women: A review. Fertility and Sterility 36: 691–696 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bank, W.J.: Myoglobinuria in marathon runners: Possible relationship to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 942–948 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beller, G.A.; Maher, J.T.; Hartley, L.H.; Bass, D.E. and Wacker, W.E.C.: Serum magnesium and potassium concentrations during exercise under thermoneutral and hot conditions. Physiologist 15: 84(1972).Google Scholar
  13. Bergström, J.: Muscle electrolytes in man. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations 14(Suppl. 68): 110 (1962).Google Scholar
  14. Bergström, J.; Guarnieri, G. and Hultman, E.: Carbohydrate metabolism and electrolyte changes in human muscle tissue during heavy work. Journal of Applied Physiology 30: 122–125 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bergström, J.; Hermansen, L.; Hultman, E. and Saltin, B.: Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 71: 140–150 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bergström, J. and Hultman, E.: Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: A.n enhancing factor localized to the muscle cells in man. Nature 210: 309–310 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bergström, J. and Hultman, E.: Nutrition for maximal sports performance: Journal of the American Medical Association 221: 999–1006 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bier, D.M. and Young, V.R.: Exercise and blood pressure: Nutritional considerations. Annals of Internal Medicine 98: 864–869 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Blair, S.N.; Ellsworth, N.M.; Haskeil, W.L.; Stern, M.P.; Farquhar, J.W. and Wood, P.D.: Comparison of nutrient intake in middle aged men and women runners and controls. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13: 310–315 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boileau, R.A.; Mayhew, J.L.; Riner, W.F. and Lussier, L.: Physiological characteristics of elite middle and long distance runners. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 7: 167–172 (1982).Google Scholar
  21. Brotherhood, J.R.: The nutritional stresses consequent to thermoregulation in athletes. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia 6: 123–125 (1981).Google Scholar
  22. Brotherhood, J.R.: Aspects of nutrition in endurance sports. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine 14: 8–11 (1982).Google Scholar
  23. Brotherhood, J.R.; Brozovic, B. and Pugh, L.G.C.: Haematological status of middle- and long-distance runners. Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine 48: 139–145 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brotherhood, J.R. and Swanson, M.A.: Nutrient intake and body weight changes of distance runners using the glycogen loading procedure. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine 11: 45–47 (1979).Google Scholar
  25. Buskirk, E.R.: Diet and athletic performance. Postgraduate Medicine 61: 229–236 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cathcart, E.P.: The influence of muscle work on protein metabolism. Physiological Reviews 5: 225–243 (1925).Google Scholar
  27. Cerny, F.: Protein metabolism during two hour ergometer exercise; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp.232–237 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).Google Scholar
  28. Chan, S.T.F.; Johnson, A.W.; Moore, M.H.; Kapadia, C.R. and Dudley, H.A.F.: Early weight gain and glycogen-obligated water during nutritional rehabilitation. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition 36C: 223–232 (1982).Google Scholar
  29. Chittenden, R.H.: Physiological Economy in Nutrition (Stokes, New York 1904).Google Scholar
  30. Cho, M. and Fryer, B.A.: Nutritional knowledge of collegiate physical education majors. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 65: 30–34 (1974a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cho, M. and Fryer, B.A.: What foods do physical education majors and basic nutrition students recommend for athletes? Journal of the American Dietetic Association 65: 541–544 (1974b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Christensen, E.H. and Hansen, O.: Arbeitsfähigkeit und Ernährung. Skandinavisches Archiv fuer Physiologie 81: 160–171 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Christensen, E.H. and Högberg, P.: Physiology of skiing. Arbeitsphyxiologie 14: 292–303 (1950).Google Scholar
  34. Clement, D.B. and Asmundson, R.C.: Nutritional intake and hematological parameters in endurance runners. Physician and Sportsmedicine 10: 37–43 (1982).Google Scholar
  35. Clement, D.B. and Sawchuk, L.L.: Iron status and sports performance. Sports Medicine 1: 65–74 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cohen, I. and Zimmerman, A.L.: Changes in serum electrolyte levels during marathon running. South African Medical Journal 53: 449–453 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Consolazio, C.F.: Nutrition and performance; in Johnson (Ed.) Progress in Food and Nutrition Science vol. 7, pp.1–188 (1983).Google Scholar
  38. Consolazio, C.F.; Johnson, H.L.; Nelson, R.A.; Dramise, J.G. and Skala, J.H.: Protein metabolism during intensive physical training in the young adult. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 28: 29–35 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Consolazio, C.F.; Matoush, L.O.; Nelson, R.A.; Harding, R.S. and Canham, J.E.: Excretion of sodium, potassium, magnesium and iron in human sweat and the relation of each to balance and requirements. Journal of Nutrition 79: 407–415 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Consolazio, C.F.; Nelson, R.A.; Matoush, L.O.; Harding, R.S. and Canham, J.E.: The nitrogen excretion in human sweat and its relation to nitrogen balance requirements. Journal of Nutrition 79: 399–406 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cooper, K.H.: The Aerobics Way (M. Evans, New York 1977).Google Scholar
  42. Costill, D.L.: Sweating: Its composition and effects on body fluids. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 160–174 and 183–188 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Costill, D.L.: Adaptations in skeletal muscle during training for sprint and endurance swimming; in Eriksson and Furberg (Eds) Swimming Medicine IV, pp.233–248 (1978a).Google Scholar
  44. Costill, D.L.: Muscle water and electrolytes during acute and repeated bouts of dehydration; in Parizková and Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp.98–116 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978b).Google Scholar
  45. Costill, D.L.; Bennett, A.; Branam, G. and Eddy, D.: Glucose ingestion at rest and during prolonged exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 764–769 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Costill, D.L.; Branam, G.; Fink, W. and Nelson, R.: Exercise induced sodium conservation: Changes in plasma renin and aldosterone. Medicine and Science in Sports 8: 209–213 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Costill, D.L.; Bowers, R.; Branam, G. and Sparks, K.: Muscle glycogen utilization during prolonged exercise on successive days. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 834–838 (1971a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Costill, D.L.; Coté, R. and Fink, W.J.: Dietary potassium and heavy exercise: Effects on muscle water and electrolytes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36: 266–275 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Costill, D.L.; Coté, R. and Fink, W.: Muscle water and electrolytes following varied levels of dehydration in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 40: 6–11 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Costill, D.L.; Coyle, E.; Dalsky, G.; Evans, W.; Fink, W. and Hoopes, D.: Effects of elevated plasma FFA and insulin on muscle glycogen usage during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 43: 695–699(1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Costill, D.L.; Dalsky, G.P. and Fink, W.J.: Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sports 10: 155–158 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Costill, D.L. and Fox, E.L.: Energetics of marathon running. Medicine and Science in Sports 1: 81–86 (1969).Google Scholar
  53. Costill, D.L.; Kammer, W.F. and Fisher, A.: Fluid ingestion during distance running. Archives of Environmental Health 21: 520–525 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Costill, D.L. and Miller, J.M.: Nutrition for endurance sport: Carbohydrate and fluid balance. International Journal of Sports Medicine 1: 2–14 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Costill, D.L. and Saltin, B.: Factors limiting gastric emptying during rest and exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 37: 679–683 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Costill, D.L.; Sherman, W.M. and Essig, D.A.: Metabolic responses and adaptations to endurance running; in Poortmans and Niset (Eds) Biochemistry of Exercise IV-A. International Series of Sport Science, Volume IIA, pp.33–45 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1981a).Google Scholar
  57. Costill, D.L.; Sherman, W.M.; Fink, W.J.; Maresh, C.; Witten, M. and Miller, J.M.: The role of dietary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen resynthesis after strenuous running. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34: 1831–1836 (1981b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Costill, D.L. and Sparks, K.E.: Rapid fluid replacement following thermal dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 299–303 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Costill, D.L.; Sparks, K.; Gregor, R. and Turner, C.: Muscle glycogen utilization during exhaustive running. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 353–356 (1971b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Coyle, E.F.; Hagberg, J.M.; Hurley, B.F.; Martin, W.H.; Ehsani, A.A. and Holloszy, J.O.: Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology 55: 230–235 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Dale, E. and Goldberg, D.L.: Implications of nutrition in athletes’ menstrual cycle irregularities. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 7: 74–78 (1982).Google Scholar
  62. Dancaster, C.P. and Whereat, S.J.: Fluid and electrolyte balance during the Comrades Marathon. South African Medical Journal 45: 147–150 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Davies, C.T.M.: Effect of air resistance on the metabolic cost and performance of cycling. European Journal of Applied Physiology 45: 245–254 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Davies, C.T.M. and Thompson, M.W.: Aerobic performance of female marathon and male ultramarathon athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology 41: 233–245 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Décombaz, J.; Reinhardt, R.; Anantharaman, K.; von Glutz, G. and Poortmans, J.R.: Biochemical changes in a 100km run: Free amino acids, urea and creatinine. European Journal of Applied Physiology 41: 61–72 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. De Haven, J.; Sherwin, R.; Hendler, R. and Felig, P.: Nitrogen and sodium balance and sympathetic-nervous-system activity in obese subjects treated with a low-calorie protein or mixed diet. New England Journal of Medicine 302: 477–482 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. de Wijn. J.F.; Leusink, J. and Post, G.B.: Diet, body composition and physical condition of champion rowers during periods of training and out of training. Bibliotheca Nutritio et Dieta 27: 143–148 (Karger, Basel 1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Di Prampero, P.E.: Energetics of muscular exercise. Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology 89: 143–222 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Di Prampero, P.E.; Pendergast, D.R.; Wilson, D.W. and Rennie, D.W.: Energetics of swimming in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 37: 1–5 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Di Prampero, P.E.; Cortili, G.; Mognoni, P. and Saibene, F.: Energy cost of speed skating and efficiency of work against air resistance. Journal of Applied Physiology 40: 584–591 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Dohm, G.L.; Hecker, A.L.; Brown, W.E.; Klain, G.J.; Ruente, F.R.; Askew, W.E. and Beacher, G.R.: Adaptation of protein metabolism to endurance training. Biochemical Journal 164: 705–708 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Dohm, G.L.; Williams, R.T.; Kasperek, G.J. and van Rij, A.M.: Increased excretion of urea and Nr-methylhistidine by rats and humans after a bout of exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 52: 27–33 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Dufaux, B.; Hoederath, A.; Streitberger, I.; Hollmann, W. and Assmann, G.: Serum ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin, and iron in middle- and long-distance runners, elite rowers, and professional racing cyclists. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2: 43–46 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Durnin, J.V.G.A.: Activity patterns in the community. Canadian Medical Association Journal 96: 882–886 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Durnin, J.V.G.A.: Protein requirements and physical activity; in Parizková and Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp.53–60 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).Google Scholar
  76. Durnin, J.V.G.A. and Ferro-Luzzi, A.: Conducting and reporting studies on human energy intake and output: Suggested standards. Human Nutrition: Applied Nutrition 37A: 141–144 (1983).Google Scholar
  77. Durnin, J.V.G.A. and Passmore, R.E.: Energy, Work and Leisure (Heinemann Educational Books, London 1967).Google Scholar
  78. Dwyer, T. and Brotherhood, J.R.: Long-term dietary considerations in physical training. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia 6: 31–40 (1981).Google Scholar
  79. Edwards, R.H.T.; Hill, D.K.; Jones, D.A. and Merton, P.A.: Heat production and chemical changes during isometric contractions of the human quadriceps muscle. Journal of Physiology 251: 303–315 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ehn, L.; Carlmark, B. and Hoglund, S.: Iron status in athletes involved in intense physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 12: 61–64 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ekblom, B.C.J.; Greenleaf, C.J.; Greenleaf, J.E. and Hermansen, L.: Temperature regulation during exercise dehydration in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 79: 475–483 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ellsworth, N.M.; Hewitt, B.F. and Haskeil, W.L.: Nutrient intake of elite male and female Nordic skiers. Submitted for publication (1984).Google Scholar
  83. Ericksson, A.; Tesch, P. and Karlsson, J.: Fatigue during downhill skiing; in Figuéras (Ed.) Skiing Safety II, pp.279–286 (1978).Google Scholar
  84. Essén, B.: Intramuscular substrate utilization during prolonged exercise. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 30–44 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Essén, B.; Hagenfeldt, L. and Kaijser, L.: Utilization of blood-borne and intramuscular substrates during continuous and intermittent exercise in man. Journal of Physiology 265: 489–506 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Falls, H.B. and Humphrey, L.D.: Energy cost of running and walking in young women. Medicine and Science in Sports 8: 9–13 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. FAO/WHO: Energy and protein requirements. World Health Organization (WHO) Technical Report Series, No. 522 (World Health Organization, Geneva 1973).Google Scholar
  88. Felig, P.: The glucose-alanine cycle. Metabolism 22: 179–207 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Felig, P.; Cherif, A.; Minagawa, A. and Wahren, J.: Hypoglycaemia during prolonged exercise in normal men. New England Journal of Medicine 306: 895–900 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Felig, P. and Wahren, J.: Amino acid metabolism in exercising man. Journal of Clinical Investigations 50: 2703–2714 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Felig, P. and Wahren, J.: Fuel homeostasis in exercise. New England Journal of Medicine 293: 1078–1084 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ferro-Luzzi, A.: Meaning and constraints of energy intake studies in free-living populations; in Harrison (Ed.) Energy and Effort. Symposia for the Society for the Study of Human Biology, vol. 22, pp. 115–173 (Taylor and Francis, London 1982).Google Scholar
  93. Ferro-Luzzi, A. and Venerando, A.: Aims and results of dietary surveys on athletes; in Parizková and Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp. 145–154 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).Google Scholar
  94. ordtran, J.S. and Saltin, B.: Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption during prolonged severe exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 23: 331–335 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Forgac, M.T.: Carbohydrate loading — a review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 75: 42–45 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Fred, H.L. and Natelson, E.A.: Grossly bloody urine of runners. Southern Medical Journal 70: 1394–1396 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Garrow, J.S.: Energy stores in man, their composition and measurement. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 41: 175–181 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Gleser, M.A. and Vogel, J.A.: Endurance capacity for prolonged exercise on the bicycle ergometer. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 438–442 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Goldsmith, G.A.: Human requirements for vitamin C and its use in clinical medicine. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 92: 230–245 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Gollnick, P.D.: Free fatty acid turnover and the availability of substrates as a limiting factor in prolonged exercise. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 64–71 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gollnick, P.D.; Armstrong, R.B.; Saltin, B.; Saubert IV, C.W.; Sembrowich, W.L. and Shepherd, R.E.: Effect of training on enzyme activity and fiber composition of human skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 107–111 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Gollnick, P.D.; Piehl, K. and Saltin, B.: Selective glycogen depletion pattern in human muscle fibres after exercise of varying intensity and at varying pedalling rates. Journal of Physiology 241: 45–57 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Gollnick, P.D.; Piehl, K.; Saubert IV, C.W.; Armstrong, R.B. and Saltin, B.: Diet, exercise and glycogen changes in human muscle fibers. Journal of Applied Physiology 33: 421–425 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Gontzea, I.; Sutzescu, R. and Dumitrache, S.: The influence of adaptation to physical effort on nitrogen balance in man. Nutrition Reports International 11: 231–236 (1975).Google Scholar
  105. Goodman, L.S. and Gilman, A.: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 5th ed. (MacMillan, New York 1975).Google Scholar
  106. Goodman, M.N. and Ruderman, N.B.: Influence of muscle use on amino acid metabolism. Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews 10: 1–26 (1982).Google Scholar
  107. Gräfe, H.K.: Growth, development, and aging: Influence of body intake; in Larson and Hermann (Eds) Encyclopaedia of Sports Sciences and Medicine, V (B) 5 pp.1126–1130 (M cmillan Company. New York 1971).Google Scholar
  108. Green, H.J.; Daub, B.D.; Painter, D.C. and Thomson, J.A.: Glycogen depletion patterns during ice hockey performance. Medicine and Science in Sports 10: 289–293 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Greenleaf, J.E. and Castle, B.L.: Exercise temperature regulation in man during hypohydration and hyperhydration. Journal of Applied Physiology 30: 847–853 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Grundy, S.M.; Bilheimer, D.; Blackburn, H.; Brown, W.V.; Kwiterovich, P.O.; Mattson, F.; Schonfeld, G. and Weidman, W.H.: Rationale of the diet-heart statement of the American Heart Association. Circulation 65: 839A-854A (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Haralambie, G.: Changes in electrolytes and trace elements during long-lasting exercise; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp.340–351 (Birkhäusen Verlag, Basel 1975).Google Scholar
  112. Haralambie, G. and Berg, A.: Serum urea and amino nitrogen changes with exercise duration. European Journal of Applied Physiology 36: 39–48(1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Haralambie, G. and Senser, L.: Metabolic changes in man during long distance swimming. European Journal of Applied Physiology 43: 115–125 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Hartung, G.H.; Farge, E.J. and Mitchell, R.E.: Effects of marathon running, jogging and diet on coronary risk factors in middle-aged men. Preventive Medicine 10: 316–323 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Havel, R.J.: Influence of intensity and duration of exercise on supply and use of fuels; in Pernow and Saltin (Eds) Muscle Metabolism during Exercise, pp.315–325 (Plenum Press, New York 1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Havel, R.J.; Carlson, L.A.; Ekelund, L.-G. and Holmgren, A.: Turnover rate and oxidation of different free fatty acids in man during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 19: 613–618 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Havel, R.J.; Pernow, B. and Jones, N.L.: Uptake and release of free fatty acids and other metabolites in the legs of exercising men. Journal of Applied Physiology 23: 90–99 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Hellmann, K.; Collins, K.J.; Gray, C.H.; Jones, R.M.; Lunnon, J.B. and Weiner, J.S.: The excretion of urinary adrenocortical steroids during heat stress. Journal of Endocrinology 14: 209–216 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Henschel, A.; Taylor, H.L.; Brozek, J.; Michelson, O. and Keys, A.: Vitamin C and the ability to work in hot environments. American Journal of Tropical Medicine 24: 259–265 (1944).Google Scholar
  120. Hermansen, L.: Effect of metabolic changes on force generation in skeletal muscle during maximal exercise; in Porter and Whelan (Eds) Human Muscle Fatigue: Physiological Mechanisms. Ciba Foundation Symposium 82, pp.75–88 (Pitman Medical, London 1981).Google Scholar
  121. Hermansen, L; Grandmontagne, M.; Moehlum, S. and Ingnes, I.: Post exercise elevation of resting oxygen uptake: Possible mechanisms and physiological significance; in Marconnet and Poortmans (Eds) Physiological Chemistry of Training and Detraining, pp.119–129 (Karger, Basel 1984).Google Scholar
  122. Hermansen, L.; Hultman, E. and Saltin, B.: Muscle glycogen during prolonged severe exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 71: 129–139 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hickson, R.C.; Rennie, M.J.; Conlee, R.K.; Winder, W.W. and Holloszy, J.O.: Effects of increasing plasma fatty acids on glycogen utilization and endurance. Journal of Applied Physiology 43: 829–833 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Hikida, R.S.; Staron, R.S.; Hagerman, F.C.; Sherman, W.M. and Costill, D.L.: Muscle fibre necrosis associated with human marathon runners. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 59: 185–203 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Hills, A.P.: Carbohydrate loading — a review. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine and Exercise Sciences 14: 136–139 (1982).Google Scholar
  126. Holloszy, J.O. and Booth, F.W.: Biochemical adaptations to endurance exercise in muscle. Annual Review of Physiology 38: 273–291 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Holloszy, J.O.; Rennie, M.J.; Hickson, R.C.; Coulee, R.K. and Hagberg, J.M.: Physiological consequences of the biochemical adaptations to endurance exercise. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 440–450 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Holmér, I.: Oxygen uptake during swimming in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 33: 502–509 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Holmér, I.: Physiology of swimming man; in Hutton and Miller (Eds) Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews, vol. 17, pp.87–123 (Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia 1980).Google Scholar
  130. Houston, M.E.: Metabolic responses to exercise with special reference to training and competition in swimming; in Eriksson and Furberg (Eds) Swimming Medicine IV, pp.207–232 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).Google Scholar
  131. Houston, M.E.: Diet training and sleep: A survey study of elite Canadian swimmers. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 5: 161–163 (1980).Google Scholar
  132. Hultman, E.: Liver as a glucose supplying source during rest and exercise, with special reference to diet; in Parizkova and Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health pp.9–30 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).Google Scholar
  133. Hultman, E. and Bergström, J.: Muscle glycogen synthesis in relation to diet studied in normal subjects. Acta Medica Scandinavica 182: 109–117 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Hunding, A.; Jordal, R. and Paulev, P.-E.: Runner’s anaemia and iron deficiency. Acta Medica Scandinavica 209: 315–318 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Jacobs, I.: Lactate, muscle glycogen and exercise performance in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 495(Suppl.): whole issue (1981).Google Scholar
  136. Jacobs, I.; Kaiser, P. and Tesch, P.: Muscle strength and fatigue after selective glycogen depletion in human skeletal muscle fibres. European Journal of Applied Physiology 46: 47–53 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Jacobs, I.; Westlin, N.; Karlsson, J.; Rasmusson, M. and Houghton, B.: Muscle glycogen and diet in elite soccer players. European Journal of Applied Physiology 48: 297–302 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Jenkins, D.J.A.: Slow release carbohydrate and the treatment of diabetes. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 40: 227–235 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Jenkins, D.J.A.; Wolever, T.M.S.; Taylor, R.H.; Barker, H.; Fielden, H.; Baldwin, J.M.; Bowling, A.C.; Newman, H.C.; Jenkins, A.L. and Goff, D.V.: Glycemic index of foods: A physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34: 362–366 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Jetté, M.; Pelletier, O.; Parker, L. and Thoden, J.: The nutritional and metabolic effects of a carbohydrate-rich diet in a glycogen supercompensation training regimen. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31: 2140–2148 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Jones, N.L.: Sutton, J.R. and Towns, C.J.: Fat metabolism in heavy exercise; in Poortmans and Niset (Eds) Biochemistry of Exercise IV-A p. 123 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1981).Google Scholar
  142. Karlsson, J.; Nordesjö, L.-O. and Saltin, B.: Muscle glycogen utilization during exercise after physical training. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 90: 210–217 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Karlsson, J. and Saltin, B.: Diet, muscle glycogen, and endurance performance. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 203–206 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kelman, G.R.; Maughan, R.J. and Williams, C.: The effect of dietary modifications on blood lactate during exercise. Journal of Physiology 251: 34P (1975).Google Scholar
  145. Kerslake, D.McK.: The Stress of Hot Environments (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1972).Google Scholar
  146. Keul. J.: Muscle metabolism during long lasting exercise; in Howaid and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp.31–42 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).Google Scholar
  147. Kirsch, K.A. and von Ameln, H.: Feeding patterns of endurance athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology 47: 197–208 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Klausen, K.; Piehl, K. and Saltin, B.: Muscle glycogen stores and capacity for anaerobic work; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp. 127–129 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).Google Scholar
  149. Knochel, J.P.: Potassium deficiency during training in the heat. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 175–182 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Knochel, J.P. and Vertel, R.M.: Salt loading as a possible factor in the production of potassium depletion, rhabdomyolysis, and heat injury. Lancet 1: 659–661 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Kotze, H.F.; van der Walt, W.H.; Rogers, G.G. and Strydom, N.B.: Effects of plasma ascorbic acid levels on heat acclimatization in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 42: 711–716 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Ladell, W.S.S.: Thermal sweating. British Medical Bulletin 3: 175–179 (1945).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Lange Andersen, K.; Masironi, R.; Rutenfranz, J. and Seliger, V.: Grading the intensity of physical activity; in Habitual Physical Activity and Health, WHO Regional Publications European Series No 6, pp. 18–26 (World Health Organization, Copenhagen 1978).Google Scholar
  154. Laritcheva, K.A.; Yalovaya, N.I.; Shubin, V.l. and Smirnov, P.: Study of energy expenditure and protein needs of top weight lifters; in Parizková and Rogozkin (Eds) Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp. 155–163 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).Google Scholar
  155. Lee, D.H.K.: Terrestrial animals in dry heat: Man in the desert; in Dill, Adolf and Wilber (Eds) Handbook of Physiology 4: Adaptation to the Environment, pp.551–582 (American Physiological Society, Washington 1964).Google Scholar
  156. Leithead, C.S. and Lind, A.R.: Heat stress and heat disorders (Cassell, London 1964).Google Scholar
  157. Lemon, P.W.R. and Mullin, J.P.: Effect of initial muscle glycogen levels on protein catabolism during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 48: 624–629 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Lemon, P.W.R. and Nagle, F.J.: Effects of exercise on protein and amino acid metabolism. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13: 141–149 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Locksley, R.: Fuel utilization in marathons: Implications for performance. Western Journal of Medicine 133: 493–502 (1980).Google Scholar
  160. Lusk, G.: The Elements of the Science of Nutrition (W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia 1928).Google Scholar
  161. McArdle, W.D.; Katch, F.I. and Katch, V.L.: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia 1981).Google Scholar
  162. McCance, R.A.: Experimental sodium chloride deficiency in man. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 119B: 245–268 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. McCance, R.A.: The effect of salt deficiency in man on the volume of the extracellular fluids, and on the composition of sweat, saliva, gastric juice and cerebrospinal fluid. Journal of Physiology 92: 208–218 (1938).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. MacDougall, J.D.; Hughson, R.; Sutton, J.R. and Moroz, J.R.: The energy cost of cross-country skiing among elite competitors. Medicine and Science in Sports 11: 270–273 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. MacDougall, J.D.; Ward, J.R.; Sale, D.G. and Sutton, J.R.: Muscle glycogen repletion after high-intensity intermittent exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 42: 129–132 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. McGilvery, R.W.: The use of fuels for muscular work; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp. 12–30 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).Google Scholar
  167. McKechnie, J.K.; Reid, J.V.O. and Joubert, S.M.: The effect of dietary sucrose on the performance of marathon runners. South African Medical Journal 44: 728–731 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. McKenzie, D.C. and Rhodes, E.C.: Cardio-respiratory and metabolic responses to exercise on a rowing ergometer. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine 14: 21–23 (1982).Google Scholar
  169. McMiken, D.F. and Daniels, J.T.: Aerobic requirements and maximum aerobic power in treadmill and track running. Medicine and Science in Sports 8: 14–17 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Malhotra, M.S.; Sridharan, K.; Venkataswamy, Y.; Rai, R.M.; Pichan, G.; Radhakrishnan, U. and Grover, S.K.: Effect of restricted potassium intake on its excretion and on physiological responses during heat stress. European Journal of Applied Physiology 47: 169–179 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Margaria, R.: The sources of muscular energy. Scientific American 226: 84–91 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Maron, M.B. and Horvath, S.M.: The marathon: A history and review of the literature. Medicine and Science in Sports 10: 137–150 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mayer, J. and Bullen, B.: Nutrition and athletic performance. Physiological Reviews 40: 369–397 (1960).Google Scholar
  174. Menier, D.R. and Pugh, L.G.C.E.: The relation of oxygen intake and velocity of walking and running, in competition walkers. Journal of Physiology 197: 717–721 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Millward, D.J.; Davies, C.T.M.; Halliday, D.; Wolman, S.L.; Matthews, D. and Rennie, M.: Effect of exercise on protein metabolism in humans as explored with stable isotopes. Federation Proceedings 41: 2686–2691 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Mirkin, G.: Carbohydrate loading: A dangerous practice. Journal of the American Medical Association 223: 1511–1512 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Moore, C.E.; Hartung, G.H.; Mitchell, R.E.; Kappus, C.M. and Hinderlitter, J.: The relationship of exercise and diet on highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol levels in women. Metabolism 32: 182–195 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. National Advisory Committee on Nutrition Education: Nutrition: The changing scene. Lancet 2: 719–721 (1983).Google Scholar
  179. Newsholme, E.A.: The glucose/fatty acid cycle and physical exhaustion; in Porter and Whelan (Eds) Human Muscle Fatigue: Physiological Mechanisms, Ciba Foundation Symposium 82, pp.89–96 (Pitman Medical, London 1981).Google Scholar
  180. Nickerson, H.J. and Tripp, A.D.: Iron deficiency in adolescent cross-country runners. Physician and Sportsmedicine 11: 60–66 (1983).Google Scholar
  181. Nielsen, B. and Nielsen, M.: On the regulation of sweat secretion in exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 64: 314–322 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. NIOSH: Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments — Criteria for a Recommended Standard, figure 8 (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, US Department of Health, Education and Welfare 1972).Google Scholar
  183. Nishida, Y.; Akaoka, I.; Hayashi, E. and Miyamoto, T.: Elevated erythrocyte phosphoribosylpyrophosphate and ATP concentrations in Japanese sumo wrestlers. British Journal of Nutrition 49: 3–7 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Noakes, T.D.: Sugar for energy in marathon running (letter). South African Medical Journal 60(2): 46 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Nygaard, E.; Andersen, P.; Nilsson, P.; Eriksson, E.; Kjessel, T. and Saltin, B.: Glycogen depletion pattern and lactate accumulation in leg muscles during recreational downhill skiing. European Journal of Applied Physiology 38: 261–269 (1978a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Nygaard, E.; Eriksson, E. and Nilsson, P.: Glycogen depletion pattern in leg muscle during recreational downhill skiing; in Figueras (Ed.) Skiing Safety II. International Conference on Ski Trauma and Skiing Safety, 2d Granada, Spain 1977, pp.273–286 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978b).Google Scholar
  187. Olsson, K.-E. and Saltin, B.: Variation in total body water with muscle glycogen changes in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 80: 11–18 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Passmore, R.; Hollingsworth, D.F. and Robertson, J.: Prescription for a better British diet. British Medical Journal 1: 527–531 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Pate, R.R.: Sports anaemia: A review of the current research literature. Physician and Sportsmedicine 11: 115–131 (1983).Google Scholar
  190. Paulev, P.-E.; Jordal, R. and Pedersen, N.S.: Dermal excretion of iron in intensely training athletes. Clinica Chimica Acta 127: 19–27 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Pernow, B. and Saltin, B.: Availability of substrates and capacity for prolonged heavy exercise in man. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 416–422 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Piehl, K.: Time course for refilling of glycogen stores in human muscle fibres following exercise-induced glycogen depletion. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 90: 297–302 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Piehl, K.; Adolfsson, S. and Nazar, K.: Glycogen storage and glycogen synthetase activity in trained and untrained muscle of man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 90: 779–788 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Pirnay, F.; Lacroix, M.; Mosora, F.; Luyckx, A. and Lefebvre, R.: Effect of glucose ingestion on energy substrate utilization during prolonged muscular exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 36: 247–254 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Pitts, G.C.; Johnson, R.E. and Consolazio, F.C.: Work in the heat as affected by intake of water, salt and glucose. American Journal of Physiology 142: 253–259 (1944).Google Scholar
  196. Pugh, L.G.C.E.: Oxygen intake in track and treadmill running with observations on the effect of air resistance. Journal of Physiology 207: 823–835 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Pugh, L.G.C.E.: The relation of oxygen intake and speed in competition cycling and comparative observations on the bicycle ergometer. Journal of Physiology 241: 795–808 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Pugh, L.G.C.E.; Corbett, J.I. and Johnson, R.H.: Rectal temperatures, weight losses, and sweating rates in marathon running. Journal of Applied Physiology 23: 347–352 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Randle, P.J.: Molecular mechanisms regulating fuel selection in muscle; in Poortmans and Niset (Eds) Biochemistry of Exercise IV-A, pp. 13–28 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1981).Google Scholar
  200. Rasch, P.J.; Hamby, J.W. and Burns, H.J.: Protein dietary supplementation and physical performance. Medicine and Science in Sports 1: 195–199 (1969).Google Scholar
  201. Rasch, P.J. and Pierson, W.R.: Effect of a protein dietary supplement on muscular strength and hypertrophy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11: 530–532 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Refsum, H.E.; Gjessing, L.R. and Strömme, S.B.: Changes in plasma amino acid distribution and urine amino acids excretion during prolonged heavy exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations 39: 407–413 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Refsum, H.E.; Meen, H.D.; Strömme, S.B.: Whole blood, serum and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations after repeated heavy exercise of long duration. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 32: 123–127 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Refsum, H.E. and Strömme, S.B.: Urea and creatinine production and excretion in urine during and after prolonged heavy exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 33: 247–254 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Rennie, M.J.; Edwards, R.H.T.; Davies, C.T.M.; Krywawych, S.; Halliday, D.; Waterlow, J.C. and Millward, D.J.: Protein and amino acid turnover during and after exercise. Biochemical Society Transactions 8: 499–501 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Robinson, S. and Robinson, A.H.: Chemical composition of sweat. Physiological Reviews 34: 202–220 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Rose, L.I.; Carroll, D.R.; Lowe, S.L.; Peterson, E.W. and Cooper, K.H.: Serum electrolyte changes after marathon running. Journal of Applied Physiology 29: 449–451 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Rowell, L.B.: The liver as an energy source in man during exercise; in Pernow and Saltin (Eds) Muscle Metabolism during Exercise; pp.127–141 (Plenum Press, New York 1971).Google Scholar
  209. Rowell, L.B.; Masoro, E.J. and Spencer, M.J.: Splanchnic metabolism in exercising man. Journal of Applied Physiology 20: 1032–1037 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Saltin, B.: Aerobic and anaerobic work capacity after dehydration. Journal of Applied Physiology 19: 1114–1118 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Saltin, B.: Metabolic fundamentals in exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports 5: 137–146 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Saltin, B.: Fluid, electrolyte, and energy losses and their replenishment in prolonged exercise; in Parizková and Rogozkin (Eds), Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health, pp.76–97 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1978).Google Scholar
  213. Saltin, B.: Muscle fibre recruitment and metabolism in exhaustive dynamic exercise; in Porter and Whelan (Eds) Human Muscle Fatigue: Physiological Mechanisms, Ciba Foundation Symposium 82, pp.41–52 (Pitman Medical, London 1981).Google Scholar
  214. Saltin, B. and Åstrand, P.O.: Maximal oxygen uptake in athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology 23: 353–358 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Saltin, B. and Hermansen, L.: Glycogen stores and prolonged severe exercise; in Blix (Ed.) Nutrition and Physical Activity. Symposia of the Swedish Nutrition Foundation V, pp. 32–46 (Almquist and Wiksell, Uppsala 1967).Google Scholar
  216. Saltin, B. and Karlsson, J.: Muscle glycogen utilization during work of different intensities; in Pernow and Saltin (Eds) Muscle Metabolism during Exercise, pp.289–299 (Plenum Press, New York 1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Saltin, B.; Nazar, K.; Costill, D.L.; Stein, E.; Jansson, E.; Essén, B. and Gollnick, P.D.: The nature of the training response; peripheral and central adaptations to one-legged exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 96: 289–305 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Saudek, C.D. and Felig, P.: The metabolic events of starvation. American Journal of Medicine 60: 117–126 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Schlüssel, H.: Animate environmental factors influencing activity: Diet; in Larson and Hermann (Eds) Encyclopaedia of Sports Sciences and Medicine, 1(C)4, pp. 139–141 (Macmillan Company, New York 1971).Google Scholar
  220. Schoene, R.B.; Escourrou,P.; Robertson, H.T.; Nilson, K.L.; Parsons, J.R. and Smith, N.J.: Iron repletion decreases maximal exercise lactate concentrations in female athletes with minimal iron-deficiency anaemia. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 102: 306–312 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Schwartz. B.; Cumming, D.C.; Riordan, E.; Selye, M.; Yen, S.S.C. and Rebar, W.R.: Exercise — associated amenorrhoea: A distinct entity? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 141: 662–670 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Schwartz, L.I.; Thaysen, J.H. and Dole, V.P.: Evidence that urea is excreted in human sweat by a passive process. Federation Proceedings 11: 142(1952).Google Scholar
  223. Secher, N.H. and Nygaard Jensen, E.: Glycogen depletion pattern in types I, IIA and IIB muscle fibres during maximal voluntary static and dynamic exercise (abstract 287). Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 96 (Suppl. 440): 174 (1976).Google Scholar
  224. Seiple, R.S.; Vivian, V.M.; Fox, E.L. and Bartels, R.L.: Gastric emptying characteristics of two glucose polymer-electrolyte solutions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 15: 366–369 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Shangold, M.M. and Levine, H.S.: The effect of marathon training upon menstrual function. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 143: 862–869 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Sharman, I.M.: Glycogen loading: Advantages but possible disadvantages. British Journal of Sports Medicine 15: 64–67 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Shephard, R.J.: Human Physiological Work Capacity, pp. 136–178 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Shephard, R.J.: Physiology and Biochemistry of Exercise (Praeger, New York 1982).Google Scholar
  229. Shephard, R.J. and Kavanagh, T.J.: Biochemical changes with marathon running. Observations on post coronary patients; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp.245–252 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).Google Scholar
  230. Sherman, W.M.; Costill, D.L.; Fink, W.J. and Miller, J.M.: Effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilization during performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2: 114–118 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Short, S.H. and Short, W.R.: Four-year study of university athletes’ dietary intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 82: 632–645 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Smiles, K.A. and Robinson, S.: Sodium ion conservation during acclimatization of men to work in the heat. Journal of Applied Physiology 31: 63–69 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Smith, M.P.; Mendez, J.; Druckenmiller, M. and Kris-Etherton, P.M.: Exercise intensity, dietary intake, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in young female competitive swimmers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36: 251–255 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Smith, N.J.: Gaining and losing weight in athletes. Journal of the American Medical Association 236: 149–151 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Smith, N.J.: Nutrition and the young athlete. Pediatric Annals 7: 682–689 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Steel, J.E.: A nutritional study of Australian Olympic athletes. Medical Journal of Australia 2: 119–123 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Stein, T.P.; Schluter, M.D. and Diamond, C.E.: Nutrition, protein turnover, and physical activity in young women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 38: 223–228 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Strauzenberg, S.E.; Schneider, F.; Donath, R.; Zeroes, H. and Köhler, E.: The problem of dieting in training and athletic performance. Bibliotheca Nutritio et Dieta 27: 133–142 (Karger, Basel 1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Strömme, S.B.; Stensvold, I.C.; Meen, H.D. and Refsum, H.E.: Magnesium metabolism during prolonged heavy exercise; in Howald and Poortmans (Eds) Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, pp.361–366 (Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1975).Google Scholar
  240. Strydom, N.B.; Kotze, H.F.; van der Walt, W.H. and Rogers, G.G.: Effect of ascorbic acid on rate of heat acclimatization. Journal of Applied Physiology 41: 202–205 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Strydom, N.B.; Rogers, G.G.; van der Walt, W.H. and van der Linde, A.: Changes in the level of serum vitamin C in mine-workers. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 77: 214–217 (1977).Google Scholar
  242. Thompson, P.D.; Lazarus, B.; Cullinane, E.; Henderson, L.O.; Musliner, T.; Eshleman, R. and Herbert, P.N.: Exercise, diet, or physical characteristics as determinants of HDL-levels in endurance athletes. Atherosclerosis 46: 333–339 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. US Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: Dietary goals for the United States (US Government Printing Office, Washington 1977).Google Scholar
  244. Van der Walt, W.H. and Wyndham, C.H.: An equation for prediction of energy expenditure of walking and running. Journal of Applied Physiology 34: 559–563 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Vellar, O.D.: Studies on sweat losses of nutrients. I. Iron content of whole body sweat and its association with other sweat constituents, serum iron levels, hematological indices, body surface area and sweat rate. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations 21: 157–167 (1968).Google Scholar
  246. Vellar, O.D. and Askevold, R.: Studies on sweat losses of nutrients. III. Calcium, magnesium and chloride content of whole body cell-free sweat in healthy unacclimatized men under controlled environmental conditions. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 22: 65–71 (1968).Google Scholar
  247. Vernon, W.B. and Wacker, W.E.C.: Magnesium metabolism; in Alberti (Ed.) Recent Advances in Clinical Biochemistry, pp.39–71 (Churchill Livingstone, New York 1978).Google Scholar
  248. Wade, C.E.; Dressendorfer, R.H.; O’Brien, J.C. and Claybough, J.R.: Renal function, aldosterone, and vasopressin excretion following repeated long-distance running. Journal of Applied Physiology 50: 709–712 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Wahren, J.: Glucose turnover during exercise in man. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 301: 45–55 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Wahren, J.; Felig, P.; Ahlborg, G. and Jorfeldt, L.: Glucose metabolism during leg exercise in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation 50: 2715–2725 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Ward, P.; Tellez, T. and Ward, R.: USA discus camp: Preliminary report. Track and Field Quarterly Review 76: 29–39 (1976).Google Scholar
  252. Waterlow, J.C.: Critical analysis and shortcomings of current dietary protein and energy requirements; in Harper and Davis (Eds) Nutrition in Health and Disease and International Development: Symposia from the XII International Congress of Nutrition, pp.87–96 (Alan R. Liss, New York 1981).Google Scholar
  253. Weisburger, J.H.; Hegsted, M.D.; Gori, G.B. and Lewis, B.: Extending the prudent diet to cancer prevention. Preventive Medicine 9: 297–304 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Werblow, J.A.; Fox, H.M. and Henneman, A.: Nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and food patterns of women athletes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 73: 242–245 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Widerman, P.M. and Hagan, R.D.: Bodyweight loss in a wrestler preparing for competition: A case report. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 14: 413–418 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Wilmore, J.H.: The application of science to sport: Physiological profiles of male and female athletes. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 4: 103–115 (1979).Google Scholar
  257. Withers, R.T.; Maricic, Z.; Wasilewski, S. and Kelly, L.: Match analyses of Australian professional soccer players. Journal of Human Movement Studies 8: 159–176 (1982).Google Scholar
  258. Wolfe, R.R.; Goodenough, R.D.; Wolfe, M.H.; Royle, G.T. and Nadel, E.R.: Isotopic analysis of leucine and urea metabolism in exercising humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 52: 458–466 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Wood, P.D. and Haskell, W.L.: The effect of exercise on plasma high density lipoproteins. Lipids 14: 417–427 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Wyndham, C.H. and Strydom, N.B.: The danger of an inadequate water intake during marathon running. South African Medical Journal 43: 893–896 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Wyndham, C.H.; Strydom, N.B.; Benade, A.J.S. and Van der Walt, W.H.: The effect on acclimatization of various water and salt replacement regimens. South African Medical Journal 47: 1773–1779 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Wyndham, C.H.; Strydom, N.B.; Morrison, J.F.; Peter, J.; Maritz, J.S. and Ward, J.S.: The influence of a stable diet and regular work on body weight and capacity for exercise in African mine recruits. Ergonomics 5: 435–444 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Yoshimura, H.; Inoue, T.; Yamada, T. and Shiraki, K.: Anaemia during hard physical training (sports anaemia) and its causal mechanism with special reference to protein nutrition. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 35: 1–86 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Young, V.R.: Skeletal muscle and wholebody protein metabolism in relation to exercise; in Poortmans and Niset (Eds) Biochemistry of Exercise IV — A, pp. 59–74 (University Park Press, Baltimore 1981).Google Scholar
  265. Young, V.R. and Torún, B.: Physical activity: Impact on protein and amino acid metabolism and implications for nutritional requirements; in Harper and Davis (Eds) Nutrition in Health and Disease and International Development. Symposia from the XII International Congress of Nutrition, pp.57–85 (Alan R. Liss, New York 1981).Google Scholar
  266. Zapiec, C. and Taylor, A.W.: Muscle fibre composition and energy utilization in CFL football players. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science 4: 140–142 (1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ADIS Press Limited 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. R. Brotherhood
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Health Section, Commonwealth Institute of HealthUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations