Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapies for Renal Cancer
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In the past several years, significant advances in the underlying biological mechanisms of renal cell cancer, particularly the role of tumour angiogenesis, have permitted the design of molecularly targeted therapeutics. For this review, single-agent therapies inhibiting the following different targets were identified in the published literature: epithelial growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor, nuclear factor-κβ, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, raf kinase pathway and tyrosine kinase pathway. Distinct fields of clinical research have emerged — monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, nanopeptides and immunomodulators. All therapies demonstrated acceptable toxicity profiles. Clinical benefit was assessed on the basis of the reported criteria for each study, and antitumour response (regression or delay in progression-free survival) ranged from 5% to 71%. On the basis of the limited studies to date, targeted therapies offer the greatest clinical benefit in the management of this malignancy, although additional basic research is still warranted to further improve clinical outcome.