Drugs

, Volume 59, Issue 2, pp 213–243 | Cite as

Prevention and Treatment of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

Disease Management

Abstract

Pain, nausea and vomiting are frequently listed by patients as their most important perioperative concerns. With the change in emphasis from an inpatient to outpatient hospital and office-based medical/surgical environment, there has been increased interest in the ‘big little problem’ of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Currently, the overall incidence of PONV is estimated to be 25 to 30%, with severe, intractable PONV estimated to occur in approximately 0.18% of all patients undergoing surgery. PONV can lead to delayed postanaesthesia care unit (PACU) recovery room discharge and unanticipated hospital admission, thereby increasing medical costs.

The aetiology and consequences of PONV are complex and multifactorial, with patient-, medical- and surgery-related factors. A thorough understanding of these factors, as well as the neuropharmacology of multiple emetic receptors [dopaminergic, muscarinic, cholinergic, opioid, histamine, serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine; 5-HT)] and physiology [cranial nerves VIII (acoustic-vestibular), IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus), gastrointestinal reflex] relating to PONV are necessary to most effectively manage PONV. Commonly used older, traditional antiemetics for PONV include the anticholinergics (scopolamine), phenothiazines (promethazine), antihistamines (diphenhydramine), butyrophenones (droperidol) and benzamides (metoclopramide). These antiemetics have adverse effects such as dry mouth, sedation, hypotension, extrapyramidal symptoms, dystonic effects and restlessness.

The newest class of antiemetics used for the prevention and treatment of PONV are the serotonin receptor antagonists (ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron, dolasetron). These antiemetics do not have the adverse effects of the older, traditional antiemetics. Headache and dizziness are the main adverse effects of the serotonin receptor antagonists in the dosages used for PONV.

The serotonin receptor antagonists have improved antiemetic effectiveness but are not as completely efficacious for PONV as they are for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Older, traditional antiemetics (such as droperidol) compare favourably with the serotonin receptor antagonists regarding efficacy for PONV prevention. Combination antiemetic therapy improves efficacy for PONV prevention and treatment.

In the difficult-to-treat PONV patient (as in the chemotherapy patient), suppression of numerous emetogenic peripheral stimuli and central neuroemetic receptors may be necessary. This multimodal PONV management approach includes use of: (i) multiple different antiemetic medications (double or triple combination antiemetic therapy acting at different neuroreceptor sites); (ii) less emetogenic anaesthesia techniques; (iii) adequate intravenous hydration; and (iv) adequate pain control.

References

  1. 1.
    Kapur PA. The big ‘little problem’ [editorial]. Anesth Analg 1991; 73: 243–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Watcha MF, White PF. Postoperative nausea and vomiting: its etiology, treatment and prevention. Anesthesiology 1992; 77: 162–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cohen MM, Cameron CB, Duncan PG. Pediatric anesthesia morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period. Anesth Analg 1990; 70: 160–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gold BS, Kitz DS, Lecky JH, et al. Unanticipated admission to the hospital following ambulatory surgery. JAMA 1989; 262: 3003–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Borison HL, Wang SC. Physiology and pharmacology of vomiting. Pharm Rev 1953; 5: 192–230Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang SC, Borison HL. The vomiting center: a critical experimental analysis. Arch Neuro Psych 1950; 63: 928–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andrews PLR, Davis CJ, Binham S, et al. The abdominal visceral innervation and the emetic reflex: pathways, pharmacology and plasticity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1990; 668: 325–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Borison HL, McCarthy LE. Neuropharmacology of chemotherapy-induced emesis. Drugs 1983; 25 Suppl. 1: 8–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Borison HL. Area postrema: chemoreceptor circumventricular organ of the medulla oblongata. Prog Neurobiol 1989; 32: 351–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stefanini E, Clement-Cormier Y. Detection of receptors in the area postrema. Eur J Pharmacol 1981; 74: 257–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wamsley JK, Lewis MS, Young WS, et al. Autoradiographic localization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain-stem. J Neurosci 1981; 1: 176–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Atweh SF, Kuhar MJ. Autoradiographic localization of opiate receptors in the rat brain. II: the brain stem. Brain Res 1977; 129: 1–12Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Palacios JM, Wamsley JK, Kuhar MJ. The distribution of histamine H1-receptors in the rat brain: an autoradiographic study. Neuroscience 1981; 6: 15–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Waeber C, Dixon K, Hoyer D, et al. Localisation by autoradiography of neuronal 5-HT3 receptors in the mouse. Eur J Pharmacol 1988; 151: 351–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brindle GF, Soliman MG. Anaesthetic complications in surgical out-patients. Can Anaesth Soc J 1975; 22(5): 613–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Palazzo MGA, Strunin L. Anaesthesia and emesis. I: etiology. Can Anaesth Soc J 1984; 31: 178–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Patel RI, Hanallah RS. Anesthetic complications following pediatric ambulatory surgery: a 3-year study. Anesthesiology 1988; 69: 1009–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Larsson S, Jonmarker C. Postoperative emesis after pediatric strabismus surgery: the effect of dixyrazine compared to droperidol. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1990; 34: 227–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dent SJ, Ramachandra V, Stephen CR. Postoperative vomiting: incidence, analysis, and therapeutic measures in 3,000 patients. Anesthesiology 1955; 16: 564–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Honkavaara P. Effect of transdermal hyoscine on nausea and vomiting during and after middle-ear surgery under local anesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1996; 76: 749–50Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Philip BK. Etiologies of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Pharmacy Ther 1997; 22 (7 Suppl.): 18–25SGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haigh CG, Kaplan LA, Durham JA. Nausea and vomiting after gynecological surgery: a meta-analysis of factors affecting their incidence. Br J Anaesth 1993; 71: 512–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bellville J. Postanesthetic nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 1961; 22(5): 773–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bellville JW, Bross IDJ, Howland WS. Postoperative nausea and vomiting IV: factors related to postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 1960; 21(2): 186–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cohen MM, Duncan PG, DeBoer DP, et al. The postoperative interview: assessing risk factors for nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 1994; 78: 7–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Koivuranta M, Laara E, Snare L, et al. A survey of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesia 1997; 52: 443–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Anderson R, Krohg K. Pain as a major cause of postoperative nausea. Can Anaesth Soc J 1976; 23: 366–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jenkins JC, Lahay D. Central mechanisms of vomiting related to catecholamine response: anaesthetic implication. Can Anaesth Soc J 1971; 18: 434–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rees MR, Clark RA, Holdsworth CD. The effect of beta adrenoreceptor agonists and antagonists on gastric emptying in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1980; 10: 551–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beattie WS, Lindblad T, Buckley DN, et al. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in women undergoing laparoscopy is influenced by the day of menstrual cycle. Can J Anaesth 1991; 38(3): 298–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Honkavaara P, Lehtinen AM, Hovorka J, et al. Nausea and vomiting after gynaecological laparoscopy depends upon the phase of the menstrual cycle. Can J Anaesth 1991; 38: 876–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gratz I, Allen E, Afshar M, et al. The effects of the menstrual cycle on the incidence of emesis and efficacy of ondansetron. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 656–9Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Purkis IE. Factors that influence postoperative vomiting. Can Anaesth Soc J 1974; 11: 335–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rowley MP, Brown TCK. Postoperative vomiting in children. Anaesth Intensive Care 1982; 10(4): 309–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lerman J. Surgical and patient factors involved in postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth 1992; 69 Suppl. 1: 24S–32SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Smessaert A, Schehr CA, Artusio Jr JF. Nausea and vomiting in the immediate postanesthetic period. JAMA 1959; 170: 2072–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vance JP, Neill RS, Norris W. The incidence and aetiology of postoperative nausea and vomiting in a plastic surgical unit. Br J Plast Surg 1973; 26: 336–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Read NW, Houghton LA. Physiology of gastric emptying and the pathophysiology of gastroparesis. Gastroenterol Clin N Am 1989; 18: 359–73Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Clarke RSJ. Nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth 1984; 56:19–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dundee JW, Kirwan MK, Clarke RSJ. Anaesthesia and premedication as factors in postoperative vomiting. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1965; 9: 223–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dundee JW, Moore J, Nicholl RM. Studies of drugs given before anaesthesia II: a method for the assessment of their influence on the course of anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1962; 34: 523–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Novoa RR. The anti-emetic action of fluothane: a comparative study in obstetrical anaesthesia. Can Anaes Soc J 1960; 7(2): 109–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lonie DS, Harper NJN. Nitrous oxide and vomiting: the effect of nitrous oxide on the incidence of vomiting following gynecological laparoscopy. Anaesthesia 1986; 141: 703–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pandit UA, Malviya S, Lewis IH. Vomiting after outpatient tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children: the role of nitrous oxide. Anesth Analg 1995; 80: 230–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Melnick BM, Johnson LS. Effect of eliminating nitrous oxide in outpatient anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1987; 67: 982–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Felts JA, Poler SM, Spitznagel EL. Nitrous oxide, nausea, and vomiting after outpatient gynecologic surgery. J Clin Anesth 1990; 2: 168–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rising S, Dodgson MS, Steen PA. Isoflurance vs fentanyl for outpatient laparoscopy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1985; 29: 251–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Eger EI.Anesthesia uptake and action. Baltimore (MD): Williams and Wilkins, 1981:171–7Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Eger EI. Nitrous oxide/N2O. New York (NY): Elsevier, 1985: 93-100Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hovorka J, Kortilla K. Nitrous oxide does not increase nausea and vomiting following gynaecological laparoscopy. Can J Anaesth 1989; 36(2): 145–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kortilla K, Hovorka J, Erkola O. Nitrous oxide dose not increase the incidence of nausea and vomiting after isoflurane anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1987; 66: 761–5Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hartung J. Twenty-four of twenty-seven studies show a greater incidence of emesis associated with nitrous oxide than with alternative antiemetics. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 114–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    King JH, Milakiewicz R, Carli F, et al. Influence of neostigmine on postoperative vomiting. Br J Anaesth 1988; 61: 403–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Salmenperä M, Kuoppamäki R, Salmenperä A. Do anticholinergic agents affect the occurrence of postanesthetic nausea? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1992; 36: 445–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Salem MR, Wong AY, Fizzotti GF. Efficacy of cricoid pressure in preventing aspiration of gastric contents in paediatric patients. Br J Anaesth 1972; 44: 401–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    ASA Task Force on Preoperative Fasting. Practice guidelines for preoperative fasting and the use of pharmacologic agents to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration: application to healthy patients undergoing elective procedures. Anesthesiology 1999; 90: 896–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Thompson DP, Ashley FL. Face-lift complications: a study of 922 cases performed in a 6-year period. Plast Reconstr Surg 1978; 61: 40–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stein JM. Factors affecting nausea and vomiting in the plastic surgery patient. Plast Reconstr Surg 1982; 70: 505–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hovorka J, Korttila K, Erkola O. Gastric aspiration at the end of anaesthesia does not decrease postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care 1990; 18: 58–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    McCarroll SM, Mori S, Bras P, et al. The effect of gastric intubation and removal of gastric contents on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting [abstract]. Anaesth Analg 1990; 70: S262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hovorka J, Korttila K, Erkola O. The experience of the person ventilating the lungs does influence postoperative nausea and vomiting. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1990; 34: 203–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Crocker JS, Vandam LD. Concerning nausea and vomiting during spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1959; 20: 587–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Green NM. Physiology of spinal anesthesia. 3rd ed. Baltimore (MD): Williams and Wilkins, 1981: 258–60Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Suntheralingham Y, Buvanendran A, Cheng DCH, et al. A prospective randomized double-blinded study of the effect of intravenous fluid therapy on adverse outcomes on outpatient surgery. Anesth Analg 1995; 80: 682–6Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Davidson GM. Intraoperative fluid and electrolyte requirements. Anaesth Intensive Care 1977; 5: 333–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Adriani J, Summers FW, Antony SO. Is the prophylactic use of antiemetics in surgical patients justified? JAMA 1961; 175(8): 666–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Toner CC, Broomhead CJ, Littlejohn IH, et al. Prediction of postoperative nausea and vomiting using a logistic regression model. Br J Anaesth 1996; 76: 347–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Apfel C, Laara E, Koivuranta M, et al. A simplified risk score for predicting postanesthetic nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 1999; 91: 693–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Omoigui S. The anesthesia drugs handbook. St Louis (MO): Mosby, 1995Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Donnelly A, Cunningham F, Baughman V. Anesthesiology and critical care drug handbook. Cleveland (OH): Lexi-Comp Inc., 1998Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bitetti JM, Weintraub HD. Nausea and vomiting. In: Benumof J, Saidman L, editors. Anesthesia and perioperative complications. St Louis (MO): Mosby-Yearbook Inc., 1992: 407Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kovac AL. Safety and efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in PONV. Pharmacy Ther 1997; 22: 26S–36SGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McCarthy BG, Peroutka SJ. Differentiation of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in human cortex and pons: implications for anti-motion sickness therapy. Aviat Space Environ Med 1988; 49: 63–6Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Golding JF, Scott JR. Comparison of the effects of a selective muscarinic receptor antagonist and hyoscine (scopolamine) on motion sickness, skin conductance and heart rate. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 43: 633–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tigerstedt I, Salmela L, Aromaa U. Double-blind comparison of transdermal scopolamine, droperidol and placebo against postoperative nausea and vomiting. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1988; 32: 454–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Koski EMJ, Mattila MAK, Knapik D, et al. Double-blind comparison of transdermal hyoscine and placebo for the prevention of postoperative nausea. Br J Anaesth 1990; 64: 16–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Loper KA, Ready LB, Dorman BH. Prophylactic transdermal scopolamine patches reduce nausea in postoperative patients receiving epidural morphine. Anesth Analg 1989; 68: 144–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kotelko DM, Rottman RL, Wright WC, et al. Transdermal scopolamine decreases nausea and vomiting following cesarean section in patients receiving epidural morphine. Anesthesiology 1989; 71: 675–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Clissold SP, Heel RC. Transdermal hyoscine (scopolamine): a preliminary review of its pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs 1985; 29: 189–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wood C. Antimotion sickness and antiemetic drugs. Drugs 1979; 17:471–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Howat DDC. Anti-emetic drugs in anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 1960; 15(3): 289–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dundee JW, Moore J, Love WJ, et al. Studies of drugs given before anaesthesia. VI: the phenothiazine derivatives. Br J Anaesth 1965; 37: 332–52Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dillon GP. Clinical evaluation of promethazine for prevention of postoperative vomiting. Am Pract Digest Treatment 1957; 8(10): 1571–5Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dundee JW, Assaf RAE, Loan WB, et al. A comparison of the efficacy of cyclizine and perphenazine in reducing the emetic effects of morphine and pethidine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1975; 2:81–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Splinter WM, Roberts DJ. Perphenazine decreases vomiting by children after tonsillectomy. Can J Anaesth 1997; 44: 1308–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Splinter WM, Roberts DJ. Prophylaxis for vomiting by children after tonsillectomy: dexamethasone versus perphenazine. Anesth Analg 1997; 85: 534–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Splinter WM, Rhine EJ. Prophylaxis for vomiting by children after tonsillectomy: ondansetron compared with perphenazine. Br J Anaesth 1998; 80: 155–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Van den Berg AA. A comparison of ondansetron and prochlorperazine for the prevention of nausea and vomiting after tympanoplasty. Can J Anaesth 1996; 43(9): 939–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Robbins EL, Nagel JD. Haloperidol parenterally for treatment of vomiting and nausea from gastrointestinal disorders in a group of geriatric patients: double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1975; 23: 38–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ross WT, Franz JA. Prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting by haloperidol or droperidol [abstract]. Anaesth Analg 1990; 70: S335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tornetta FJ. Double-blind evaluation of haloperidol for antiemetic activity. Anesth Analg 1972; 51(6): 964–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Barton MD, Libonati M, Cohen PJ. The use of haloperidol for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Anesthesiology 1975; 42:508–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Loeser EA, Bennett G, Stanley TH, et al. Comparison of droperidol, haloperidol and prochlorperazine as postoperative antiemetics. Can Anaesth Soc J 1979; 26(2): 125–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lehmann KA, Van Peer A, Ikonomakis M, et al. Pharmacokinetics of droperidol in surgical patients under different conditions of anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1988; 61: 297–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Madej TH, Simpson KH. Comparison of the use of domperidone, droperidol and metoclopramide in the prevention of nausea and vomiting following gynaecological surgery in day cases. Br J Anesth 1986; 58: 879–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Madej TH, Simpson KH. Comparison of the use of domperidone, droperidol and metoclopramide in the prevention of nausea and vomiting following major gynaecological surgery. Br J Anaesth 1986; 58: 884–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kauste A, Tuominen M, Heikkinen H, et al. Droperidol, alizapride and metoclopramide in the prevention and treatment of postoperative emetic sequelae. Eur J Anaesth 1986; 3: 1–9Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rita L, Goodarzi M, Seleny F. Effect of low dose droperidol on postoperative vomiting in children. Can Anaesth Soc J 1981; 28(3): 259–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wetchler BV, Collins IS, Jacob L. Antiemetic effects of droperidol on the ambulatory surgery patient. Anesthesiology Review 1982; 9(5): 23–6Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Morrison JD, Clarke RSJ, Dundee JW. Studies of drugs given before anaesthesia. XXI: droperidol. Br J Anaesth 1970; 42(8): 730–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Santos A, Datta S. Prophylactic use of droperidol for control of nausea and vomiting during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesth Analg 1984; 63: 85–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Melnick B, Sawyer R, Karambelkar D, et al. Delayed side effects of droperidol after ambulatory general anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1989; 9: 748–51Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Abramowitz MD, Oh TH, Epstein BS, et al. The antiemetic effect of droperidol following outpatient strabismus surgery in children. Anesthesiology 1983; 59: 579–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mortensen PT. Droperidol (dehydrobenzperidol): postoperative antiemetic effect when given intravenously to gynaecological patients. Acta Anaesth Scand 1982; 26: 48–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Korttila K, Kauste A, Tuominen M, et al. Droperidol prevents and treats nausea and vomiting after enflurane anaesthesia. Euro J Anaesth 1985; 2: 379–85Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Harrington RA, Hamilton CW, Brogden RM, et al. Metoclopramide: an updated review of its pharmacological properties and clinical use. Drugs 1983; 25: 451–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Assaf RA, Clarke RS, Dundee JW, et al. Studies of drugs given before anesthesia. XXIV: metoclopramide with morphine and pethidine. Br J Anaesth 1974; 46(7): 514–9Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bateman DN, Davies DS. Pharmacokinetics of metoclopramide [letter]. Lancet 1979; I(8108): 166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    LaCroix G, Lessard MR, Trepanier CA. Treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting: comparison of propofol, droperidol and metoclopramide. Can J Anaesth 1996; 43: 115–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Chestnut DH, Owen CL, Geiger M, et al. Metoclopramide versus droperidol for prevention of nausea and vomiting during epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. South Med J 1989; 82(10): 1224–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chestnut DH, Vandewalker GE, Owen CL, et al. Administration of metoclopramide for prevention of nausea and vomiting during epidural anesthesia for elective cesarean section. Anesthesiology 1987; 66(4): 563–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Champion MC, Hartnett M, Yen M. Domperidone, a new dopamine antagonist. CMAJ 1986; 135: 457–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cooke RD, Comyn DJ, Ball RW. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting by domperidone; a double-blind randomized study using domperidone, metoclopramide and a placebo. S Afr Med J 1979; 17: 827–9Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Boghaert A, Carron D, Gallant J, et al. Postoperative vomiting treated with domperidone: a double-blind comparison with metoclopramide and a placebo. Acta Anesthesiol Belg 1980; 31(2): 129–37Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pitts NE. A clinical pharmacological evaluation of benzquinamide, a new antiemetic agent. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1969; 11:325–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lutz H, Immich H. Antiemetic effect of benzquinamide in postoperative vomiting. Curr Ther Res 1972; 14(4): 178–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Moertel CG, Schutt AJ, Hahn RG, et al. Oral benzquinamide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1975; 18: 554–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Larrauri RM. Benzquinamide parenteral for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 1969; 11: 118–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Smith DJ, Rushin JM, Urquilla PR, et al. Cardiovascular effects of benzquinamide. Anesth Analg 1979; 48: 189–94Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bellville JW, Howland WS, Bross IDJ. Postoperative nausea and vomiting. III: evaluation of the antiemetic drugs fluphenazine (prolixin) and promethazine (phenergan) and comparison with triflupromazine (vesprin) and cyclizine (marezine). JAMA 1960; 172: 1488–93Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    McKenzie R, Wadhwa RK, Lim Uy NT, et al. Antiemetic effectiveness of intramuscular hydroxyzine compared with intramuscular droperidol. Anesth Analg 1981; 60(11): 783–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Giacalone VF. Antianxiety/sedative drugs: the benzodiazepines. Clin Podiatr Med Surg 1992; 9: 465–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    DiFlorio T. The use of midazolam for persistent postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Intensive Care 1992; 20: 383–6Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Splinter WM, MacNeill HB, Menard EA. Midazolam reduces vomiting after tonsillectomy in children. Can J Anaesth 1995; 42: 201–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Khalil SN, Berry JM, Howard G, et al. The antiemetic effect of lorazepam after outpatient strabismus surgery in children. Anesthesiology 1992; 77: 915–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Rothenberg DM, Parnass SM, Litwack K, et al. Efficacy of ephedrine in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 1991; 72: 58–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Naguib K, Osman HA, Al-Khayat HL, et al. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting following laparoscopic surgery: ephedrine vs propofol. Middle East J Anaesthesiol 1998; 14(4): 219–30Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Myles PS, Hendrata M, Bennett AM, et al. Postoperative nausea and vomiting. Propofol or thiopentone: does choice of induction agent affect outcome? Anaesth Intensive Care 1996; 24(3): 355–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hamunen K, Vaalamo MO, Maunuksela EL. Does propofol reduce vomiting after strabismus surgery in children? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41(8): 973–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Borgeat A. Subhypnotic doses of propofol do not possess anti-dopaminergic properties. Anesth Analg 1997; 84(1): 196–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gan TJ, Ginsberg B, Grant AP, et al. Double-blind, randomized comparison of ondansetron and intraoperative propofol to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 1996; 85(5): 1036–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Honkavaara P, Saarnivaara L. Comparison of subhypnotic doses of thiopentone vs propofol on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting following middle ear surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1998; 42(2): 211–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Song D, Whitten CW, White PF, et al. Antiemetic activity of propofol after sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia for outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesthesiology 1998; 89: 838–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ewalenko P, Janny S, Dejonckheere M, et al. Antiemetic effect of subhypnotic doses of propofol after thyroidectomy. Br J Anaesth 1996; 77(4): 643–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Gan TJ, Glass PS, Howell ST, et al. Determination of plasma concentrations of propofol associated with 50% reduction in postoperative nausea. Anesthesiology 1997; 87(4): 779–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Scuderi PE, D’Angelo R, Harris L, et al. Small-dose propofol by continuous infusion does not prevent postoperative vomiting in females undergoing outpatient laparoscopy. Anesth Analg 1997; 84(1): 71–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Asboe V, Raeder JC, Groegaard B. Betamethasone reduces postoperative pain and nausea after ambulatory surgery. Anesth Analg 1998; 87: 319–23Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Pappas AL, Sukhani R, Hotaling AJ, et al. The effect of preoperative dexamethasone on the immediate and delayed postoperative morbidity in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Anesth Analg 1998; 87: 57–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Leeser J, Lip H. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting using ondansetron, a new, selective, 5-HT3-receptor antagonist. Anesth Analg 1991; 72: 751–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kenny GNC, Oates JDL, Lesser J, et al. Efficacy of orally administered ondansetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a dose-ranging study. Br J Anaesth 1992; 68: 466–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    McKenzie R, Kovac A, O’Connor T, et al. Comparison of ondansetron versus placebo to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting in women undergoing ambulatory gynecologic surgery. Anesthesiology 1993; 78: 21–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Scuderi P, Wetchler B, Sung YF, et al. Treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient surgery with the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist ondansetron. Anesthesiology 1993; 78: 15–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kovac A, Pearman M, Khalil S, et al. Ondansetron prevents postoperative emesis in male outpatients. J Clin Anesth 1996; 8: 644–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rose JB, Brenn BR, Corddry DH, et al. Preoperative oral ondansetron for pediatric tonsillectomy. Anesth Analg 1996; 82: 558–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Khalil S, Rodarte A, Weldon BC, et al. Intravenous ondansetron in established postoperative emesis in children. Anesthesiology 1996; 85: 204–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sun R, Klein KW, White PF. The effect of timing of ondansetron administration in outpatients undergoing otolaryngologic surgery. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 331–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Tang J, Wang B, White PF, et al. the effect of timing of ondansetron administration on its efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefit as a prophylactic antiemetic in the ambulatory setting. Anesth Analg 1998; 86: 274–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kovac A, O’Connor T, Pearman M, et al. Efficacy of repeat intravenous dosing of ondansetron in controlling postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. J Clin Anesth 1999; 11: 453–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Rung GW, Claybon L, Hord A, et al. Intravenous ondansetron for postsurgical opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 832–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wilson AJ, Diemunsch P, Lindeque BG, et al. Single-dose i.V. granisetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth 1996; 76: 515–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Fujii Y, Tanaka H, Toyooka H. Optimal antiemetic dose of granisetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth 1994; 51: 794–7Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Cieslak GD, Watcha MF, Phillips MB, et al. The dose-response relationship of granisetron for the prophylaxis of pediatric postoperative emesis. Anesthesiology 1996; 85: 1076–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Taylor AM, Rosen M, Diemunsch PA, et al. A double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, multicenter study of intravenous granisetron in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing surgery with general anesthesia. J Clin Anesth 1997; 9(8): 658–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Chan MTV, Chui PT, Ho WS, et al. Single-dose torpisetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after breast surgery. Anesth Analg 1998; 87: 931–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Alon E, Kocian R, Nett PC, et al. Tropisetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in women undergoing gynecologic surgery. Anesth Analg 1996; 82: 338–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Zomers PJ, Langenberg CJ, de Grajin KM. Tropisetronforpostoperative nausea and vomiting after gynaecological surgery. Br J Anaesth 1993; 71: 677–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Alon E, Buchser E, Herrera E, et al. Tropisetron for treating established postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg 1998; 86: 617–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Balfour JA, Goa KL. Dolasetron: a review of its pharmacology and efficacy in the management of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. Drugs 1997; 54: 273–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Gracyzk SG, McKenzie R, Kaller S, et al. Intravenous dolasetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 325–30Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Diemunsch P, Leeser J, Feiss P, et al. Intravenous dolasetron mesilate ameliorates postoperative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth 1997; 44: 173–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Kovac AL, Scuderi P, Boerner TF, et al. Treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting with single intravenous doses of dolasetron mesylate: a multicenter trial. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 546–52Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Warriner CB, Knox D, Belo S, et al. Prophylactic oral dolasetron mesylate reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal hysterectomy. Can J Anaesth 1997; 44: 1167–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Diemunsch P, Korttila K, Leeser J, et al. Oral dolasetron mesylate for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The Oral Dolasetron PONV Prevention Study Group. J Clin Anesth 1998; 10: 145–52Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lerman J, Sims C, Sikich N, et al. Pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite (MDL 74, 156) of dolasetron mesylate after oral or intravenous administration to anesthetized children. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 60: 485–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Anzemet (dolasetron mesylate) Summary Product Monograph. Kansas City (MO): Hoechst Marion Roussell, 1997Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Kovac A, Mingus M, Sung YF, et al. Reduced resource utilization in patients treated for postoperative nausea and vomiting with dolasetron mesylate. J Clin Anesth 1999; 11: 235–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Kovac AL. Use of serotonin receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting: update 1999. Prog Anesthesiol 1999; 13(14): 263–84Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Alon E, Himmelseher S. Ondansetron in the treatment of postopertive vomiting: a randomized double-blind comparison with droperidol and metoclopramide. Anesth Analg 1992; 75: 561–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Tang J, Watcha MF, White PF. A comparison of costs and efficacy of ondansetron and droperidol as prophylactic antiemetic therapy for elective outpatient gynecologic procedures. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 304–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Sniadach MS, Alberts MS. A comparison of the prophylactic antiemetic effect of ondansetron and droperidol on patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy. Anesth Analg 1997; 85: 797–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Fortney JT, Gan TJ, Graczyk S, et al. A comparison of the efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction of ondansetron versus droperidol as antiemetic for elective outpatient surgical procedures. S3A-409 and S3A-410 Study Groups. Anesth Analg 1998; 86(4): 731–8Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Grond S, Lynch J, Diefenbach C, et al. Comparison of ondansetron and droperidol in the prevention of nausea and vomiting after inpatient minor gynecologic surgery. Anesth Analg 1995; 81: 603–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hamid SK, Selby IR, Sikich N, et al. Vomiting after adenotonsillectomy in children: a comparison of ondansetron, dimenhydrimate and placebo. Anesth Analg 1998; 86: 469–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Desilva PH, Darvish AH, McDonald SM, et al. The efficacy of prophylactic ondansetron, droperidol, perphenazine and metoclopramide in the prevention of nausea and vomiting aftermajorgynecologic surgery. Anesth Analg 1995;81:139–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Korttila K, Clergue F, Leeser J, et al. Intravenous dolasetron and ondansetron in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41(7): 914–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Naguib M, el Bakry AK, Khoshim MH, et al. Prophylactic antiemetic therapy with ondansetron, tropisetron, granisetron and metoclopramide in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind comparison with placebo. Can J Anaesth 1996; 43: 226–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Purhonen S, Kauko M, Koski EMJ, et al. Comparison of tropisetron, droperidol and saline in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynecologic surgery. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 662–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Fujii Y, Saitoh Y, Tanaka H, et al. Prevention of PONV with granisetron, droperidol or metoclopramide in patietns with postoperative emesis. Can J Anaesth 1998; 45(2): 153–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Fujii Y, Toyooka H, Tanaka H. Prevention of PONV with granisetron, droperidol and metoclopramide in female patients with history of motion sickness. Can J Anaesth 1997; 44: 820–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Fujii Y, Toyooka H, Tanaka H. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in female patients during menstruation: comparison of droperidol, metoclopramide and granisetron Br J Anaesth 1998; 80(2): 248–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Polati E, Verlato G, Finco G, et al. Ondansetron versus metoclopramide in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 1997; 85: 395–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Diemunsch P, Conseiller C, Clyti N, et al. Ondansetron compared with metoclopramide in the treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting. The French Ondansetron Study Group. Br J Anaesth 1997; 79: 322–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Roberson CR, McLeskey CH, Meyer T, et al. IV dolasetron vs ondansetron for the treatment of PONV in ambulatory surgery patients [abstract]. Anesthesiology 1999; 91: A4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Zarate E, Watcha M, White PF, et al. Comparative cost-effectiveness of dolasetron and ondansetron for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting after ambulatory surgery [abstract]. Anesthesiology 1999; 91: A3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    McKenzie R, Tantisira B, Karambelkar DJ, et al. Comparison of ondansetron with ondansetron plus dexamethasone in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 1994; 79: 961–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    McKenzie R, Riley TJ, Tantisira B, et al. Effect of propofol for induction and ondansetron with or without dexamethasone for the prevention of nausea and vomiting after major gynecologic surgery. J Clin Anesth 1997; 9: 15–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    McKenzie R, Uy NTL, Riley TJ, Hamilton DL. Droperidol/ ondansetron combination controls nausea and vomiting after tubal banding. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 1218–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Fujii Y, Toyooka H, Tanaka H. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting with a combination of granisetron and droperidol. Anesth Analg 1998; 86: 613–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Fujii Y, Tanaka H, Toyooka H. Granisetron-dexamethasone combination reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth 1995; 42: 387–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Fujii Y, Tanaka H, Toyooka H. The effects of dexamethasone on antiemetics in female patients undergoing gynecologic surgery. Anesth Analg 1997; 85(4): 913–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Wrench IJ, Ward JE, Walder AD, et al. The prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting using a combination of ondansetron and droperidol. Anaesthesia 1996; 51(8): 776–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Koivuranta M, Jokela R, Kiviluomak K, et al. The antiemetic efficacy of a combination of ondansetron and droperidol. Anaesthesia 1997; 52(9): 863–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Pueyo FJ, Carrascosa F, Lopez L, et al. Combination of ondansetron and droperidol in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 117–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Steinbrook RA, Freiberger D, Gosnell JL, et al. Prophylactic antiemetics for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: ondansetron versus droperidol plus metoclopramide. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 1081–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Lopez-Olaondo L, Carrascosa F, Pueyo FJ, et al. Combination of ondansetron and dexamethasone in the prophylaxis of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth 1996; 76(6): 835–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Scuderi P, James R, Harris L, et al. Multimodal management eliminates postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) following outpatient laparoscopy [abstract]. Anesthesiology 1999; 91: A6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Dundee JW, Ghaly RG, Bil KM, et al. Effect of stimulation of the P6 antiemetic point on postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth 1989; 63(5): 612–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Barsoum G, Perry EP, Fraser IA. Postoperative nausea is relieved by acupressure. J R Soc Med 1990; 83(2): 86–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Gieron C, Wieland B, Van-der-Laage D, et al. Acupressure in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthetist 1993; 42(4): 221–6Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Fan CF, Tanhui E, Joshi S, et al. Acupressure treatment for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 1997; 84(4): 821–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Ghaly RG, Fitzpatrick KTJ, Dundee JW. Antiemetic studies with traditional Chinese acupuncture. A comparison of manual needling with electrical stimulation and commonly used antiemetics. Anaesthesia 1987; 42(10): 1108–10Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Zarate E, Mingus M, White P, et al. Transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation for prevention of nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic surgery [abstract]. Anesthesiology 1999; 91: A486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Dershwitz M, DiBiase PM, Roscow CE, et al. Ondansetron does not affect alfentanil-induced ventilatory depression or sedation. Anesthesiology 1992; 77(1): 447–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Benedict CR, Arbogast R, Martin L, et al. Single-blind study of the effects of intravenous dolasetron mesylate versus ondansetron on electrocardiographic parameters in normal volunteers. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1996; 28: 53–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Sanchez LA, Hirsch JD, Carroll NV, et al. Estimation of the costs of postoperative nausea and vomiting in an ambulatory surgery center. J Res Pharm Econ 1995; 6: 35–44Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Roila F, Ballatori E, Tonato M, et al. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists: differences and similarities. Eur J Cancer 1997; 33: 1364–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnaesfhesiologyUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations