Advertisement

Drugs

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 174–204 | Cite as

PAF

A Review of its Effects, Antagonists and Possible Future Clinical Implications (Part II)
  • Matyas Koltai
  • David Hosford
  • Philippe Guinot
  • André Esanu
  • Pierre Braquet
Review Article

Keywords

Lipid Mediator Nedocromil Sodium Platelet Activate Factor Receptor Antagonist Apafant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abigosum AO, Braquet P, Tsafririr A. The involvement of platelet activating factor in ovulation. Science 243: 381–383, 1989Google Scholar
  2. Acker G, Braquet P, Mencia-Huerta JM. Role of platelet-acti-vating factor (PAF) in the initiation of the decidual reaction in the rat. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 85: 623–629, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adamus WS, Heuer HO, Meade CJ. PAF-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo as a method for monitoring pharmacological activity in healthy volunteers. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 11: 415–420, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adamus WS, Heuer HO, Meade CJ, Brecht HM. Safety, tolera-bility and pharmacological activity of multiple doses of the new platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2086 in human subjects. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 45: 270–276, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Adamus WS, Heuer HO, Meade CJ, Schillings JC. Inhibitory effects of the new PAF acether antagonist WEB 2086 on pharmacologic changes induced by PAF inhalation in human beings. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 47: 456–462, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Adolfs MJP, Beusenberg FD, Bonta IL. PAF-acether modifies human peritoneal macrophage cAMP levels in a biphasic fashion. Agents and Actions 26: 119–120, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aguggini G, Berti F, Clement MG, Magni F, Rossoni G. The ginkgolide BN 52021 antagonizes the increase in pulmonary pressure induced by platelet-activating factor in pig: a link to TXA2 generation. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 241–253, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  8. Alecozay AA, Casslen BG, Riehl RM, Deleon FD, Harper MJ, et al. Platelet-activating factor in human lutal phase endometrium. Biology of Reproduction 41: 578–586, 1990Google Scholar
  9. Altin JG, Bygrave FL. Non-parenchymal cells as mediators of physiological responses in liver. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 83: 3–14, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Aoki S, Boubekeur K, Burrows L, Morley J, Sanjar S. Recruitment of eosinophils by platelet-activating factor (PAF) in guinea-pig lung. Journal of Physiology 394: 130P, 1988Google Scholar
  11. Armstead WM, Pourcyrous M, Mirro R, Leffler CW, Busija DW. Platelet-activating factor: a potent constrictor of cerebral arterioles in newborn pigs. Circulation Research 62: 1–7, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Arnoux B, Denjean A, Page CP, Nolibe D, Morley J, et al. Accumulation of platelets and eosinophils in baboon lung following PAF-acether challenge: inhibition by ketotifen. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 137: 855–860, 1988Google Scholar
  13. Archer CB, Page CP, Paul W, Morley J, MacDonald DM. Inflammatory characteristics of platelet activating factor (pafacether) in human skin. British Journal of Dermatology 40: 45–50, 1984Google Scholar
  14. Asmis R, Jorg A. Calcium-ionophore-indticed formation of platelet-activating factor and leukotrienes by horse eosinophils: a comparative study. European Journal of Biochemistry 187: 475–480, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baker RC, Tucker M, Clay KL. Ethanol inhibits zymosan-stimulated and enhances nonstimulated platelet-activating factor production in a clonal macrophage cell line. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 252: 1028–1033, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnes PJ. New concepts in the pathogenesis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 83: 1013–1026, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Barone D, Maggi CA, Baroldi P, Giachetti A, Meli A. Octylinium bromide interacts competitively with the PAF receptor. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research 15: 363–367, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barrett ML, Lewis GP, Ward S, Westwick J. Platelet activating factor induces interleukin-1 production from human adherent macrophages. British Journal of Pharmacology 90: 113–119, 1987Google Scholar
  19. Barthelson RA, Potter T, Valone FH. Synergistic increases in IL-1 synthesis by human monocytic cell line THP-1 treated with PAF and endotoxin. Cellular Immunology 125: 142–150, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Barthelson RA, Valone F. Interaction of platelet-activating factor with interferon-gamma in the stimulation of interleukin-1 production by human monocytes. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 86: 193–201, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bazan HE, Braquet P, Raddy ST, Bazan NG. Inhibition of the alkali burn-induced lipoxygenation of arachidonic acid in the rabbit cornea in vivo by a platelet-activating factor antagonist. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology 2: 237–265, 1987Google Scholar
  22. Beijer L, Botting J, Crook P, Oyekan AO, Page CP, et al. The involvement of platelet-activating factor in endotoxin-induced pulmonary platelet recruitment in the guinea-pig. British Journal of Pharmacology 92: 803–808, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Behrens TW, Goodwin JS. Control of human T cell proliferation by platelet-activating factor. International Journal of Immu-nopharmacology 12: 175–184, 1990Google Scholar
  24. Bernardini R, Calogero AE, Ehrlich YH, Brucke T, Chrousos GP, et al. The alkyl-ether phospholipid platelet-activating factor is a stimulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat. Endocrinology 125: 1067–1073, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Berti F, Rossoni G, Braquet P. Immune release of histamine and other lipid mediators from guinea-pig isolated kidney: antagonism by BN 52021. Agents and Actions 30: 301–306, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Berti F, Rossoni G, Puglisi L, Beretta M, Berti C, et al. The Ginkgolide BN 52021 prevents myocardial contracture and arrhythmia in ischemic rabbit heart. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 369–380, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  27. Bethel RA, Curtis SP, Lien DC, Irvin CG, Worthen GS, et al. Effect of PAF on parasympathetic contraction of canine airways. Journal of Applied Physiology 66: 2629–2634, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Binnaka T, Yamaguchi T, Hirohara J, Hiramatsu A, Mizuno T, et al. Gastric mucosal damage induced in rats by intravenous administration of platelet-activating factor. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 162 (Suppl.): 67–70 (1989).Google Scholar
  29. Birkle DL, Kurian P, Braquet P, Bazan NG. Platelet-activating factor antagonist BN 52021 decreases accumulation of free polyunsaturated fatty acid in mouse brain during ischemia and electroconvulsive shock. Journal of Neurochemistry 31: 1900–1905, 1988Google Scholar
  30. Blasquez C, Jégou S, Delarue C, Delbende C, Bunel DT, et al. Effect of platelet-activating factor and hypophyseal pro-opi-omelanocortin-related peptides and hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis in the rat. European Journal of Pharmacology 177: 145–153, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Block LH, Abraham WM, Groscurt P, Qiao BY, Perruchouf AP. Platelet-activating factor (PAF)-dependent biochemical, morphologic, and physiologic responses on human platelets: demonstration of translocation of protein kinase C associated with protein phosphorylation. American Journal of Respiratory Cellular and Molecular Biology 1: 277–288, 1989Google Scholar
  32. Bodzenta-Lukaszyk A, Krupinski K, Dabrowski S, Bielawiec M. Blood platelet function in patients with obliterative arteriosclerosis of the lower limbs. Folia Haematologica 115: 470–482, 1988Google Scholar
  33. Bonavida B, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P. Effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on monocyte activation and production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF). International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 88: 157–160, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bonavida B, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P. Effects of platelet-activating factor on peripheral blood monocytes: induction and priming for TNF secretion. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S65–S76, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bonvoisin B, Guinot Ph. Clinical studies of BN 52063 a specific PAF antagonist. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 845–854, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  36. Borin ML, Pinelis VG, Azizova OA, Kudinov YV, Markov CM, et al. Na+/H+ exchange in PAF-stimulated platelets. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 257–272, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Boughton-Smith NK, Hutcheson I, Whittle BJ. Relationship between PAF-acether and thromboxane A2 biosynthesis in endotoxin-induced intestinal damage in the rat. Prostaglandins 38: 319–333, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Bourgain RH, Andries R, Braquet P. Endotoxin, PAF and arterial thrombosis. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S187–S193, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bradley LM, Goldstein RE, Feuerstein G, Czaja JF. Circulatory effects of PAF-acether in newborn piglets. American Journal of Physiology 256: H205–H212, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Braquet P. The ginkgolides: potent platelet-activating factor antagonists isolated from Ginkgo biloba L.: chemistry, pharmacology and clinical applications. Drugs of the Future 12: 643–699, 1987Google Scholar
  41. Braquet P, Chabrier PE, Mencia-Huerta JM. The promise of PAF antagonists. Advances in Inflammation Research 16: 179–198, 1987bGoogle Scholar
  42. Braquet P, Etienne A, Mencia-Huerta JM, Clostre F. Effects of the specific platelet-activating factor antagonists, BN 52021 and BN 52063, on various experimental gastrointestinal ulcerations. European Journal of Pharmacology 150: 269–276, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Braquet P, Guinot P, Touway C. The role of PAF acether in anaphylaxis demonstrated with the use of the antagonist BN 52021. Agents and Actions Supplement 21: Paf, platelets and asthma, pp. 97–117, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, 1987cGoogle Scholar
  44. Braquet P, Hosford D, Paubert-Braquet M, Bourgain R, Bussolino F. Role of cytokines and platelet-activating factor in microvascular immune injury. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 88: 88–100, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Braquet P, Laurent JP, Rolland A, Martin C, Pommier J, et al. From ginkgolides to N-substituted piperidino-thieno diazepines, a new series of highly potent dual antagonists. In Samuelson B, et al. (Eds) Advances in prostaglandin, thromboxane, and leukotriene research, Vol. 21, pp. 929–937, Raven Press, New York, 1990Google Scholar
  46. Braquet P, Paubert-Braquet M, Bourgain R, Bussolino F, Hosford D. PAF/cytokine autogenerated feedback networks in microvascular immune injury: consequences in shock, ischemia and graft rejection. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 75–112, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Braquet P, Paubert-Braquet M, Koltai M, Bourgain R, Bussolino F, et al. Is there a case for PAF antagonists in the treatment of ischemic states? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 10: 23–30, 1989cPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Braquet P, Rola-Pleszczynski M. Platelet-activating factor and cellular immune responses. Immunology Today 8: 345–352, 1987Google Scholar
  49. Braquet P, Spinnewyn B, Demerle C, Hosford D, Marcheselli V, et al. The role of platelet-activating factor in cerebral ischemia and related disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 559: 296–312, 1989dPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Braquet P, Touqui L, Shen TS, Vargaftig BB. Perspectives in platelet-activating factor research. Pharmacological Reviews 39: 97–145, 1987aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Brecht HM, Adamus WS, Heuer HO, Birke FW, Kempe ER. Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety profile of the new platelet-activating factor antagonist apafant in man. Arzneimittel-Forschung 41: 51–59, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Brunjzeel PLB, Burgers JA, Kok PTM, Hanelink ML, Kreukniet J. BN 52021 and leukotriene C4 formation by human eosinophils. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 125–131, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  53. Brunjzeel PLB, Koenderman L, Kok PTM, Hanelink JL, Verhagen JL. Platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) induced leukotriene C4 formation and luminol dependence chemolumi-nescence of human eosinophils. Pharmacological Research Communications 18: 61–69, 1986Google Scholar
  54. Brunjzeel PLB, Warringa RAJ, Kok PTM. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor and zymosan-activated serum-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils by nedocromil sodium, BN 52021 and sodium cromoglycate. British Journal of Pharmacology 97: 1251–1257, 1989Google Scholar
  55. Brunelleschi S, Renzi D, Ledda F, Giotti A, Fardozzi R, et al. Interference of WEB 2086 and BN 52021 with PAF-induced effects on guinea-pig trachea. British Journal of Pharmacology 97: 469–474, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Buckley TL, Hoult JR. Platelet-activating factor is a potent colonic secretagogue with actions independent of specific PAF receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology 163: 275–283, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Burka JF, Briand H, Scott-Savage P, Pasutto FM. Leukotriene D4 and platelet-activating factor-acether antagonists on allergic and arachidonic acid-induced reactions in guinea-pig airways. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 67: 483–490, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Bussolino F, Camussi G, Baglioni C. Synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor by human vascular endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor or interleukin la. Journal of Biological Chemistry 263: 11856–11861, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Bussolino F, Camussi G, Tetta C, Gambarino G, Bosia A, et al. Selected cytokines promote the synthesis of platelet-activating factor in vascular endothelial cells: comparison between tumor necrosis factor α and β and interleukin 1. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S15–S22, 1990bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Bussolino F, Fischer E, Turrini F, Kazatchine MD, Arase P. Platelet-activating factor enhances complement-dependent phagocytosis of diamine-treated erythrocytes by human monocytes through activation of protein kinase C and phosphorylation of complement receptor type one (CR1). Journal of Biological Chemistry 264: 21711–21719, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Bussolino F, Torelli S, Stefanini E, Gremo F. Platelet-activating factor production occurs through stimulation of cholinergic and dopaminergic receptors in the chick retina. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 283–288, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Bussolino F, Turrini F, Alessi D, Arase P. BN 52021 inhibits (R)PAF-induced increase of CR1-mediated erythrophagocytosis. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 117–123, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990aGoogle Scholar
  63. Camoratto AM, Grandison L. Platelet-activating factor stimulates prolactin release from dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro. Endocrinology 124: 1502–1506, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Camussi G, Tetta C, Bussolino F, Andres G, Tullero E, et al. Involvement of cytokines and platelet-activating factor in renal pathology. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S203–S213, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Cannistra SA, Vellenga E, Groshek P, Rambaldi A, Griffin JD. Human granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 3 stimulate monocyte cytotoxicity through a tumor necrosis factor-dependent mechanism. Blood 71: 672–676, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Chakrabarti S, Thomas P, Sheridan DJ. Contribution of platelets and platelet activating factor (PAF) to the arrhythmogenic, haemodynamic and necrotic effects of acute myocardial ischaemia. European Heart Journal, in press, 1991Google Scholar
  67. Chand N, Diamanti W, Sofia RD. Effect of PAF-acether on isoprenaline-induced relaxation in isolated tracheal segments of rats and guinea-pigs. European Journal of Pharmacology 158: 135–137, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Chao W, Liu H, Hanahan DJ, Olson MS. Regulation of platelet-activating factor receptors in rat Kupffer cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264: 20448–20457, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Chao W, Siafaka-Karadai A, Olson MS, Hanahan DJ. Biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor by cultured rat Kupffer cells stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187. Biochemical Journal 257: 823–829, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Charpentier B, Guinot Ph, Hosford D, Duchier J. Tolerance and immunological effects of repeated administration of BN 52063 in healthy volunteers. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 905–913, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  71. Chau LY, Tsai YM, Cheng JR. Photoaffmity labeling of platelet activating factor binding sites in rabbit platelet membranes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication 161: 1070–1076, 1989Google Scholar
  72. Chen CR, Voelkel NF, Chang SW. PAF potentiates protamine-induced lung edema: role of pulmonary venoconstriction. Journal of Applied Physiology 68: 1059–1068, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Chihara J, Nakajima S. Induction of hypodense eosinophils and nuclear hypersegmentation of eosinophils by various chemotactic factors and lymphokines in vitro. Allergy Proceedings 1: 27–32, 1989Google Scholar
  74. Chiu CP, Hsieh KH. Pulmonary response to platelet-activating factor (PAF) and PAF antagonist in allergic asthmatic children. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 871–878, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  75. Christman BW, Lefferts PL, Snapper JR. Effect of platelet-activating factor on aerosol histamine responsiveness in awake sheep. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 135: 1261–1266, 1987Google Scholar
  76. Chung KF, Dent G, McCusker M, Guinot P, Page CP, et al. Effect of a ginkgolide mixture (BN 52063) in antagonizing skin and platelet responses to platelet activating factor in man. Lancet 1: 248–250, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Coeffier E, Delautier D, Le Couedic JP, Chignard M, Denizot Y, et al. Cooperation between platelets and neutrophils for pafacether (platelet-activating factor) formation. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 47: 234–243, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Collier M, O’Neill C, Ammit AJ, Saunders DM. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of human embryo-derived platelet activating factor. Human Reproduction 3: 993–998, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Csato M, Pignol B, Hunyadi J, Kenderessy AS, Dobozy A, et al. Effect of BN 52021 on interleukin 1 production by UV-irradiated human keratinocytes. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 767–773, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  80. Cucala M, Wallace JL, Salas A, Guarner F, Rodrigez R, et al. Central regulation of gastric acid secretion by platelet-activating factor in anesthesized rats. Prostaglandins 37: 275–285, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Cueva JP, Hsueh W. Role of oxygen derived free radicals in plate-let-activating factor induced bowel necrosis. Gut 29: 1207–1212, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Cuss FM, Dixon CMS, Barnes PJ. Effects of inhaled platelet-activating factor on pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in man. Lancet 2: 189–192, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Dabrowski A, Gabryelewicz A, Chyczewski L. Oxygen radicals in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis with reference to treatment with a platelet-activating factor antagonist. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 493–502, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  84. Dahinden CA, Zirgg I, Malif FE, De Weck AL. Leukotriene production in human neutrophils primed by recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and stimulated with the complement component C5A and FMLP as second signals. Journal of Experimental Medicine 167: 1281–1295, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Dahinden CA, Kurimoto Y, Wirthmüller U. Growth factors, lipid mediators and effector cells. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S129–S136, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Damas J, Remacle-Volon G, Adam A, Bourdon V. Endotoxin shock, kinin system and PAF-acether in the rat. In Abe K, et al. (Eds) Kinins V, Part B, pp. 547–554, Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1989Google Scholar
  87. Deby-Dupont G, Etienne A, Braquet P, Bourbon-Nueray J, Goutier R. Effect of ginkgolide (BN 52021) on the enzymatic activity of bovine and human trypsins. Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie 94: 7P–8P, 1986Google Scholar
  88. Del Maschio A, Albors M, Evangelista V, Bucchi F, Bertelé V, et al. Measurement of ionized cytoplasmic calcium mobilization with the phenoprotein aequorin in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes activated by platelet-activating factor (PAF). Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 25–36, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Del Maschio A, Evangelista V, Rajtar G, Chen ZM, Cerletti C, et al. Platelet activation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to chemotactic agents. American Journal of Physiology 258: H870–H879, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Dembinska-Kiec A, Peskar BA, Müller MK, Peskar BM. The effects of platelet-activating factor on flow rate and eicosanoid release in the isolated perfused rat gastric vascular bed. Prostaglandins 37: 69–91, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Denizot Y, Boudet J, Burtin C, Marro I, Benveniste J. Monoclonal IgE-mediated cardiac hypersensitivity reactions in the guinea-pig. Agents and Actions 29: 167–171, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Dennis SC, Coetzee WA, Cragoe Jr EJ, Opie LH. Effect of proton buffering and of amiloride derivatives on reperfusion arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts. Circulation Research 66: 1156–1159, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Dent G, Ukena D, Chanez P, Sybrecht G, Barnes P. Characterization of PAF receptors on human neutrophils using the specific antagonist, WEB 2086: correlation between receptor binding and function. FEBS Letters 244: 365–368, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Dent G, Ukena D, Sybrecht GW, Barnes PJ. (3H) WEB 2086 labels platelet-activating factor receptors in guinea-pig and human lung. European Journal of Pharmacology 169: 313–316, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Desquand S, Lefort J, Dumarey C, Vargaftig BB. The booster injection of antigen during active sensitization of guinea-pig modifies the antianaphylactic activity of the PAF antagonist WEB 2086. British Journal of Pharmacology 100: 217–222, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Desquand S, Lefort J, Liu FT, Mencia-Huerta JM, Vargaftig BB. Antigen-induced bronchopulmonary alterations in the guineapig: a new model of passive sensitization mediated by mouse IgE antibodies. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 89: 71–77, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Dhar A, Paul AK, Shukla SD. Platelet-activating factor stimulation of tyrosine kinase and its relationship to phospholipase C in rabbit platelets: studies with genistein and monoclonal antibody to phosphotyrosine. Molecular Pharmacology 37: 519–525, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. DiPersio JF, Billing P, Williams R, Gasson JC. Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and other cytokines primes human neutrophils for enhanced arachidonic acid release and leukotriene B4 synthesis. Journal of Immunology 140: 4315–4322, 1988Google Scholar
  99. DiPersio JF, Golde DW, Gasson JD. GM-CSF: receptor structure and transmembrane signaling. International Journal of Cell Cloning 8: 63–74, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Dive G, Godfroid JJ, Lamotte-Brasseur J, Batt JP, Heymans F, et al. PAF-receptor. 1. ‘Cache-oreille’ effect of selected high-potency platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonists. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 201–215, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Dixon EJA, Wilsoncroft P, Robertson DN, Page CP. The effect of PAF antagonists on bronchial hyperresponsiveness induced by PAF, propranolol or indomethacin. British Journal of Pharmacology 97: 717–722, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Doly M, Hosford D, Gaillard G, Braquet P. Electrophysiological demonstration of transducin inhibition by lithium. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 747–755, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  103. Domingo MT, Chabrier PE, van Delft JL, Verbey NJ, Van Haeringen NJ, et al. Effect of BN 52021 on PAF specific binding site in the eye. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives. Vol. 2, pp. 739–745, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  104. Dray F, Wisner A, Bommelaer-Bayet MC, Tibergien C, Gerozissis K, et al. Prostaglandin E2, leukotriene C4, and platelet-activating factor receptor sites in the brain: binding parameters and pharmacological studies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 559: 100–111, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Droy-Lefaix MT, Drouet Y, Garaud G, Braquet P. The ampli-flcative role of PAF-acether in the oxidative stress following reperfusion of ischemic stomach. Basic Life Sciences 49: 887–890, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Dubois C, Bissonnette E, Rola-Pleszczynski M. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) enhances tumor necrosis factor production by alveolar macrophages. Prevention by PAF receptor antagonists and lipoxygenase inhibitors. Journal of Immunology 143: 964–970, 1989Google Scholar
  107. Duchier J, Cournot A, Hosford D, Bonvoisin B, Berdah L, et al. Clinical studies on the tolerance and effects of BN 52021 on PAF-induced platelet aggregation and skin reactivity in healthy volunteers. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 897–904, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  108. Duran WN, Dillon PK. Acute microcirculatory effects of platelet-activating factor. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S215–S227, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Duverger D, Spinnewyn B, Blavet N, Pirotzky E, Esanu A, et al. Systemic administration of a PAF antagonist, BN 50739, protects against cerebral ischemia. In Krieglstein J & Oberpichler H (Eds) Pharmacology of cerebral ischemia, Wissenschaftliche Velagsgesellschaft, in press, 1990Google Scholar
  110. Eliakim R, Karmeli F, Razin E, Rachmilewicz D. Role of platelet-activating factor in ulcerative colitis: enhanced production during active disease and inhibition by sulfasalazine and prednisolone. Gastroenterology 95: 1167–1172, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Elstad MR, Stafforini DM, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, Zimmerman G. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase increases during macrophage differentiation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264: 8467–8470, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Emanuelli G, Montrucchio G, Gaia E, Dughera L, Corvetti G, et al. Experimental acute pancreatitis induced by platelet-activating factor in rabbits. American Journal of Pathology 134: 315–326, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Ernst A, Syka J, Mest HJ. Arachidonate metabolites change furosemide-induced cochlear potentials. Hearing Research 40: 39–44, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Ernst A, Syka J, Riedel A, Mest HJ. The effect of PAF in the cochlea of guinea-pigs. Prostaglandins 38: 523–525, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Ernst A, Syka J, Riedel A, Mest HJ. Local effects of PAF in guineapig inner ear. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 297–301, 1989cPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Espey LL, Tanaka N, Woodward DS, Harper MJ, Okamura H. Decrease in ovarian platelet-activating factor during ovulation in the gonadotropin-primed immature rat. Biology of Reproduction 41: 104–110, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Esplugues JV, Whittle BJ. Mechanisms contributing to gastric motility changes induced by PAF-acether and endotoxin in rats. American Journal of Physiology 256: G275–G282, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Esplugues JV, Whittle BJ, Moncada S. Local opioid-sensitive afferent sensory neurones in the modulation of gastric damage induced by PAF. British Journal of Pharmacology 97: 579–585, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Etienne A, Hecquet F, Guilmard C, Soulard C, Braquet P. Inhibition of rat endotoxin-induced lethality by BN 52021 and BN 52063, compounds with PAF-acether antagonistic effect and protease-inhibitory activity. International Journal of Tissue Reactions 9: 19–26, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Etienne A, Soulard C, Thonier F, Braquet P. Modulation of eosinophil recruitment in the rat by the platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist, BN 52021, the somatostatin analog, BIM 23014, and by cyclosporin A. Prostaglandins 37: 345–357, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Etienne A, Thonier F, Braquet P. Protective effect of the PAF-antagonist BN 52021 on several models of gastro-intestinal mucosal damage in rats. International Journal of Tissue Reactions 11: 59–64, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Evans TW, Chung KF, Rogers DF, Barnes PJ. Effect of a PAF antagonist, WEB 2086, on airway microvascular leakage in the guinea-pig and platelet aggregation in man. British Journal of Pharmacology 34: 164–168, 1988Google Scholar
  123. Fauler J, Sielhorst G, Frölich JC. Platelet-activating factor induces the production of leukotrienes by human monocytes. Biochimia et Biophysica Acta 1013: 80–85, 1989Google Scholar
  124. Feliste R, Perret B, Braquet P, Chap H. Protective effect of BN 52021, a specific antagonist of platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) against diet-induced cholesteryl ester deposition in rabbit aorta. Atherosclerosis 78: 151–158, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Felix SB, Steger A, Baumann G, Busch R, Ochsenfeld G, et al. Platelet-activating factor-induced coronary constriction in the isolated perfused guinea-pig heart and antagonistic effects of the PAF antagonist WEB 2086. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: 9–20, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Filep J, Herman F, Braquet P, Mozes T. Increased levels of platelet-activating factor in blood following intestinal ischemia in the dog. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 158: 353–359, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Fisher GJ, Talwar HS, Ryder NS, Voorhees JJ. Differential activation of human skin cells by platelet-activating factor: stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover and arachidonic acid mobilization in keratinocytes but not in fibroblasts. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 163: 1344–1350, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Fisher RA, Sharma RV, Bhalla RC. Platelet-activating factor increases inositol phosphate production and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations in cultured rat Kupffer cells. FEBS Letters 251: 22–26, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Fitzgerald MF, Parente L, Whittle BJ. Release of PAF-acether and eicosanoids from guinea-pig alveolar macrophages by FMLP: effect of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibition. European Journal of Pharmacology 164: 539–546, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Fletcher JR, DiSimone AG, Earnest M. Platelet activating factor receptor antagonist improves survival and attenuates eicosa-noid release in severe endotoxemia. Annals of Surgery 211: 312–316, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Floch A, Bousseau A, Hetier E, Floc’h, F, Bost PE, et al. RP 55778, a PAF receptor antagonist, prevents and reverses LPS-induced hemoconcentration and TNF release. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 349–360, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Flores NA, Sheridan DJ. Electrophysiological and arrhythmogenic effects of platelet activating factor during normal perfusion, myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion in the guineapig. British Journal of Pharmacology 101: 734–738, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Foegh ML. Eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor mechanisms in organ rejection. Transplantation Proceedings 20: 1260–1263, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Foegh ML, Conte JV, Jacobsson J, Ramwell PW. Organ preservation and BN 52021. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 719–723, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  135. Fontaliran F, Guillon JM, Koltai M, Braquet P. Reduction of infarct size by Ginkgolide B (BN 52021) in coronary artery ligated rats. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 405–411, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  136. Francescangeli E, Goracci G. The de novo biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in rat brain. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 16: 107–112, 1989Google Scholar
  137. Frerichs KU, Feuerstein GZ. Platelet-activating factor: key mediator in neuroinjury. Cerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism Reviews 2: 148–160, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Frerichs KU, Lindsberg PJ, Hallenbeck JM, Feuerstein G. Platelet-activating factor and progressive brain damage following focal brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery 73: 223–233, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Gay JC. Priming of neutrophil oxidative responses by platelet-activating factor. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S161–S175, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Geissler FT, Kuzan FB, Faustman EM, Henderson Jr WR. Lipid mediator production by post-implantation rat embryos in vitro. Prostaglandins 38: 145–155, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Gerkens JF. Inhibition of vasoconstriction by platelet-activating factor in the in situ blood perfused rat mesentery. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 16: 161–167, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Gerkens JF. Reproducible vasodilatation by platelet-activating factor in blood- and Krebs-perfused rat kidneys is albumin-dependent. European Journal of Pharmacology 177: 119–126, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Gilboe DD, Kintner D, Fitzpatrick JH, Emoto E, Esanu A, et al. Recovery of postischemic brain metabolism and function following treatment with a free radical scavanger and platelet-activating factor antagonists. Journal of Neurochemistry 56: 111–119, 1991Google Scholar
  144. Gilfillan AM, Wiggan GA, Hope WC, Patel BJ, Welton AF. Ro 19-3704 directly inhibits immunoglobulin E-dependent mediator release by a mechanism independent of its platelet-activating factor antagonist properties. European Journal of Pharmacology 176: 255–262, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Gomez-Cambronero J, Durstin M, Molski TF, Naccache PH, Shaafi RI. Calcium is necessary for the platelet-activating factor release in human neutrophils stimulated by physiological stimuli: role of G-proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264: 12699–12704, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Gomez-Chiarri M, Egido J, Gomez C, Bricio T, Lerma JL, et al. Production of PAF and cytokines by glomerular cells of rats with nephrotic syndrome. Effect of the PAF receptor antagonist BN 52021. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 581–589, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  147. Goswami SK, Ohashi M, Stathas P, Marom ZM. Platelet-activating factor stimulates secretion of respiratory glycoconjugate from human airways in culture. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 84: 726–734, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Guamer F, Wallace JL, MacNaughton WK, Ibbotson GC, et al. Endotoxin-induced ascites formation in the rat: partial mediation by platelet-activating factor. Hepatology 10: 788–794, 1989Google Scholar
  149. Guinot P, Bambrilla C, Duchier J, Braquet P, Bonvoisin B, et al. Effect of BN 52063, a specific PAF-acether antagonist, on bronchial provocation test to allergens in asthmatic patients: a preliminary study. Prostaglandins 34: 723–731, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Guinot P, Bambrilla C, Duchier J, Taytard A, Summerhayes C. The clinical effects of BN 62063, a specific PAF-acether antagonist. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 1, pp. 345–354, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1988aGoogle Scholar
  151. Guinot P, Braquet P, Duchier J, Cournot A. Inhibition of PAF-acether induced weal and flare reaction in man by a specific PAF antagonist. Prostaglandins 32: 160–163, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Guinot P, Summerhayes C, Berdah L, Duchier J, Revillaud RJ. Treatment of adult systemic mastocytosis with a PAF-acether antagonist BN 52063. Lancet 2: 114, 1988bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Guinot P, Summerhayes C, Bonvoisin B. PAF and allergic diseases in human: clinical evidence for the role of PAF in airway hypersensitivity and asthma and the effects of BN 52063, a specific PAF-acether antagonist. In Braquet P (Ed.) New trends in lipid mediators research, Vol. 2, pp. 118–127, Karger, Basel, 1988cGoogle Scholar
  154. Hanglow AC, Bienenstock J, Perdue MH. Effects of platelet-activating factor on ion transport in isolated rat jejunum. American Journal of Physiology 257: G845–G850, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Hansel W, Hickey GL. Early pregnancy signals in domestic animals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 541: 472–484, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Harper MJ. Platelet-activating factor: a paracrine factor in preimplantation stages of reproduction? Biology of Reproduction 40: 907–913, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Harper MJK, Woodard DS, Norris CJ. Spermicidal effect of antagonists of platelet-activating factor. Fertility and Sterility 51: 890–895, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Havill AM, Van Valen RG, Handley DA. Prevention of nonspecific airway hyperreactivity after allergen challenge in guineapigs by PAF receptor antagonist SDZ 64-412. British Journal of Pharmacology 99: 396–400, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Hayashi H, Kudo I, Kato I, Nozawa R, Nojima S, et al. A novel bioaction of PAF: induction of microbicidal activity in guineapig bone marrow cells. Lipids 23: 1119–1124, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Hebert RL, Sirois P, Plante GE. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor induced renal hemodynamic and tubular dysfunctions with L-655-240, a new thromboxane-prostaglandin endoperoxide antagonist. Candian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 67: 304–308, 1989Google Scholar
  161. Hellegouarch A, Auguet M, Guillon JM, Baranes J, Pirotzky E, et al. Lack of effect of atrial natriuretic factor on the tone induced in rat portal vein by platelet-activating factor. European Journal of Pharmacology 145: 245–248, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Hellewell PG, Williams TJ. Antagonism of PAF-induced oedema formation in rabbit skin: a comparison of different antagonists. British Journal of Pharmacology 97: 171–180, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Henocq E, Vargaftig BB. Accumulation of eosinophils in response to intracutaneous PAF-acether and allergens in man. Lancet 1: 1378–1379, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Henriques MG, Weg VB, Martins MA, Silva PM, Fernandes PD, et al. Differential inhibition by two hetrazepine PAF antagonists of acute inflammation in the mouse. British Journal of Pharmacology 99: 164–168, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Herman F, Magyar K, Kovacs K, Filep J. Decreased sensitivity of platelets to platelet-activating factor in migraine patients during the headache-free interval. Correspondence. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 62: 818, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Heuer H, Letts G, Meade CJ. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and endotoxin prime effects of PAF in vivo. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S101–S108, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Heymans F, Steiner E, Jouquey S, Godfoid JJ. PAF receptor. 2. Quantitative hydrophobic contribution on the agonist’s etheroxid chain. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 303–312, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Hirafuji M, Maeyama K, Watanabe T, Ogura Y. Transient increase of cytosolic free calcium in cultured human vascular endothelial cells by platelët-activating factor. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 154: 910–917, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Hoffman DR, Romero R, Johnston JM. Detection of platelet-activating factor in amniotic fluid of complicated pregnancies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 162: 525–528, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Hofmann B, Meisgeier U, Ostermann G, Klöcking HP, Hoffmann A, et al. Effect of BN 52021 on PAF-induced release of tissue-type plasminogen activator. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 291–303, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  171. Hopp RJ, Bewtra AK, Agrawal DK, Townley RG. Effect of platelet-activating factor inhalation on nonspecific bronchial reactivity in man. Chest 96: 1070–1072, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Hosford D, Braquet P. Potential role for platelet activating factor in shock and ischaemia. Journal of Critical Care 5: 1–22, 1990bGoogle Scholar
  173. Hosford D, Braquet P. Antagonists of platelet-activating factor: chemistry, pharmacology and clinical applications. In Ellis GP & West GB (Eds) Progress in medicinal chemistry, Vol. 27, pp. 325–380, 1990aGoogle Scholar
  174. Hosford D, Mencia-Huerta JM, Page C, Braquet P. Natural antagonists of platelet-activating factor. Phytotherapy Research 2: 1–24, 1988Google Scholar
  175. Howat DW, Chand N, Braquet P, Willoughby DA. An investigation into the possible involvement of platelet-activating factor in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats. Agents and Actions 27: 473–476, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Howat D, Desa F, Chander C, Moore A, Willoughby DA. The synergism between PAF and interleukin-1 on cartilage breakdown. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S143–S149, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Hsueh W, Sun XM. Tumor necrosis factor-induced bowel necrosis: the role of platelet-activating factor. Advances in Prostaglandin, Thromboxane and Leukotriene Research 19: 363–366, 1989Google Scholar
  178. Humphrey DM. Inflammatory exudates in skin windows induced by l-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine. American Journal of Pathology 136: 467–477, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Hunyadi J, Judak R, Kenderessy AS, Braquet P, Dobozy A. Enhancing effect of whole-body ultraviolet light irradiation on Candida albicans activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Dermatologische Monatsschrift 175: 326–332, 1989Google Scholar
  180. Ibbotson GC, Wallace JL. Inhibitory effects of dexamethasone in endotoxic shock and its relation to PAF-acether synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract and lung. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 273–282, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Ibbotson GC, Wallace JL. Beneficial effects of prostaglandin E2 in endotoxic shock are unrelated to effects on PAF-acether synthesis. Prostaglandins 37: 237–250, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Inoue T, Kannan RS. Platelet-activating factor-induced functional changes in the guinea-pig trachea in vitro. Respiratory Physiology 77: 157–171, 1989Google Scholar
  183. Iwai A, Itoh M, Yokoyama Y, Yasue N, Miyamoto T, et al. Role of PAF in ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat stomach. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 162 (Suppl.): 63–66 (1989).Google Scholar
  184. Iwama T, Shikada K, Tanaka S. Pharmacological modulation of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced bronchoconstriction and hypertension in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 40: 544–547, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Jancar S, Braquet P, Sirois P. Release of eicosanoids in rat peritoneal cavity during the Arthus reaction: effect of the PAF-antagonist BN 52021 and indomethacin. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 11: 129–132, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Jancar S, Theriault P, Lauziere M, Braquet P, Sirois P. PAF-induced release of spasmogens from guinea-pig lungs. British Journal of Pharmacology 96: 153–162, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Jancar S, Theriault P, Procenccal B, Cloutier S, Sirois P. Mechanisms of action of platelet-activating factor on guinea-pig lung parenchyma strips. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 66: 1187–1191, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Janero DR, Burghardt C. Production of platelet-activating factor by the injured heart muscle cell (cardiomyocyte). Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 67: 201–218, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Johnson PR, Armour CL, Black JL. The action of platelet activating factor and its antagonism by WEB 2086 on human isolated airways. European Respiratory Journal 3: 55–60, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Joseph R, Welch KM. Granulocytes, platelet-activating factor and myocardial injury (correspondence). Circulation 79: 140–141, 1989Google Scholar
  191. Jouve R, Puddu PE, Langlet F, Lanti M, Guillen JC. Anti-arrhythmic effects of BN 52021 after circumflex coronary artery occlusion-reperfusion in dogs: analysis of 87 experiments using the proportional hazards cox’s model. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives. Vol. 2, pp. 437–448, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  192. Junier MP, Tiberghien C, Rougeot C, Faveur V, Dray F. Inhibitory effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and somotastatin release from rat median eminence in vitro correlated with the characterization of specific PAF receptor sites in rat hypothalamus. Endocrinology 123: 72–80, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Karasawa A, Rochester JA, Lefer AM. Beneficial actions of BN 50739, a new PAF receptor antagonist, in murine traumatic shock. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 12: 231–237, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Kawaguchi H, Sawa H, Izuka K, Yasuda H. Platelet-activating factor stimulated angiotensin converting enzyme activity. Journal of Hypertension 8: 173–177, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Kemény L, Csato M, Dobozy A. Pharmacological studies on dithranol-induced irritative dermatitis in mice. Archives of Dermatological Research 281: 362–365, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Kemény L, Csato M, Braquet P, Dobozy A. Effect of BN 52021, a platelet activating factor antagonist, on dithranol-induced inflammation. British Journal of Dermatology 122: 539–544, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Kochanek PM, Dutka AJ, Kumaroo KK, Hallenbeck JM. Platelet-activating factor receptor blockade enhances early neuronal recovery after multifocal brain ischemia in dogs. Life Sciences 41: 2639–2644, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Kochanek PM, Nemoto EM, Schoettle R. Cerebrovascular effects of platelet-activating factor receptor antagonism in the rat: effects on normal cerebral blood flow and posttraumatic edema. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 619–628, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  199. Kochanek PM, Melick JA, Schoettle RJ, Magargee MJ, Evans RW, et al. Endogenous platelet activating factor does not modulate blood flow and metabolism in normal rat brain. Stroke 21: 459–462, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Kodama H, Muto H, Maki M. Isolation and identification of embryo-derived platelet-activating factor in mice. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 41: 899–906, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Koenderman L, Brujnzeel PL. Increased sensitivity of the chemoattractant-induced chemiluminescence in eosinophils isolated from atopic individuals. Immunology 67: 534–536, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Koltai M, Tosaki A, Guillon JM, Hosford D, Braquet P. PAF-antagonists as potential therapeutic agents in cardiac anaphylaxis and myocardial ischemia. Cardiovascular Drug Reviews 7: 177–198, 1989aGoogle Scholar
  203. Koltai M, Tosaki A, Hosford D, Braquet P. BN 52021, a PAF receptor antagonist, protects isolated working rat hearts against arrhythmias induced by ischemia but not reperfusion. European Journal of Pharmacology 164: 293–302, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Koltai M, Tosaki A, Hosford D, Esanu A, Braquet P. Effect of BN 50739, a new PAF antagonist on ischaemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias in isolated working rat hearts. Cardiovascular Research, in press, 1991Google Scholar
  205. Konturek SJ, Brzozowski T, Drozdowicz D, Garlicki J, Beck G. Role of leukotrienes and platelet-activating factor in acute gastric mucosal lesions in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 164: 285–292, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Kornecki E, Ehrlich YH. Neuroregulatory and neuropathological actions of the ether-phospholipid platelet-activating factor. Science 240: 92–94, 1988Google Scholar
  207. Korth R, Hirafuji M, Keraly CL, Delautier D, Bidault J, et al. Interaction of the PAF antagonist WEB 2086 and its hetra-zepine analogues with human platelets and endothelial cells. British Journal of Pharmacology 98: 653–661, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Klöcking HP, Markwardt F, Hoffmann A. Release of tissue plasminogen activator by platelet-activating factor. Thrombosis Research 38: 413–416, 1986Google Scholar
  209. Kroegel C, Pleass R, Yukawa T, Chung KF, Westwick J, et al. Characterization of platelet-activating factor-induced elevation of cytosolic free calcium concentration in eosinophils. FEBS Letters 243: 41–46, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Kroegel C, Yukawa T, Westwick J, Barnes PJ. Evidence for two platelet-activating factor receptors on eosinophils: dissociation between PAF-induced intracellular calcium mobilization, degranulation and superoxides anion generation in eosinophils. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 162: 511–521, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Kubes P, Suzuki M, Granger DN. Platelet-activating factor-induced microvascular dysfunction: role of adherent leukocytes. American Journal of Physiology 258: G158–G163, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Kudolo GB, Harper MJK. Characterization of platelet-activating factor binding sites on the uterine membranes from pregnant rabbits. Biology of Reproduction 41: 587–603, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Kudolo GB, Harper MJK. Molecular heterogeneity of platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptors in rabbit endometrial membranes: autoradiographic and biochemical evidence. Biology of Reproduction, in press, 1991Google Scholar
  214. Kumar R, Harvey SA, Kester M, Hanahan DJ, Olson MS, et al. Production and effects of platelet-activating factor in the rat brain. Biochimia et Biophysica Acta 963: 375–383, 1988Google Scholar
  215. Kuzan FB, Geissler FT, Henderson Jr WR. Role of spermatozoal platelet-activating factor in fertilization. Prostaglandins 39: 61–74, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Lagente V, Fortes ZB, Garcia-Leme J. Effect of BN 52021 on PAF-induced changes of the mesenteric microvasculature. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 267–273, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  217. Lai CK, Jenkins JR, Polosa R, Holgate ST. Inhaled PAF fails to induce airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in normal human subjects. Journal of Applied Physiology 68: 919–926, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Lamas S, Olivera A, Lopez-Novoa JM, Lopez-Farre A, Hernando L, et al. Effect of BN 52021 on cyclosporine-induced glomerular function impairment. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol, 2, pp. 547–559, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  219. Lang C, Dobrescu C. Attenuation of burn-induced changes in hemodynamics and glucose metabolism by the PAF antagonist SRI 63-675. European Journal of Pharmacology 156: 207–214, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Lapointe DS, Olson MS. Platelet-activating factor-stimulated hepatic glycogenolysis is not mediated through cyclooxygenase-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264: 12130–12133, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Larsen GL. New concepts in the pathogenesis of asthma. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 53: 107–118, 1989Google Scholar
  222. Laurindo FR, Goldstein RE, Davenport NJ, Ezra D, Feuerstein GZ. Mechanisms of hypotension produced by platelet-activating factor. Journal of Applied Physiology 66: 2681–2690, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Lavaud P, Mathieu J, Bienvenu P, Braquet M, Gerasimo JF, et al. Modulation of leucocyte activation in the early phase of the rabbit burn injury. Burns 14: 15–20, 1988Google Scholar
  224. Lavaud P, Rodrigue F, Carré C, Touvay C, Mencia-Huerta JM, et al. Effect of the platelet-activating factor antagonist, BN 52063, on contact dermatitis in the mouse. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 787–795, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  225. Lefer AM. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its role in cardiac injury. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 301: 53–60, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Lellouch-Tubiana A, Lefort J, Simon MT, Pflster A, Vargaftig BB. Eosinophil recruitment into guinea-pig lungs after PAF-acether and allergen administration. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 137: 948–954, 1988Google Scholar
  227. Levi R, Genovese A, Pinckard RN. Alkyl chain homologs of platelet-activating factor and their effects on the mammalian heart. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 161: 1341–1347, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Levine L. Platelet-activating factor stimulates arachidonic acid metabolism in rat liver cells (C-9 cell line) by a receptor-mediated mechanism. Molecular Pharmacology 34: 793–799, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Lewis MS, Whatley RE, Cain P, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, et al. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates the synthesis of platelet-activating factor by endothelium and induces endothelial cell-dependent neutrophil adhesion. Journal of Clinical Investigation 82: 2045–2055, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Lindsberg PJ, Jacobs TP, Paakkari IA, Hallenbeck JM, Feuerstein G. Effect of systemic platelet-activating factor (PAF) on the rabbit spinal cord microcirculation. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: 41–58, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Lopez-Farre A, Bemabeu F, Gomez-Garre D, Ramony Cajal S, Braquet P, et al. Platelet-activating factor antagonists treatment protects against postischemic acute renal failure in rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 253: 328–333, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Maestre C, Zarco P, Gomez-Guerrero C, Gonzales E, Herrero-Beaumont G, et al. Cooperation between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and platelet activating factor (PAF) in the inflammatory response. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S151–S159, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Man RYK, Hu W, Kinnaird AAA. Coronary response to platelet-activating factor in the perfused rat heart. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: 75–83, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Mandi Y, Farkas G, Koltai M, Beladi I, Mencia-Huerta JM, et al. The effect of the platelet-activating factor antagonist, BN 52021, on human natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Immunology 67: 370–374, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Marcheselli VL, Rossowska MJ, Domingo MT, Braquet P, Bazan NG. Distinct platelet-activating factor binding sites in synaptic endings and in intracellular membranes of rat cerebral cortex. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265: 9140–9145, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Markey AC, Barker JNWN, Archer CB, Guinot P, Lee TH, et al. Platelet activating factor-induced clinical and histological responses in atopic skin and their modification by the platelet activating factor antagonist BN 52063. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 23: 263–268, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Marquis O, Robaut C, Cavero I. Evidence for the existence and ionic modulation of platelet-activating factor receptors mediating degranulatory responses in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 250: 293–300, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Martins MA, Silva PM, Faria-Neto HC, Bozza PT, Dias PM, et al. Pharmacological modulation of PAF-induced rat pleurisy and its role in inflammation by zymosan. British Journal of Pharmacology 96: 363–371, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Maruyama M, Färber NE, Vercellotti GM, Jacob HS, Gross GJ. Evidence for the role of platelet activating factor in the pathogenesis of irreversible but not reversible myocardial injury after reperfusion in dogs. American Heart Journal 120: 510–520, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Masugi F, Sakaguchi K, Saeki S, Imaoka M, Ogihara T. Dietary salt, blood pressure and circulating levels of l-0-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in patients with essential hypertension. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 341–348, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. McColl SH, Krump E, McDonald PP, Braquet M, Naccache PH, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the synthesis of leukotriene B4 by human neutrophils in response to PAF-acether. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S119–S128, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. McCormack DG, Barnes PG, Evans TW. Evidence against a role for platelet-activating factor in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the rat. Clinical Sciences 77: 439–443, 1989Google Scholar
  243. Mencia-Huerta JM, Hosford D, Braquet P. Acute and long-term pulmonary effects of platelet-activating factor. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 19: 125–132, 1990Google Scholar
  244. Meng HP, Kutryk MJ, Pierce NG. Effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on sodium calcium exchange in cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 92: 45–51, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Michel L, Denizot Y, Thomas Y, Benveniste J, Dubertret L. Release of PAF-acether and precursors during allergic cutaneous reactions. Lancet 2: 404, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Mickelson JK, Simpson PJ, Lucchesi BR. Myocardial dysfunction and coronary vasoconstriction induced by platelet-activating factor in the post-infarcted rabbit isolated heart. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 20: 547–561, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Milligan SR, Finn CA. Failure of platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) to induce decidualization in mice and failure of antagonists of PAF to inhibit implantation. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 88: 105–112, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Minhas BS, Kumar R, Ricker DD, Roudebush WE, Dodson MG, et al. Effects of platelet activating factor on mouse oocyte fertilization in vitro. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 161: 1714–1717, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Mock BH, English D. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances exudation of neutrophils to sites of inflammatory challenge in vivo. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S137–S141, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Montrucchio G, Alloatti G, Mariano F, De Paulis R, Cavalli PL, et al. Role of platelet-activating factor in the reperfusion injury of rabbit ischemic heart. American Journal of Pathology 137: 71–83, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Montrucchio G, Alloatti G, Tetta C, De Luca R, Saunders RN, et al. Release of platelet-activating factor from ischemic-re-perfused rabbit heart. American Journal of Physiology 25: H1236–H1246, 1989aGoogle Scholar
  252. Montrucchio G, Mariano F, Cavalli PL, Viglino G, Emanuelli G, et al. Platelet-activating factor is produced during infectious peritonitis in CAPD patients. Kidney International 36: 1029–1036, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Moon DG, Van der Zee H, Weston LK, Gudewicz PW, Fenton JW, et al. Platelet modulation of neutrophil superoxide anion production. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 63: 91–96, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Moqbel R, Cromwell O, Kay AB. The effect of nedocromil sodium on human eosinophil activation. Drugs 37(Suppl. 1): 19–22 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Moqbel R, Macdonald AJ, Cromwell O, Kay AB. Release of leu-kotriene C4 (LTC4) from human eosinophils following adherence to IgE- and IgG-coated schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. Immunology 69: 435–442, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Morita E, Schroder JM, Christophers E. Chemotactic responsiveness of eosinophils isolated from patients with inflammatory skin diseases. Journal of Dermatology 16: 348–351, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Morris DD, Moore JN. Equine peritoneal macrophage production of thromboxane and prostacyclin in response to platelet-activating factor and its receptor antagonist SRI 63-441. Circulatory Shock 28: 149–158, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Morrison WJ, Shukla SD. Antagonism of platelet-activating factor receptor binding and stimulated phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in rabbit platelets. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 250: 831–835, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Mozes T, Braquet P, Filep J. Platelet-activating factor, an endogenous mediator of mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion-induced shock. American Journal of Physiology 257: R872–R877, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Murphy S, Welk S. Arachidonic acid evokes inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in astrocytes. FEBS-Letters 257: 68–70, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Murphy S, Welk S. Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides in astrocytes by platelet-activating factor. European Journal of Pharmacology 188: 399–401, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Myers AK, Robey JW, Price RM. Relationships between tumour necrosis factor, eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor as mediators of endotoxin-induced shock in mice. British Journal of Pharmacology 99: 499–502, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Neuwirth R, Satriano JA, DeCandido S, Clay K, Schlondorff D. Angiotensin II causes formation of platelet-activating factor in cultured rat mesangial cells. Circulation Research 64: 1124–1129, 1989Google Scholar
  264. Ng DS, Wong K. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) stimulates phos-phatidylinositol hydrolysis in human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 66: 219–231, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Nijkamp FP, van Heuven-Nolsen D. The PAF antagonist BN 52021 inhibits endotoxin-induced hyperreactivity to histamine in guinea-pig airways but not in coronary vessels. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 197–206, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  266. Northover AM. Effects of PAF and PAF antagonists on the shape of venous endothelial cells in vitro. Agents and Actions 28: 142–148, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Northover AM. Modification by some antagonists of the shape changes on venous endothelial cells in response to inflammatory agents in vitro. Agents and Actions 29: 184–188, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Oberpichler H, Sauer D, Rossberg C, Mennel HD, Krieglstein J. PAF antagonist ginkgolide B reduces postischemic neuronal damage in rat brain hippocampus. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 10: 133–135, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. O’Donnel SR, Barnett CJK. pA2 values for antagonists of platelet-activating factor on aggregation of rabbit platelets. British Journal of Pharmacology 94: 437–442, 1988Google Scholar
  270. O’Flaherty JT, Redman JF, Jacobson DP. Mechanisms involved in the bidirectional effects of protein kinase C activators on neutrophil responses to leukotriene B4. Journal of Immunology 144: 1909–1913, 1990Google Scholar
  271. Ohar JA, Pyle JA, Waller KS, Hyers TM, Webster RO, et al. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 141: 104–110, 1990Google Scholar
  272. Oh-ishi S, Hayashi I, Hayashi M, Yamaki K, Utsunomiya I. Pharmacological demonstration of inflammatory mediators using experimental inflammatory models: rat pleurisy induced by carrageenin and phorbol myristate acetate. Dermatologica 179(Suppl. 1): 68–71 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. O’Neill C, Collier M, Ryan JP, Spinks NR. Embryo-derived platelet-activating factor. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 37 (Suppl.): 19–27, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. O’Neill C, Ryan JP, Collier M, Saunders DM, Ammit AJ, et al. Supplementation of in vitro fertilization culture medium with platelet activating factor. Lancet 2: 769–772, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Orozco C, Cock I, Perkins AV, Clarke FM. Platelet-activating factor and serum components from oestrus mice co-operate to mimick the activity of ‘early pregnancy factor’ in the rosette inhibition assay. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 88: 447–457, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Ostermann G, Lans A, Holtz H, Ruhling K, Winkler L, et al. The degradation of platelet-activating factor in serum and its discriminative value in atherosclerotic patients. Thrombosis Research 52: 529–548, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Otamiri T, Tagesson C. Role of phospholipase A2 and oxygenated free radicals in mucosal damage after small intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. American Journal of Surgery 157: 562–565, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Otamiri T, Lindahl M, Tagesson C. Phospholipase A2 inhibition prevents mucosal damage associated with small intestinal ischaemia in rats. Gut 29: 489–494, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Page CP. The role of platelet activating factor in asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 81: 144–150, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Page CP, Abbott A. PAF: new antagonists, new roles in disease and a major role in reproductive biology. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 10: 255–257, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Page CP, Coyle AJ. The interaction between PAF, platelets and eosinophils in bronchial asthma. European Respiratory Journal 2 (Suppl.): 483–487 (1989).Google Scholar
  282. Panetta T, Marcheselli VL, Braquet P, Spinnewyn B, Bazan NG. Effects of a platelet-activating factor antagonist (BN 52021) on free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, polyphospho-inositides and blood flow in the gerbil brain: inhibition of ischemia-reper-fusion induced cerebral injury. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 149: 580–587, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Panetta T, Marcheselli VL, Braquet P, Bazan NG. Arachidonic acid metabolism and cerebral blood flow in the normal, ischemic, and reperfused gerbil brain: inhibition of ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury by a platelet-activating factor antagonist (BN 52021). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 559: 340–351, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Parnham MJ, Bittner C, Lambrecht G. Antagonism of platelet-activating factor induced chemiluminescence in guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages in differing states of activation. British Journal of Pharmacology 98: 574–580, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Paubert-Braquet M, Hosford D, Klotz P, Guilbaud J, Braquet P. Tumor necrosis factor primes PAF-induced superoxide production by human neutrophils: possible involvement of G proteins. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S1–S14, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Paul-Eugène N, Dugas B, Picquot S, Lagente V, Mencia-Huerta JM, et al. Influence of interleukin-4 on the Fc€RII/CD23 expression of human monocytes. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: 95–101, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Pavao dos Santos OF, Boim MA, Bregman R, Draibe SA, Barros EJ, et al. Effect of platelet-activating factor antagonist on cyclo-sporine nephrotoxicity. Glomerular hemodynamics evaluation. Transplantation 47: 592–595, 1989Google Scholar
  288. Pignol B, Henane S, Chaumeron S, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P. Modulation of the priming effects of platelet-activating factor on the release of interleukin-1 from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat spleen macrophages. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S93–S100, 1990aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Pignol B, Henane S, Sorlin B, Rola-Pleszczynski M, Mencia-Huerta JM, et al. Effect of long-term treatment with platelet-activating factor on IL-1 and IL-2 production by rat spleen cells. Journal of Immunology 145: 980–984, 1990bGoogle Scholar
  290. Pignol B, Lonchampt MO, Chabrier PE, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P. Platelet-activating factor potentiates interleukin-1/epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor release by guinea-pig keratinocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S83–S91, 1990cPubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Plante GE, Sirois P, Braquet P. Platelet-activating factor antagonism with BN 52021 protects the kidney against acute ischemic injury. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 34: 53–60, 1989Google Scholar
  292. Pons L, Droy-Lefay MT, Braquet P, Bueno L. Involvement of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in endotoxin-induced intestinal motor disturbances in rats. Life Sciences 45: 533–541, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Pons F, Touvay C, Lejeune V, Carré C, Vilain B, et al. Action of platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonists on the bronchopulmonary effects of PAF in the guinea-pig. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 329–340, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Popper H, Knipping G, Czarnetski BM, Steiner R, Helleis G, et al. Activation and release of enzymes and major basic protein from guinea-pig eosinophil granulocytes induced by different inflammatory stimuli and other substances: histochemical, biochemical, electron microscopic study. Inflammation 13: 147–162, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Poubelle P, Rola-Pleszczynski M. PAF enhances the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha by human monocytes: partial antagonism by BN 52021. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 695–705, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  296. Pretolani M, Lefort J, Vargaftig BB. Limited interference of specific PAF antagonists with hyperresponsiveness to PAF itself of lungs from actively sensitized guinea-pigs. British Journal of Pharmacology 97: 433–442, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Pretolani M, Lefort J, Silva P, Malanchere E, Dumarey C, et al. Protection by nedocromil sodium of active immunization-induced bronchopulmonary alterations in the guinea pig. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 141: 1259–1265, 1990Google Scholar
  298. Rabier M, Damon M, Chanez P, Mencia-Huerta JM, Bousquet J, et al. Platelet-activating factor, neutrophil chemotaxis and ginkgolides. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 105–115, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  299. Rabinovici R, Rudolph AS, Yue TL, Feuerstein G. Biological response to liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) are improved by a PAF antagonist. Circulatory Shock 31: 431–445, 1990aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Rabinovici R, Yue TL, Farhat M, Smith III EF, Esser KM, et al. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) interactions in endotoxeqiic shock: studies with BN 50739, a novel PAF antagonist. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 255: 256–263, 1990bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Redl H, Vogl C, Bahrami S, Schiesser A, Paul E, et al. Effect of PAF antagonist BN 52021 in an ovine endotoxin shock. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S195–S201, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Reinhold SL, Zimmerman GA, Prescott SM, McIntyre TM. Phospholipid remodeling in human neutrophils: parallel activation of a deacylation/reacylation cycle and platelet-activating factor synthesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264: 21652–21659, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Ricker DD, Minhas BS, Kumar R, Robertson JL, Dodson MG. The effects of platelet-activating factor on the motility of human spermatozoa. Fertility and Sterility 52: 655–658, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Rivero A, Gomez-Guerrero C, Egido J, Braquet M, Gonzales E. Effect of BN 52021 on the superoxide anion release by human neutrophils and monocytes induced by tumor necrosis factor and gamma interferon. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 65–73, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  305. Roberts NM, McCusker P, Chung KF, Barnes PJ. Effect of a PAF antagonist, BN 52063, on PAF-induced bronchoconstriction in normal subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26: 65–72, 1988aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Roberts NM, Page CP, Chung KF, Barnes PJ. Effect of a PAF antagonist, BN 52063, on antigen-induced, acute and late onset cutaneous responses in atopic subjects. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 82: 236–241, 1988bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Robertson DG, Coyle AJ, Rhoden KJ, Grandordy BM, Page CP, et al. The effect of platelet-activating factor on histamine and muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airways. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 137: 1317–1322, 1988Google Scholar
  308. Rola-Pleszczynski M. Priming of human monocytes with PAF augments their production of tumor necrosis factor. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S77–S82, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Rose JK, Debs RA, Philip R, Ruis NM, Valone FH. Selective activation of human monocytes by platelet activating factor analog 1-0-hexadecyl-2-0-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoryl-choline. Journal of Immunology 144: 3513–3517, 1990Google Scholar
  310. Rossoni G, Berti F, Buschi A, Braquet P. The ginkgolide BN 52021 antagonizes the immune release of histamine and other lipid mediators from guinea-pig isolated kidney. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 521–529, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  311. Rougeot C, Junier MP, Minary P, Weidenfeld J, Braquet P, et al. Intracerebroventricular injection of platelet-activating factor induces secretion of adrenocorticotropin, ß-endorphin and corticosterone in conscious rats: a possible link between the immune and nervous system. Neuroendocrinology 51: 267–275, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Rubin AE, Smith LJ, Patterson R. The bronchoconstrictor properties of platelet-activating factor in humans. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 136: 1145–1151, 1987Google Scholar
  313. Ryan JP, Spinks NR, O’Neill C, Ammit AJ, Wales RG. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) production by mouse embryos in vitro and its effects on embryonic metabolism. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 40: 387–395, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Sagach VF, Dmitrieva AV, Braquet P. Influence of BN 52021 on cardiac and hemodynamic changes during the development of post-ischemic shock reaction. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives. Vol. 2, pp. 341–352, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  315. Salari H, Wong A. Generation of platelet activating factor (PAF) by human lung endothelial cell line. European Journal of Pharmacology 175: 253–259, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Salem P, Deryckx S, Dulioust A, Vivier E, Denizot Y, et al. Immunoregulatory functions of paf-acether. IV. Enhancement of IL-1 production by muramyl dipeptide-stimulated monocytes. Journal of Immunology 144: 1338–1344, 1990Google Scholar
  317. Sanjar S, Aoki S, Boubekeur K, Burrows L, Colditz I, et al. Inhibition of PAF-induced eosinophil accumulation in pulmonary airways of guinea-pigs by anti-asthma drugs. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 51: 167–172, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Sanjar S, Aoki S, Boubekeur K, Chapman ID, Smith MA, et al. Eosinophil accumulation in pulmonary airways of guinea-pigs induced by exposure to an aerosol of platelet-activating factor: effect of anti-asthma drugs. British Journal of Pharmacology 99: 267–272, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Satoh K, Imaizumi T, Kawamura Y, Yoshida H, Takamatsu M, et al. Increased activity of the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in plasma low density lipoprotein from patients with essential hypertension. Prostaglandins 37: 673–682, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Schaer GL, Hursey TL, McAlister K, Campbell D, Manabat N, et al. Platelet activating factor is an important mediator of myocardial reperfusion injury. Abstract. American College of Cardiology 17: 228A, 1991Google Scholar
  321. Schattner M, Parmi A, Fouque F, Vargaftig BB. Touqui L. Selective inhibition of adrenaline-induced human platelet aggregation by the structurally related PAF antagonist Ro 19-3704. British Journal of Pharmacology 96: 759–766, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Sekiyama T, Gaudin C, Roulot D, Lebrec D, Braquet P, et al. Evidence for platelet-activating factor as a mediator for hyperdynamic circulation in conscious cirrhotic rats. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 321–329, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  323. Selak MA, Smith JB. Platelet-activating factor-induced calcium mobilization in human platelets and neutrophils: effects of PAF-acether antagonists. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 152–167, 1989Google Scholar
  324. Shukla SD, Morrison WJ, Dhar A. Desensitization of platelet-activating factor-stimulated protein phosphorylation in platelets. Molecular Pharmacology 35: 409–413, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Silberstein DJ, Owen WF, Gasson JC, DiPersico JF, Golde DW, et al. Enhancement of human eosinophil cytotoxicity and leukotriene synthesis by biosynthetic (recombinant) granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Journal of Immunology 137: 3290–3294, 1986Google Scholar
  326. Silva PM, Martins MA, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, Cordeiro RS, Vargaftig BB. Adrenalectomy exacerbates paw edema without interfering with desensitization induced by PAF-acether in rats. Brazilian Journal of Medicine and Biological Research 21: 855–858, 1988Google Scholar
  327. Sipka S, Dinya Z, Koltai M, Braquet P, Bojan F, et al. Inhibition of neutrophil capillary migration by platelet-activating factor. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives. Vol. 2, pp. 96–103, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  328. Siren AL, Feuerstein G. Effects of PAF and BN 52021 on cardiac function and regional blood flow in conscious rats. American Journal of Physiology 257: H25–H32, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Sirois MG, Jancar S, Braquet P, Plante GE, Sirois P. PAF increases vascular permeability in selected tissues: effect of BN 52021 and L-655,240. Prostaglandins 36: 631–644, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Sirois MG, Plante GE, Braquet P, Sirois P. Tumor necrosis factor primes the effects of platelet activating factor on rat vascular permeability. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S109–S117, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Soloviev AI, Braquet P. The role of PAF-acether in the mechanisms of isolated coronary arteries spasm under hypoxia and its inhibition by BN 52021. In Braquet P (Ed.) Ginkgolides: chemistry, biology, pharmacology and clinical perspectives, Vol. 2, pp. 353–367, JR Prous, Barcelona, 1990Google Scholar
  332. Spinks NR, Ryan JP, O’Neill C. Antagonists of embryo-derived platelet-activating factor act by inhibiting the ability of the mouse embryo to implant. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 88: 241–248, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Spinnewyn B, Blavet N, Clostre F, Bazan NG, Braquet P. Involvement of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in cerebral postischemic phase in Mongolian gerbils. Prostaglandins 34: 337–340, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Squinto SP, Block AL, Braquet P, Bazan NG. Platelet-activating factor stimulated a fox/jun/AP-1 transcriptional signaling system in human neuroblastoma cells. Journal of Neuroscience Research 24: 558–566, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Stahl GL, Craft DV, Lento PH, Lefer AM. Detection of platelet-activating factor during traumatic shock. Circulatory Shock 26: 237–244, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Stahl GL, Terashita ZI, Lefer AM. Role of platelet-activating factor in propagation of cardiac damage during myocardial ischemia. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 244: 898–904, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Stanton AWB, Izumi T, Antoniw JW, Piper PJ. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist, WEB 2086, protects against PAF-induced hypotension in Macaca fascicularis. British Journal of Pharmacology 97: 643–646, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Stewart AG. CV 6209 is a non-competitive antagonist of platelet-activating factor receptors on guinea-pig resident peritoneal macrophages. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 16: 813–820, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Stewart AG, Dubbin PN, Harris T, Dusting GJ. Platelet activating factor may act as a second messenger in the release of icosanoids and superoxide anions from leukocytes and endothelial cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87: 3215–3219, 1990Google Scholar
  340. Stewart AG, Dusting GJ. Characterization of receptors for platelet-activating factor on platelets, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. British Journal of Pharmacology 94: 1225–1233, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Stewart AG, Phillips WA. Intracellular platelet-activating factor regulates eicosanoid generation in guinea-pig resident peritoneal macrophages. British Journal of Phrmacology 98: 141–148, 1989Google Scholar
  342. Sturm MJ, Strophair JM, Kendrew PJ, Vandongen R, Beilin LJ, et al. Whole blood aggregation and plasma lyso-PAF related to smoking and atherosclerosis. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 16: 597–605, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Sun XM, Hsueh W. Bowel necrosis induced by tumor necrosis factor in rats is mediated by platelet-activating factor. Journal of Clinical Investigation 81: 1328–1331, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Tahraoui L, Floch A, Mondot S, Cavero I. High affinity specific binding sites for tritiated platelet-activating factor in canine platelet membranes: counterparts of platelet-activating factor receptors mediating platelet aggregation. Molecular Pharmacology 34: 145–151, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Tahraoui L, Floch A, Cavero I. Functional validation of platelet-activating factor receptor sites characterized biochemically by a specific and reproducible (3H)platelet-activating factor binding in human platelets. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 252: 1221–1227, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Thierry A, Doly M, Braquet P, Cluzel J, Meyniel G. Presence of specific platelet-activating factor binding sites in the rat retina. European Journal of Pharmacology 163: 97–101, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Thom R. Structural stability and morphogenesis (trans. Fowler DH), Benjamin-Addison Wesley, New York, 1975Google Scholar
  348. Tolins JP, Vercellotti GM, Wilkowske M, Jacob HS, Raij L. Role of platelet-activating factor in endotoxemic acute renal failure in the male rat. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 113: 316–324, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Tool AT, Verhoeven AJ, Roos D, Koenderman L. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) acts as an intercellular messenger in the changes of cytosolic free Ca2+ in human neutrophils induced by opsonized particles. FEBS Letters 259: 209–212, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Tosaki A, Koltai M, Braquet P, Szekeres L. Possible involvement of platelet activating factor in anaphylaxis of passively sensitized, isolated guinea pig hearts. Cardiovascular Research 23: 715–722, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Touvay C, Vilain B, Lejeune V, Mencia-Huerta JM, Braquet P. Effect of cyclosporin A and platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist, BN 52021, on PAF, and antigen-induced broncho-constriction in the guinea-pig. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 163: 118–123, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Travers JB, Li Q, Kniss DA. Fertel RH. Identification of functional platelet-activating factor receptors in Raji lymphoblasts. Journal of Immunology 143: 3708–3713, 1989Google Scholar
  353. Travers JB, Sprecher H, Fertel RH. The metabolism of platelet-activating factor in human T-lymphocytes. Biochimia et Biophysica Acta 1042: 193–197, 1990Google Scholar
  354. Ukena D, Krogel C, Dent G, Yukawa T, Sybrecht G, et al. PAF-receptors on eosinophils: identification with a novel ligand, (3H)WEB 2086. Biochemical Pharmacology 38: 1702–1705, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Underwood DC, Kadowitz PJ. Analysis of bronchoconstrictor responses to platelet-activating factor in the cat. Journal of Applied Physiology 67: 377–382, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Uski TK, Reinstrup P. Actions of platelet-activating factor on isolated feline and human cerebral arteries. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 10: 428–431, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Vallance SJ, Downes CP, Cragoe EJ, Whetton AD. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor can stimulate macrophage proliferation via persistence activation of N+/H+ antiport activation. Biochemical Journal 265: 359–364, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Vallari DS, Austinhirst R, Snyder F. Development of specific functionally active receptors for platelet-activating factor in HL-60 cells following granulocytic differentiation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265: 4261–4265, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Valone FH. Identification of platelet-activating factor receptors in PS88D murine macrophages. Journal of Immunology 140: 2389–2394, 1988Google Scholar
  360. Valone FH, Epstein LB. Biphasic platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis by human monocytes stimulated with interleukin lb (IL lβ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). FASEB Journal 2: 878, 1988Google Scholar
  361. Vargaftig BB, Braquet P. PAF-acether today: relevance for acute experimental anaphylaxis. British Medical Bulletin 43: 312–335, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Verbey NL, Van Delft JL, Van Haeringen NJ, Braquet P. Platelet-activating factor and laser trauma of the iris. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences 30: 1101–1103, 1989Google Scholar
  363. Vercellotti GM, Moldow CF, Wickham Jacob HS. Endothelial cell platelet-activating factor primes neutrophil responses: amplification of endothelial activation by neutrophil products. Journal of Lipid Mediators 2: S23–S30, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Vercellotti GM, Wickham NW, Gustafson KS, Yin HQ, Herbert M, et al. Thrombin-treated endothelium primes neutrophil functions: inhibition by platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 45: 483–490, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Vercellotti GM, Yin HG, Gustafson KS, Nelson RD, Jacob HS. Platelet-activating factor primes neutrophil responses to agonist role in promoting neutrophil-mediated endothelial damage. Blood 71: 1100–1107, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Viossat I, Chapelat M, Chabrier PE, Braquet P. Effects of platelet activation factor (PAF) and its receptor antagonist BN 52021 on isolated perfused guinea-pig heart. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 38: 189–194, 1989Google Scholar
  367. Vomovitskii EG, Ignateva VB, Gollash M, Kulikov VI, Lipatkina LI. Cardiodepressive effect of platelet activating factor. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 107: 27–30, 1989aGoogle Scholar
  368. Vornovitskii EG, Ignateva VB, Gollash M, Kulikov VI, Kuznetsova TI, et al. Interactions of PAF and its antagonists in the guinea pig atrial myocardium. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 108: 137–139, 1989bGoogle Scholar
  369. Wahler GM, Coyle DE, Sperelakis N. Effects of platelet-activating factor on single potassium channel currents in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 93: 69–76, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Wainwright CL, Parratt JR, Bigaud M. The effects of PAF antagonists on arrhythmias and platelets during acute myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. European Heart Journal 10: 235–243, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Wallace JL. Release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and accelerated healing induced by a PAF antagonist in an animal model of chronic colitis. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 66: 422–425, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Wallace JL. Lipid mediators in gastric ulcer. American Journal of Physiology 258: Gl–Gl 1, 1990Google Scholar
  373. Wallace JL, Braquet P, Ibbotson GC, MacNaughton WK, Cirino C. Assessment of the role of platelet-activating factor in an animal model of inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Lipid Mediators 1: 13–23, 1989aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Wallace JL, MacNaughton WK, Morris GP, Beck PL. Inhibition of leukotriene synthesis markedly accelerates healing in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 76: 24–36, 1989bGoogle Scholar
  375. Ward SG, Lewis GP, Westwick J. Platelet-activating factor stimulates interleukin I production from human adherent monocyte-macrophages. In Braquet P (Ed.) New trends in lipid mediator research, Vol. 1, pp. 6–15, Karger, Basel, München, 1988Google Scholar
  376. Wardlaw AJ, Chung KF, Moqbel R, MacDonald AJ, Hartnell A, et al. Effects of inhaled PAF in humans on circulating and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophils: relationship to bron-choconstriction and changes in airway hyperresponsiveness. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 141: 386–392, 1990Google Scholar
  377. Wardlaw AJ, Moqbel R, Cromwell O, Kay AB. Platelet activating factor for human eosinophils. Journal of Clinical Investigation 78: 1701–1706, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Weichert W, Breddin HK. A PAF-acether antagonist (N 48740 RP/Rhone-Poulenc) and laser-induced thrombi in rat mesenteric vessels. Haemostasis 19: 229–234, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Weinberg JR, Wright DJM, Guz A. Interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor cause hypotension in the conscious rabbit. Clinical Sciences 75: 251–254, 1988Google Scholar
  380. Whatley RE, Fennell DF, Kurrus JA, Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM, et al. Synthesis of platelet-activating factor by endothelial cells: the role of G proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265: 15550–15559, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Whatley RE, Zimmermann GA, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM. Endothelium from diverse vascular sources synthesizes platelet-activating factor. Arteriosclerosis 8: 321–331, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Whittle BJ. The defensive role played by the gastric microcirculation. Methods and Findings in Experimental Clinical Pharmacology 11(Suppl. 1): 25–33 (1989).Google Scholar
  383. Wilkens JH, Wilkens H, Uffmann J, Bovers J, Fabel H, et al. Effects of a specific PAF-antagonist (BN 52063) on broncho-constriction and platelet activation during exercise induced asthma. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29: 85–91, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Woodward DF, Spada CS, Nieves AL, Hawley SB, Williams LS. Platelet-activating factor causes goblet cell depletion in the conjunctiva. European Journal of Pharmacology 168: 23–30, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Yaghi A, Hamilton JT, Paterson NA. Influence of platelet-activating factor on leukotriene D4-induced contractions of the guinea-pig parenchymal strip. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 67: 315–321, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Yoshida N, Yoshikawa T, Ando T, Naito Y, Oyamada H, et al. Pathogenesis of platelet-activating factor-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 162 (Suppl.): 210–214 (1989).Google Scholar
  387. Yue TL, Farhat M, Rabinovici R, Perera PY, Vogel SN, et al. Protective effect of BN 50739, a new PAF antagonist, in endotoxin-treated rabbits. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 254: 976–981, 1990bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Yue TL, Lysko PG, Feuerstein G. Production of platelet-activating factor from rat cerebrellar granule cells in culture. Journal of Neurochemistry 54: 1809–1811, 1990cPubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Yue TL, Rabinovici R, Farhat M, Feuerstein G. Pharmacologic profile of BN 50739 a new PAF antagonist in vitro and in vivo. Prostaglandins 39: 469–480, 1990aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. Yue TL, Rabinovici R, Farhat M, Smith III EF, Esser KM, et al. Inhibitory effect of new PAF antagonists on PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. Journal of Lipid Mediators 3: 13–26, 1990dGoogle Scholar
  391. Yukawa T, Kroegel C, Evans P, Fukuda T, Chung KF, et al. Density heterogeneity of eosinophil leucocytes: induction of hypodense eosinophils by platelet-activating factor. Immunology 68: 140–143, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. Zeeman EC. A catastrophe machine. In Waddington CH (Ed.) Towards a theoretical biology. Vol. 4. pp. 276–282, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1972Google Scholar
  393. Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM, Mehra M, Prescott SM. Endothelial cell-associated platelet-activating factor: a novel mechanism for signaling intracellular adhesion. Journal of Cellular Biology 110: 529–540, 1990Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matyas Koltai
    • 1
  • David Hosford
    • 1
  • Philippe Guinot
    • 1
  • André Esanu
    • 1
  • Pierre Braquet
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut Henri BeaufourLe Plessis RobinsonFrance

Personalised recommendations