Drugs

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 91–137

Naproxen

A Reappraisal of its Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Use in Rheumatic Diseases and Pain States
  • Peter A. Todd
  • Stephen P. Clissold
Drug Evaluation

Summary

Synopsis

Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) advocated for use in painful and inflammatory rheumatic and certain nonrheumatic conditions. It may be administered orally or rectally using a convenient once or twice daily regimen. Dosage adjustments are not usually required in the elderly or those with mild renal or hepatic impairment although it is probably prudent to start treatment at a low dosage and titrate upwards in such groups of patients.

Numerous clinical trials have confirmed that the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of naproxen is equivalent to that of the many newer and established NSAIDs with which it has been compared. The drug is effective in many rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and nonarticular rheumatism, in acute traumatic injury, and in the treatment of and prophylaxis against acute pain such as migraine, tension headache, postoperative pain, postpartum pain and pain associated with a variety of gynaecological procedures. Naproxen is also effective in treating the pain and associated symptoms of primary or secondary dysmenorrhoea, and decreases excessive blood loss in patients with menorrhagia. The adverse effect profile of naproxen is well established, particularly compared with that of many newer NSAIDs, and the drug is well tolerated.

Thus, the efficacy and tolerability of naproxen have been clearly established over many years of clinical use, and it can therefore be considered as a first-line treatment for rheumatic diseases and various pain states.

Pharmacodynamic Properties

Naproxen possesses the typical pharmacodynamic properties of the nonsteroidal class of anti-inflammatory drugs. In animal studies it exhibits dose-related anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects: on a weight-for-weight basis it is more potent than aspirin and phenylbutazone, and equal to or less potent than indomethacin. Its anti-inflammatory effects are still apparent in adrenalectomised animals, indicating a nonsteroidal mechanism of action. The anti-inflammatory effects of naproxen, and most of its other pharmacological effects, are generally thought to be related to its inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase and consequent decrease in prostaglandin concentrations in various fluids and tissues, including the gastric mucosa, synovial fluid, urine and blood.

In common with other NSAIDs naproxen may induce gastrointestinal microbleeding and endoscopically proven gastrointestinal lesions: it generally produces less effects than aspirin and indomethacin but more than diflunisal, etodolac, nabumetone and sulindac. In clinical practice, however, while the gastrointestinal tolerability of naproxen is better than that of aspirin and indomethacin, there is no definitive evidence to suggest significant differences in tolerability (minor complaints, bleeding or ulceration) between naproxen and other NSAIDs.

Naproxen, like other NSAIDs, is a potent inhibitor of the secondary phase of platelet aggregation. However, at usual therapeutic dosages it has little effect on bleeding time in humans. In general, naproxen does not produce detrimental renal effects in patients with normal renal function although a few changes were reported in some patients with preexisting renal impairment or heart failure. Naproxen does not exert a uricosuric effect.

In normal animals naproxen does not affect collagen metabolism but can inhibit cartilage and bone erosions in animals with adjuvant-induced arthritis. There is no definitive evidence in humans with rheumatic disease that naproxen or any other NSAID can inhibit the progression of cartilage or bone destruction. As occurs with other NSAIDs, naproxen affects leucocyte function reducing chemotaxis, and lysosomal and neutral protease, and collagenase activities in animals.

Pharmacokinetic Properties

Naproxen is available in 2 forms: the free acid or the sodium salt. Naproxen and naproxen sodium are pharmacologically and therapeutically equivalent at comparable dosages (naproxen 500mg equals naproxen sodium 550mg). The only difference between the 2 forms is their rate of absorption: naproxen sodium dissolves more rapidly in gastric juice and consequently produces earlier and higher plasma concentrations. Peak plasma concentrations are achieved in about 1 hour with naproxen sodium and 2 hours with naproxen. It is possible that this may provide a faster onset of action with the sodium salt after an initial dose; this would be of relevance in the treatment of acute pain states. Apart from this difference, the post-absorption phase pharmacokinetics of the sodium salt and its parent acid are identical.

Naproxen is completely absorbed after oral and rectal administration. Concomitant administration of food may delay the absorption of orally administered naproxen but does not reduce the extent. Absorption is slower after rectal compared with oral administration, leading to a delay in and lower peak plasma concentrations. Plasma concentrations rise proportionately with dose after oral administration of single doses up to 500mg, but thereafter the increase is less than linear. This is related to increased clearance caused by saturable protein binding. Naproxen is highly protein bound (> 99.5%): the free fraction, however, increases significantly at higher plasma concentrations. The volume of distribution of naproxen is small, being about 10% of bodyweight. The drug readily reaches the synovial fluid and synovial membrane. Naproxen crosses the placental barrier, and minimal transfer occurs to breast milk (about 1% of maternal plasma samples). Approximately 95% of a radiolabelled dose of naproxen is recovered in urine and 3% or less in faeces. 70% of the drug is excreted as unchanged naproxen and the remainder is metabolised to an inactive 6-demethyl metabolite, probably by hepatic microsomal oxidation. The parent compound and metabolite are excreted free or as glucuronide or sulphate conjugates. The elimination half-life is about 12 to 15 hours.

The pharmacokinetic profile of naproxen is generally unaffected to any clinically significant extent by age or the presence of disease. However, free plasma concentrations of naproxen may be increased in elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in patients with hepatic impairment, due to decreased plasma albumin levels. Renal insufficiency has little effect on the pharmacokinetics of naproxen until it is severe. When creatinine clearance is less than 10 ml/min there is a significant decrease in plasma naproxen concentration but an increase in metabolite concentrations. Naproxen is not removed by haemodialysis. Dosage reductions are not therefore required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment and neither is dose supplementation after haemodialysis.

Therapeutic Use

Naproxen, usually 500 to 1000 mg/day on a once or twice daily basis, administered orally or rectally, has been well studied in controlled clinical trials in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The drug shows similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy to usual therapeutic dosages of other commonly used NSAIDs (e.g. aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, piroxicam), and other less frequently used or newer NSAIDs. As would be expected in such a large number of comparisons, statistically significant differences were found for some assessment parameters but these differences were not of clinical significance and usually related to comparison of therapeutically nonequivalent dosages. With appropriate dosage titration, clinical response to NSAIDs generally appears equivalent (although individual patients may inexplicably respond to or tolerate one NSAID and not others). The therapeutic efficacy of naproxen is maintained during long term treatment up to several years and is associated with a steroid-sparing effect in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Several studies have shown that naproxen is effective in the treatment of acute gout and juvenile arthritis but further study is required to allow any definite conclusions concerning its efficacy and tolerability compared with other commonly used agents. Naproxen up to 1000 mg/day has been demonstrated to be an effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of acute or chronic nonarticular rheumatic conditions and soft tissue injuries. Its efficacy in these conditions is comparable to that of other commonly used agents. Naproxen is a useful analgesic in a variety of acute pain states, such as migraine, tension headache, postoperative pain, postpartum pain and pain associated with a variety of gynaecological procedures. In the treatment of acute migraine naproxen was comparable to ergotamine. In other acute pain states naproxen was at least as effective as some of the more commonly used ‘pure’ analgesics or their combinations [e.g. paracetamol (acetaminophen), codeine, dextropropoxyphene]. Naproxen has also been used successfully in the prophylaxis of migraine, reducing the severity and frequency of migraine attacks to a similar extent as pizotifen and propranolol.

Naproxen is a well studied agent in the treatment of primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea, alleviating pain and associated symptoms. It reduces symptoms at least as well as other NSAIDs with which it has been compared. In addition, naproxen reduces blood loss and anaemia consequent to menorrhagia.

Naproxen appears to be a particularly effective agent in the control of neoplastic fever and has been used to differentiate between neoplasm-related and infection-related pyrexia in cancer patients with fever of unknown origin. It may also be effective as a general antipyretic agent although further study is required to compare its efficacy relative to that of other standard treatments.

Adverse Effects

The tolerability profile of naproxen is well established, as extensive experience has been gained with the drug over many years. The drug is generally well tolerated. In common with other NSAIDs the most frequent adverse effects include mild gastrointestinal disturbances and CNS effects, followed by occasional mild skin reactions. Increased age does not appear related to any increase in unwanted effects and there is little evidence to suggest that the nature, severity or frequency of adverse effects is any different with naproxen compared with other NSAIDs. Despite some claims of improved tolerability with some newer NSAIDs, there are no definitive findings to show this. Aspirin and indomethacin may produce a higher frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and CNS effects compared with naproxen.

As with any drug which has been used so extensively in clinical practice, a number of rare serious adverse effects have been associated with naproxen, which have also been associated with other NSAIDs. They include: gastrointestinal bleeding or ulceration, pseudoporphyria and other severe cutaneous reactions; acute renal failure including papillary necrosis, interstitial nephritis and hyperkalaemia; hepatitis; pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; agranulocytosis; aplastic anaemia; haemolytic anaemia; peripheral neuropathy; aseptic meningitis; and corneal opacity. Patients exhibiting aspirin hypersensitivity may show cross-reactivity with naproxen.

Dosage and Administration

The following dosage schedule refers to naproxen administered as the free acid. If naproxen sodium is used, the dosage is increased by 10% to achieve bioequivalence (naproxen 500mg=naproxen sodium 550mg).

The usual adult maintenance dosage of naproxen in patients with chronic rheumatic disease or chronic pain is 375 to 1000 mg/day after food and on a once or twice daily basis. This may be increased to 1500 mg/day in divided doses for up to 2 weeks to treat acute exacerbations of the disease. For children with juvenile arthritis the recommended dosage is 10 mg/kg in 2 divided doses; a suspension formulation is available to aid administration. In patients with acute conditions such as tendinitis, bursitis, dysmenorrhoea and mild to moderate pain an initial loading dose of 500mg should be administered and followed by 250mg every 6 to 8 hours as required (up to a maximum of 1250 mg/day).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aabakken L, Bjørnbeth BA, Hofstad B, Olaussen B, Larsen S, et al. Comparison of the gastrointestinal side effects of naproxen formulated as plain tablets, enteric-coated tablets, or enteric-coated granules in capsules. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 24 (Suppl. 163): 65–73, 1989Google Scholar
  2. Aadland E, Fausa O, Vatn M, Cohen H, Quinlan D. Protection by misoprostol against naproxen-induced gastric mucosal damage. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 1A): 37–40, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abate MA, Layne R, Neely J, Alessandri RD. Effect of naproxen and sulindac on the blood-pressure response to atenolol. Abstract. Clinical Research 36: 738A, 1988Google Scholar
  4. Abramson S, Korchak H, Ludewig R, Edelson H, Haines K, et al. Modes of action of aspirin-like drugs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 82: 7227–7231, 1985Google Scholar
  5. Ackerman NR, Kappas K, Maloney P. Possible disease-modifying effects of naproxen in the adjuvant-arthritic rat. Agents and Action 15: 428–434, 1984Google Scholar
  6. Aghababian RV, Volturo GA, Heifetz IN. Comparison of diflunisal and naproxen in the management of acute low back strain. Clinical Therapeutics 9 (Suppl. C): 47–51, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Kurdi M, Hare MJ, Lowles I, Douglas CP. The effect of a prostaglandin-synthetase inhibitor, naproxen sodium, and a placebo on the pain response to carbon dioxide laser treatment of the uterine cervix. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 5: 260–262, 1985Google Scholar
  8. Allen B, Edwards IR. A safety profile of controlled release naproxen tablets. New Zealand Medical Journal 102: 310–312, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Alun-Jones E, Williams J. Hyponatremia and fluid retention in a neonate associated with maternal naproxen overdosage. Clinical Toxicology 24: 257–260, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Amundsen T, Bleken L, Børkje B, Eidsaunet W, Eidsbø P, et al. Variation in response to naproxen and diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis. Current Therapeutic Research 33: 793–801, 1983Google Scholar
  11. Anderson LA, Gøtzsche PC. Naproxen and aspirin in acute musculoskeletal disorders: a double-blind, parallel study in patients with sports injuries. Pharmatherapeutica 3: 531–537, 1984Google Scholar
  12. Andersson PG, Hinge HH, Johansen O, Andersen CV, Ladermann A, et al. Double-blind study of naproxen vs placebo in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Cephalalgia 9: 29–32, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Andrade D, Gutiérez-Méndez G, García-Miranda R. Evolución clinica de los esguinces de tobillo tratados con diclofenac potásico y naproxén sódico. Investigación Médica Internacional 11: 130–134, 1984Google Scholar
  14. Andrejak M, Davion T, Cueston JL, Capron JP. Cross hepatotoxicity between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. British Medical Journal 295: 180–181, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Aoki T, Kawaji W, Kuroki Y, Sugaro T, Murota K, et al. Assessment of the clinical usefulness of nabumetone in the treatment of lower back pain, shoulder-arm-neck syndrome and adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. Shinyaku to Rinsho 37: 2–21, 1988Google Scholar
  16. Arnold K, Heimpel H. Aplastic anaemia after naproxen? Lancet 1: 321, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Arramon JY, Cayla F, Clement A, Dure B, Franck JL, et al. Action antalgique et tolérance du carbasalate calcique dans les gonarthroses. Etude comparative versus naproxène versus placebo. Semaine des Hôpitaux 63: 1297–1300, 1987Google Scholar
  18. Arumugham R, Bose SM. Effect of indomethacin and naproxen on the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 11: 225–229, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Australian National Drug Information Service. Profile on naproxen. Australian Journal of Pharmacy 68: 625–639, 1987Google Scholar
  20. Azeemuddin SK, Vega RA, Kim TH, Ragab AH. The effect of naproxen on fever in children with malignancies. Cancer 59: 1966–1968, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Backhouse CI. Naproxen and piroxicam in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Clinical Rheumatology 5: 273, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bar M, Burke M, Isakov A, Almog C. Reversible, nonoliguric acute renal failure in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and renal amyloidosis. New York State Journal of Medicine 86: 542–543, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Barter DAC. Hair loss in a child associated with naproxen. British Medical Journal 298: 325, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Barth JH, Dawber RPR. Drug induced hair loss. British Medical Journal 298: 675, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bassleer C. Effect of naproxen on cartilage matrix. Presented at the 17th ILAR Congress of Rheumatology, Sep 17–23, Rio de Janeiro, 1989Google Scholar
  26. Baumgartner H, Hohmeister R, Blumenberg-Novaselac N. An observer-blind crossover study to compare the efficacies of flurbiprofen, indomethacin and naproxen given orally and rectally in the relief of night pain and morning stiffness due to rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of International Medical Research 16: 189–196, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Baumgartner H, Kuttelwascher M, McCaskey D, Winters L. The comparative efficacy of naproxen sodium and pirprofen in the treatment of post-operative pain. Journal of International Medical Research 15: 179–187, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Beermann B, Eriksson LO, Kallner M. A double-blind comparison of naproxen and sulindac in female patients with heart failure. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 15 (Suppl. 62): 32–35, 1986Google Scholar
  29. Behan PO, Connelly K. Prophylaxis of migraine: a comparison between naproxen sodium and pizotifen. Headache 26: 237–239, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bendvold E, Gottlieb C, Svanborg K, Bygdeman M, Eneroth P, et al. The effect of naproxen on the concentration of prostaglandins in human seminal fluid. Fertility and Sterility 43: 922–926, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Berry H, Bloom B, Fernandes L, Morris M. Comparison of timegadine and naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis. A placebo controlled trial. Clinical Rheumatology 2: 357–361, 1983aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Berry H, Coquelin J-P, Gordon A, Seymour D. Antrafenine, naproxen and placebo in osteoarthritis: a comparative study. British Journal of Rheumatology 22: 89–94, 1983bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Berry H, Nicholls A. An open study of 1.5g naproxen daily in osteoarthritis. Current Medical Research and Opinion 9: 366–370, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Berté F, Feletti F, De Bernardi di Valserra M, Nazzari M, Cenedese A, et al. Lack of influence of sulglycotide on naproxen bioavailability in healthy volunteers. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 26: 125–128, 1988Google Scholar
  35. Beveridge K. Treatment of sports injuries with naproxen sodium and dextropropoxyphene napsylate. Pharmatherapeutica 4: 393–398, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bjarnason I, Williams P, So A, Zonelli GD, Levi AJ, et al. Intestinal permeability and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis: effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Lancet 2: 1171–1174, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Björkenheim J-M, Heiland J, Peltonen J. A double-blind crossover evaluation of naproxen and piroxicam in osteoarthritis of hip or knee. Journal of International Medical Research 13: 263–269, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Blagbrough IS, Daykin MM, Doherty M, Pattrick M, Shaw PN. Synovial fluid and plasma levels of naproxen in osteoarthritis. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 40 (Suppl C): 153, 1988Google Scholar
  39. Blaine EH, Haley A, Nelson B. Adverse renal actions of NSAIDs: comparison of sulindac sulfide (SS) and naproxen (N). Abstract no. 3415. Federation Proceedings 42: 875, 1983Google Scholar
  40. Bloomfield SS, Cissell GB, Peters NM, Mitchell J, Nelson ED, et al. Anirolac vs. naproxen for postpartum pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 42: 89–95, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Blum M, Pery J. Prevention of iron deficiency anemia in IUD users by prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. Contraceptive Delivery Systems 5: 21–23, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Bodiwala GG. Naproxen sodium and ibuprofen in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injuries. British Journal of Clinical Practice 36: 270–275, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Bouchier-Hayes TAI. Naproxen sodium and piroxicam in acute musculo-skeletal disorders. British Journal of Sports Medicine 18: 80–83, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Boussina I, Vischer TL. Efficacy and tolerance of naproxen versus pirprofen in the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis. Pharmatherapeutica 5: 16–20, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Brater DC, Anderson S, Baird B, Campbell WB. Effects of ibuprofen, naproxen, and sulindac on prostaglandins in men. Kidney International 27: 66–73, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Bravo CA. Carprofeno, nuevo antiinflammatorio no esteroide útil en la enfermedad articular degenerativa. Estudio doble ciegcon 100 pacientes. Investigatión Médica Internacional 13: 131–137, 1986Google Scholar
  47. Brighton SW, de la Harpe AL. Comparison of isoxicam and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. South African Medical Journal 68: 232–234, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Brobyn RD. Nabumetone in the treatment of active adult rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 4B): 50–54, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Brogden RN, Heel RC, Speight TM, Avery GS. Naproxen up to date: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy and use in rheumatic diseases and pain states. Drugs 18: 241–277, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Brogden RN, Pinder RM, Sawyer PR, Speight TM, Avery GS. Naproxen: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy and use. Drugs 9: 326–363, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Brooks PM, Cleland LG, Haski AL, Hempton DB, Müller JN, et al. Evaluation of a single daily dose of naproxen in osteoarthritis. Rheumatology and Rehabilitation 21: 242–246, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Brown BL, Johnson JH, Stiger TR. Flurbiprofen versus naproxen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Medicine 80 (Suppl. 3A): 105–109, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Brown CR, Seveluis H, Wild V. A comparison of single doses of naproxen sodium, morphine sulfate, and placebo in patients with postoperative pain. Current Therapeutic Research 35: 511–518, 1984Google Scholar
  54. Bruno R, Gliadis A, Jullien I, Guego M, Pinhas H, et al. Naproxen kinetics in synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26: 41–44, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Buckingham B, Eriksen E, Uitto J, Larsen M, Kershnar A. Effect of naproxen on collagen cross-linkage in type I diabetes. Abstract no. 754. Diabetes 36 (Suppl. 1): 198A, 1987Google Scholar
  56. Buscaglia AJ, Cowden FE, Brill H. Pulmonary infiltrates associated with naproxen. Journal of the American Medical Association 251: 65–66, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Buttram VC, Gravlee LC, Hale RW, Lifshitz S. Naproxen sodium vs a combination of aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine and codeine phosphate for pain after major gynecologic surgery. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 29: 189–192, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Buttram V, Izu A, Henzl MR. Naproxen sodium in uterine pain following intrauterine contraceptive device insertion. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 134: 575–578, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Caille G, du Souich P, Gervais P, Besner JG, Vezina M. Effects of concurrent sucralfate administration on pharmacokinetics of naproxen. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 3B): 67–73, 1987aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Caille G, du Souich P, Gervais P, Besner JG. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen, indomethacin, and naproxen taken alone or with sucralfate. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 8: 173–183, 1987bGoogle Scholar
  61. Calvo MV, Dominguez-Gil A. Binding of naproxen to human albumin. Interaction of palmitic acid. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 16: 215–223, 1983Google Scholar
  62. Calvo MV, Dominguez-Gil A. Interaction of naproxen with cholestyramine. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 5: 33–42, 1984Google Scholar
  63. Campana A, Ruspa M. Therapeutic efficacy of naproxen-lysin in dysmenorrhoea. A double-blind study v. naproxen. Clinical Trials Journal 23: 249–256, 1986Google Scholar
  64. Cardoe N, Dudley Hart F. Double-blind multicentre UK hospital studies of isoxicam vs naproxen. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 22 (Suppl.): 167S–172S, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Caruana RJ, Semble EL. Renal papillary necrosis due to naproxen. Journal of Rheumatology 11: 90–91, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Castillo SS, Absaton MAH, Valencia MFG. Antipiresis aguda con una nuera asociación (naproxén sôdico y acetaminofér) en padecimientos febriles. Investigación Médica Internacional 10: 60–65, 1983Google Scholar
  67. Ceccarini G, Maione AM. Variations of optical rotation of naproxen: polarimetric determination in the presence of non-chiral basic compounds. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 78: 1053–1054, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Ceuppens JL, Robaeys G, Verdicket W, Vertessen S, Deckmyn H, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of treatment with naproxen in patients with rheumatic disease. Arthritis and Rheumatism 29: 305–311, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Chalmers JP, West MJ, Wing LMH, Bune AJC, Graham JR. Effects of indomethacin, sulindac, naproxen, aspirin, and paracetamol in treated hypertensive patients. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension Part A —Theory and Practice A 6: 1077–1093, 1984Google Scholar
  70. Chang JC, Gross HM. Neoplasic fever responds to the treatment of an adequate dose of naproxen. Journal of Clinical Oncology 3: 552–558, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Chang JC. How to differentiate neoplastic fever from infectious fever in patients with cancer: usefulness of the naproxen test. Heart and Lung 16: 122–127, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Chang JC. Antipyretic effect of naproxen and corticosteroids on neoplastic fever. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 3: 141–144, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Chang JC. Naproxen test in the differential diagnosis of fever of undetermined origin in patients with cancer. Cancer Therapy and Control 1: 57–66, 1989aGoogle Scholar
  74. Chang JC. Neoplastic fever: a proposal for diagnosis. Archives of Internal Medicine 149: 1728–1730, 1989bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Cherie-Ligniere G, Colamussi V, Cozzolongo AC, Loizzi P, Prizziero L, et al. A multicentre comparison of flurbiprofen and naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis: a four-week study in 118 patients. Journal of International Medical Research 11: 85–89, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Chin RC, Cheng Y. Comparison of the inhibitory effect of selected nonstcroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on bone resorption induced by intcrlcukin IB. Transactions of the 35th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, p. 119, Feb 6–9, Las Vegas, 1989Google Scholar
  77. Chlud K, Pangerl S. Comparison of naproxen and piroxicam in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, crossover study. Pharmathcrapeutica 4: 113–121, 1985Google Scholar
  78. Chopra SK, Herdman CP, Laws D, Thomas AM, Wood P. The treatment of osteo-arthritis in general practice. Clinical Trials Journal 26: 401–410, 1989Google Scholar
  79. Cleland LG. Microbleeding in 28-day naproxen controlled-release (Naprosyn® SR) therapy. Clinical Trials Journal 25: 103–108, 1988Google Scholar
  80. Cohen A, Basch C. Steady state pharmacokinctics of naproxen in young and elderly healthy volunteers. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 17 (Suppl. 2): 7–11, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Cohen A, Ganzalcz MA, Mroszezak EJ, Yec J. Evaluation of the pharmacokinctics of naproxen from a 500mg controllcd-rclease tablet. Current Therapeutic Research 43: 1109–1117, 1988Google Scholar
  82. Constantine G, Hale K, Brennan C, Eccleston D. Vaginal absorption of naproxen. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 12: 193–196, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Corell T, Hasselmann G. Pharmacodynamics and toxicology of fenflunizole, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory imidazole derivative. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 53: 288–296, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Csapo AI, Pulkkinen MO, Henz CMR. The effect of naproxensodium on the intrauterine pressure and menstrual pain of dysmenorrhoeic patients. Prostaglandins 13: 193–199, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. CSM Update. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and serious gastrointestinal adverse reactions —2. British Medical Journal 292: 1190–1191, 1986Google Scholar
  86. D’Agostini G, Liberman J. Estudio clinico multicentrico en America Latina (249 parientes) con una dosisdiaria matutina de 1000mg de naproxen en osteoarthritis. Revista Brasileira de Medicina 42: 77–86, 1985Google Scholar
  87. Dahl H. Naproxen (Naprosyn®). Pharmacokinctics: therapeutical relevance and tolerance profile. Cephalalgia 6 (Suppl. 4): 69–75, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Davies AJ. Reduction of menstrual blood loss by naproxen in intrauterine contraceptive device users. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 17: 353–354, 1986Google Scholar
  89. Davies AJ, Anderson ABM, Turnbull AC. Reduction by naproxen of excessive menstrual bleeding in women using intrauterine devices. Obstetrics and Gynecology 57: 74–78, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Day RO, Furst DE, Dromgoole SH, Kamm B, Roe R, et al. Relationship of serum naproxen concentration to efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 31: 733–740, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Deal CL, Moskowitz RW. Efficacy of diflunisal versus naproxen in osteoarthritis of the knee: an open study. Clinical Therapeutics 9 (Suppl. C): 1–14, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Devereaux MD, Douglas WAC. A double-blind, comparative study of diflunisal and naproxen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Rheumatology and Inflammation 6: 274–278, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Díaz-Jouanen E. Treatamiento del dolor en osteoartrosis sintomática effecto de diflunisal vs. naproxen. Investigación Médica Internacional 9 (Suppl. 2): 5–8, 1982Google Scholar
  94. Diffey BL, Daymond TJ, Fairgreaves H. Phototoxic reactions to piroxicam, naproxen and tiaprofenic acid. British Journal of Rheumatology 22: 239–242, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Dixey JJ, Noormohamed FH, Lant AF, Brewerton DA. The effects of naproxen and sulindac on renal function and their interaction with hydrochlorothiazide and piretanide in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 23: 55–63, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Drez D, Ritter M, Rosenberg TD. Pain relief after arthroscopy: naproxen sodium compared to propoxyphene napsylate with acetaminophen. Southern Medical Journal 80: 440–443, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Dueholm S, Forrest M, Hjorstø E, Lemrigh E. Pain relief following herniotomy: a double-blind randomized comparison between naproxen and placebo. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 33: 391–394, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Dunagan FM, McGill PE, Kelman AW, Whiting B. Naproxen dose and concentration: response relationship in rheumatoid arthritis. British Journal of Rheumatology 27: 48–53, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Dunn NA, Mahida BH, Merrick MV, Nuki G. Quantitative sacroiliac scintis canning: a sensitive and objective method for assessing efficacy of nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with sacroiliitis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 43: 157–159, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Edgren RA, Morton CJ. Naproxen sodium for OB/GYN use, with special reference to pain states: a review. International Journal of Fertility 31: 135–142, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Edlund A, Berglund B, van Dorne D, Kaijser L, Nowak J, et al. Coronary flow regulation in patients with ischemic heart disease: release of purines and prostacyclin and the effect of inhibitors of prostaglandin formation. Circulation 71: 1113–1120, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Efron N, Holden BA, Vannas A. Prostaglandin-inhibitor naproxen does not affect contact lens-induced changes in the human corneal endothelium. American Journal of Optometry and Phsyiological Optics 61: 741–744, 1984Google Scholar
  103. Eidsaunet W, Borkje B, Larsen S, Sandvik L, Spongeen KL. Response to two NSAIDs: diclofenac and naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis. Current Therapeutic Research 33: 966–975, 1983Google Scholar
  104. Eliakim R, Ophir M, Rachilewitz D. Duodenal mucosal injury with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 9: 395–399, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Eriksson L-O, Beerman B, Kallner M. Renal function and tubular transport effects of sulindac and naproxen in chronic heart failure. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 42: 646–654, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Escalante Triay FJ. Comparative clinical study of tiaprofenic acid vs. naproxen in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Investigación Médica Internacional 8: 218, 1981Google Scholar
  107. Esprito Santo J, Pereira da Silva J, Teixeira da Costa J, Melo Gomes J, Viana Queiroz M. Double-blind evaluation of low-dose proglumetacin versus naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis out-patients. Current Medical Research and Opinion 8: 524–530, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ezra E, Caspi I, Weiss J, Lin E, Horoszowsky H. Acute reversible renal failure following naproxen (Naxyn) administration. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 15: 401–402, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Farr PM, Diffey BL. Pseudoporphyria due to naproxen. Lancet 1: 1166–1167, 1985Google Scholar
  110. Fedell R, Strand LJ. Naproxen overdosage. Journal of the American Medical Association 238: 938, 1977Google Scholar
  111. Fenton SF, Ryan JP, Bensen WG. A double-blind, crossover, multicenter study of piroxicam and naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis. Current Therapeutic Research 44: 1058–1070, 1988Google Scholar
  112. Fioravanti A, Vaccai D, Dragonetti C, Iudice A, Marcolongo R. Single-blind, randomized, parallel-group study of etodolac and naproxen in patients with osteoarthritis. Current Therapeutic Research 46: 648–653, 1989Google Scholar
  113. Flint KC, Johnson NM. Pulmonary eosinophilia associated with naproxen therapy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 80: 120–121, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Forbes JA, Keller CK, Smith JW, Zeleznock JR, Sevelius H, et al. Analgesic effect of naproxen sodium, codeine, a naproxencodeine combination and aspirin on the postoperative pain of oral surgery. Pharmacotherapy 6: 211–218, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Fossaluzza V, Montagnani G. Efficacy and tolerability of nimesulide in elderly patients with osteoarthritis: double-blind trial versus naproxen. Journal of International Medical Research 17: 295–303, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Franchimont P, Bassleer C, Henrotin Y. In vitro effects of naproxen on human chondrocytes. Presented at EULAR, Nov 10–12, Paris, 1988Google Scholar
  117. Frankhof W. Controlled-release naproxen compared with isoxicam in patients with osteoarthritis. Current Medical Research and Opinion 11: 28–33, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Frewin DB. The effect of naproxen therapy on the blood pressure control of hypertensives treated with bevantolol. Abstract no. 112. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology Suppl. 11, 1987Google Scholar
  119. Fulkerson JP, Folcik MA. Comparison of diflunisal and naproxen for relief of anterior knee pain. Clinical Therapeutics 9 (Suppl. C): 59–61, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Furst DE, Blocka K, Cassell S, Harris EF, Hirschberg JM, et al. A controlled study of concurrent therapy with a nonacetylated salicylate and naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 30: 146–154, 1987aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Furst DE, Sarkissian E, Blocka K, Cassell S, Dromgoole S, et al. Serum concentrations of salicylate and naproxen during concurrent therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 30: 1157–1161, 1987bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Galasko CSB, Courtney P, Jayne M, Coxhead, Rüssel S. Comparison of the efficacy of naproxen sodium and dihydrocodeine tartrate in the treatment of post-operative pain. Current Medical Research and Opinion 10: 656–662, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Gamst ON. Oral naproxen formulations. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 24 (Suppl. 163): 44–47, 1989Google Scholar
  124. Gamst ON, Vesje AK, Aarbakke J. Bioavailability of naproxen sodium suppositories. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 22: 99–103, 1984Google Scholar
  125. Garber EK, Guth PH, Silpa ML, Stolz A. A single blind randomized endoscopic study comparing the effects of diflunisal and naproxen in patients with osteoarthritis. Journal of Rheumatology 13: 784–788, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Gasparich JP, Mayo ME. Comparative effects of four prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors on the obstructed kidney in the dog. Journal of Urology 135: 1088–1090, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Geczy M, Peltier L, Wolbach R. Naproxen tolerability in the elderly: a summary report. Journal of Rheumatology 14: 348–354, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Giarelli L, Falconieri G, Delendi M. Fulminant hepatitis following naproxen administration. Human Pathology 17: 1079, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Gil JR, Lavin MM. Estudio de la eficacia y tolerancia de tres fármacos antiinflamatorios no esteroides. Investigatión Médica Internacional 10: 342–349, 1983Google Scholar
  130. Ginsberg F, Famaey JP. A double-blind, parallel trial of oxaprozin versus naproxen in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Current Therapeutic Research and Opinion 8: 689–695, 1984Google Scholar
  131. Goldberg MA. A multicenter study of the safety and efficacy of naproxen: analysis of blood pressure. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 17 (Suppl. 2): 23–28, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Goldberg MA, Hirose H, McLaughlin GE, Akeson W, Kieffer DA, et al. Naproxen sodium: comparative efficacy and tolerability of two dosages for pain after joint surgery. Orthopedics 11: 575–580, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Goldenberg DL, Felson DT, Dinerman H. A randomized, controlled trial of amitriptyline and naproxen in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism 29: 1371–1377, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Gonik B, Loo LS, Bigelow R, Kohl S. Influence of naproxen therapy on natural killer cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against cells infected with herpes simplex virus. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 29: 722–726, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Gordin A, Sotka S, Nuutila J. Comparison of a slow-release indomethacin tablet and naproxen in osteoarthritis. Current Medical Research and Opinion 9: 500–504, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Gøtzsche PC, Andreasen F, Egsmose C, Lund B. Steady state pharmacokinetics of naproxen in elderly rheumatics compared with young volunteers. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 17: 11–16, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Grace EM, Mewa A, Rooney PJ, Buchanan WW. Clinical therapeutic trial of sodium meclofenamate and naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis, with comments on the use of placebos in clinical trials. Current Medical Research and Opinion 8: 417–424, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Grattan CEH. Generalised eruptive pustular drug rash due to naproxen. Dermatologica 179: 57–58, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Grattan CEH, Kennedy CTC. Naproxen induced erythema nodosum. Abstract. British Medical Journal 288: 114, 1984Google Scholar
  140. Graziani G, Abbiati GA, Dolfini E, Testa R, Velo GP. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and toxicological properties of naproxen gel in laboratory animals. Current Therapeutic Research 42: 480–490, 1987Google Scholar
  141. Greb WH, vonSchrader HW, Cerlek S, Dominis M, Hauptmann E, et al. Endoscopic studies of nabumetone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 4B): 19–24, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Grimaldi R, Lecchini S, Crema F, Perucca E. In vivo plasma protein binding interaction between valproic acid and naproxen. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics9: 359–363, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Haataja M, Paul R, Grönroos M, Erkkola R, Punnonen R, et al. Effect of prostaglandin inhibitor and oestrogen on climacteric symptoms and serum free fatty acids. Maturitas 5: 263–269, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Habbema L, Bruynzeel DP. Fixed drug eruption due to naproxen. Dermatologica 174: 184–185, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Hall P, MacLachlan N, Thorn N, Nudd MWE, Taylor CG, et al. Control of menorrhagia by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors naproxen sodium and mefenamic acid. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 94: 554–558, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Hansten PD, Horn JR. Methotrexate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Drug Interactions Newsletter 6: 41–44, 1986aGoogle Scholar
  147. Hansten PD, Horn JR. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: effects on antihypertensive activity of beta-blockers. Drug Interactions Newsletter 6: 1–4, 1986bGoogle Scholar
  148. Hardy JG, Evans DF, Zaki I, Clark AG, Tönnesen HH, et al. Evaluation of an enteric coated naproxen tablet using gamma scintigraphy and pH monitoring. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 37: 245–250, 1987Google Scholar
  149. Harry DJ, Hicks H. Naproxen reactions in aspirin-hypersensitive patients. Hospital Formulary 18: 648–649, 1983Google Scholar
  150. Hazleman BL, Thomas PP. Single-blind comparative study of nabumetone (Relafer) versus naproxen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 4B): 60–64, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Hedenbro JL, Wetterberg P, Vallgren S, Bergqvist L. Lack of correlation between fecal blood loss and drug-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 34: 247–251, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Heymann WR, Lerman JS, Luftschein S. Naproxen-induced lichen planus. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 10: 299–301, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Hodge RH. Double-blind crossover comparison of piroxicam and naproxen in the treatment of active osteoarthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 3 (Suppl. 1): 3–6, 1985Google Scholar
  154. Howard AM, Dowling J, Varigos G. Pseudoporphyria due to naproxen. Lancet 1: 819–820, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Hunt JN, Smith JL, Jiang CL. Gastric bleeding and gastric secretion with sulindac and naproxen. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 28: 169–173, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Husby G. The Norwegian multicentre study. American Journal of Medicine 81 (Suppl. 5B): 6–10 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Husby G, Holme I, Rugstad HE, Herland OB, Giercksky K-E. A double-blind multicentre trial of piroxicam and naproxen in osteoarthritis. Clinical Rheumatology 5: 84–91, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Huskisson EC. Greenwood. Naproxen and piroxicam: a comparative trial in rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Rheumatology and Inflammation 6: 242–246, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Ingemanson C-A, Sikström B. Comparison between diclofenac and naproxen in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Current Therapeutic Research 36: 1203–1209, 1984Google Scholar
  160. Jamali F, Stevens DRS. Naproxen excretion in milk and its uptake by the infant. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 17: 910–911, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Janke PG, Diggins JB, Currie WJC, Dasgupta PK, Glick EN, et al. A multi-centre study of sulindac versus naproxen in the treatment of elderly osteoarthritis patients. Pharmacotherapeutica 3: 663–667, 1984Google Scholar
  162. Johnsen V, Bjerkhoel F, Bjørneboe O, Børresen B, Finstad R, et al. Duration of morning stiffness in rheumatic patients after medication with enteric-coated and plain naproxen tablets. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 15: 37–40, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Johnson ES, Ratcliffe DM, Wilkinson M. Naproxen sodium in the treatment of migraine. Cephalalgia 5: 5–10, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Judd LE, Henderson DW, Hill DC. Naproxen-induced pseudoporphyria. Archives of Dermatology 122: 451–454, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Kajanoja P, Kauste K. Diflunisal compared with naproxen in the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Medicine 15: 153–158, 1984Google Scholar
  166. Kajanoya P, Vesanto T. Naproxen and indomethacin in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica 87 (Suppl.): 87–89, 1979Google Scholar
  167. Kamper AL, Strandgaard S, Christensen P, Svendsen UG. Effects of sulindac and naproxen in patients with chronic glomerular disease. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 62 (Suppl.): 26–31, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Kapadia L. A study of naproxen sodium and ibuprofen in primary dysmenorrhoea. Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine 37: 77–80, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Katona G, Vargas RB. Double-blind crossover study to evaluate the efficacy of a single daily dose of naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Rheumatology and Inflammation 6: 233–241, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Kauffmann RE, Bolliger RO, Wan SH, Oren J. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of naproxen in children. Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics 5: 143–150, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Kauppila A, Rönnberg L. Naproxen sodium in dysmenorrhea secondary to endometriosis. Obstetrics and Gynecology 65: 379–383, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Kaye RL, Smith RD, Gordon RS, Sack B, Menander-Huber KB. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of naproxen 750mg once daily and naproxen 375mg twice daily in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Rheumatology (ILAR), pp. 26–27, Jun 21–27, 1981, Paris, 1982Google Scholar
  173. Kelly JG, Kinney CD, Devane JG, Mulligan S, Colgan BV. Pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy of once-daily sustained-release naproxen. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 36: 383–388, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Khan FM. A six-month parallel group comparison of fenbüfen and naproxen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Therapeutics 5: 483–487, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Kiang C-H, Lee C, Kushusky S. Isolation and identification of 6-desmethylnaproxen sulfate as a new metabolite of naproxen in human plasma. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 17: 43–48, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Koopmans PP, Thien T, Gribnau FWJ. Influence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on diuretic treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension. British Medical Journal 289: 1492–1494, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Kucharz EJ, Hawryiuk D. Effect of acetylsalicylic acid and naproxen on collagen solubility and heterogeneity in the rat liver. Pharmozie 42: 117–118, 1987Google Scholar
  178. Kvarnes L. Naproxen sodium versus pentazocine in treating postoperative pain. Current Therapeutic Research 46: 259–268, 1989Google Scholar
  179. Kvien TK, Høyeraal HM, Sandstad B. Naproxen and acetylsalicylic acid in the treatment of pauciarticular and polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 13: 342–350, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Lalos O, Nilsson B. Dysmenorrhea in women with intrauterine contraceptive device. Treatment with a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, naproxen. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 21: 33–37, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Landgren BM, Lundström V, Eneroth P, Johannisson E. The effect of a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor on the hormonal profile and the endometrium in women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 151: 361–368, 1985Google Scholar
  182. Langrick AF. A study of naproxen sodium and mefenamic acid in primary dysmenorrhoea. British Journal of Clinical Practice 37: 342–347, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Langrick AF, Gunn ADG. A comparison of naproxen sodium and a dextropropoxyphene/paracetamol combination in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in university health centres. British Journal of Clinical Practice 36: 181–184, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Lanza FL, Nelson RS, Rack MF. A controlled endoscopic study comparing the toxic effects of sulindac, naproxen, aspirin, and placebo on the gastric mucosa of healthy volunteers. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 89–95, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Lanza F, Rack MF, Lynn M, Wolf J, Sanda M. An endoscopic comparison of the effects of etodolac, indomethacin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and placebo on the gastrointestinal mucosa. Journal of Rheumatology 14: 338–341, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Lanza FL, Rack MF, Royer GL, Seckman CE, Gernaat CM, et al. Gastro-intestinal effects of ibuprofen, naproxen and aspirin in normal volunteers. Clinical Trials Journal 23: 168–177, 1986Google Scholar
  187. Laothavorn P, Prichanond S. Effect of naproxen on exercise tolerance test in the chronic stable ischemic heart disease patients. Abstract no. PS 231. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 67 (Suppl.): 68, 1985Google Scholar
  188. Lari S, Coli A, Mattioli R, Borghi B, Fabbri G. Acute postsurgical pain in orthopedic surgery: a comparison of sodium naproxen and pentazocine in several analgesic protocols. Current Therapeutic Research 43: 689–697, 1988Google Scholar
  189. Larsen A. Piroxicam versus naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind,cross-over study. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 5: 17–23, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Laxer RM, Silverman ED, Balfe JW, Poucell S, Baumal R. Naproxen-associated renal failure in a child with arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Pediatrics 80: 904–908, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Leak AM, Richter MR, St Cyr C, Ansell BM. Flurbiprofen is as effective as naproxen in juvenile spondylitis. Journal of Rheumatology 13: 664–665, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Leatham PA, Bird HA, Wright V, Seymour D, Gordon A. A double blind study of antrafenine, naproxen and placebo in osteoarthrosis. European Journal of Rheumatology and Inflammation 6: 209–211, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Lee DKH. Effect of etodolac on the prostaglandin concentrations in the kidney of the normal rat. Drug Development Research 9: 305–311, 1986Google Scholar
  194. Lereim P, Gabor I. Piroxicam and naproxen in acute soft tissue injuries. European Journal of Rheumatology and Inflammation 8: 109–111, 1985Google Scholar
  195. Lewis RV. Severe asthma after naproxen. Lancet 1: 1270, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Lindegaard KF, Øvrelid L, Sjaastaad O. Naproxen in the prevention of migraine attacks. A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study. Headache 20: 96–98, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Lindsley CB, Warady BA. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: renal toxicity. Clinical Pediatrics 29: 10–13, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Ling TL, Yee JP, Cohen A, Hsiao C, Gonzalez MA, et al. A multiple-dose pharmacokinetic comparison of naproxen as a once-daily controlled-release tablet and a twice-daily conventional tablet. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 325–329, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Lizarazo PH, Cortés MP. Single-blind parallel study comparing naproxen with sulindac and with diclofenac in rheumatoid arthritis. Current Therapeutic Research 34: 701–707, 1983Google Scholar
  200. Lo TCN, Martin MA. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated with naproxen suppositories. British Medical Journal 292: 1430, 1986Google Scholar
  201. Londino AV, Wolf GL, Calabro JJ, Perrone SJ. Naproxen and pneumonitis. Journal of the American Medical Association 252: 1853, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. López Sánchez J, Yañez Marchena G. Meclofenamate sodium, phenylbutazone and naproxen in the treatment of degenerative joint disease. Arzneimittel-Forschung 33: 653–656, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Luggen ME, Gartside PS, Hess EV. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in rheumatoid arthritis. Duration of use as a measure of relative value. Journal of Rheumatology 16: 1565–1569, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Lundström V, Landgren BM, Eneroth P, Johannesson E. The effect of a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor on the hormonal profile and the endometrium in women. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica 113 (Suppl.): 77–80, 1983Google Scholar
  205. Lussier A, Arsenault A, Varady J, de Médicis R, Lussier Y, et al. The use of a 51 Cr technique to detect gastrointestinal microbleeding associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 17 (Suppl. 2): 40–45, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Mactier RA, Khanna R. Hyperkalemia induced by indomethacin and naproxen and reversed by fludrocortisone. Southern Medical Journal 81: 799–801, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Manchester General Practitioner Group. A study of naproxen and ibuprofen in patients with osteoarthritis seen in general practice. Current Medical Research and Opinion 9: 41–46, 1984Google Scholar
  208. Mann PG. A comparison between furoprofen calcium and naproxen sodium in the treatment of soft tissue sports injuries. Pharmatherapeutica 3: 499–504, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Marchini M, Fedele L, Garagiola V, Maresca V. Pirprofen, naproxen and placebo in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research 13: 699–705, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Marsala F, Cavrini P, Bufalino L, Cardini F. Treatment of acute pain of ureteral and biliary colic with naproxen sodium administered by the parenteral route. International Clinical and Pharmacological Research 6: 495–500, 1986Google Scholar
  211. Martel RR, Klicius J, Metcalf G. Effect of etodolac on articular and bone pathology associated with adjuvant arthritis in rats: a comparison with aspirin and naproxen. Agents and Actions 14: 257–264, 1984aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Martel RR, Klicius J, Metcalf G, Rona GA. Comparative effects of long term treatment with etodolac, naproxen and ibuprofen on articular and bone changes associated with adjuvant arthritis in rats. Agents and Action 15: 403–412, 1984bGoogle Scholar
  213. Martin PJ, Higginbotham HL. Naproxen simulating 5-hydroxyindoles. Abstract. British Medical Journal 288: 1346, 1984Google Scholar
  214. Martinez R, Smith DW, Frankel LR. Severe metabolic acidosis after acute naproxen sodium ingestion. Annals of Emergency Medicine 18: 1102–1104, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Mathew NT. Amelioration of ergotamine withdrawal symptoms with naproxen. Headache 27: 130–133, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Mayon S, Black MM. Pseudoporphyria due to naproxen. British Journal of Dermatology 114: 519–520, 1986Google Scholar
  217. Mbuyi-Muamba JM, Dequeker J. Piroxicam versus naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis. Current Medical Research and Opinion 8: 612–617, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. McCulloch PG, Holden P, Robson DJ, Rowley DI, Norris SH. The value of mobilisation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia in the management of inversion injuries of the ankle. British Journal of Clinical Practice 39: 69–72, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Mcllwain HH, Platt RD. Piroxicam versus naproxen in the treatment of acute musculoskeletal disorders in athletes. American Journal of Medicine 84 (Suppl. 5A): 56–60, 1988Google Scholar
  220. McLaughlin G. Choline magnesium trisalicylate vs. naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis. Current Therapeutic Research 32: 579–585, 1982Google Scholar
  221. McNeil P, MacKenzie I, Manoharan A. Naproxen-associated aplastic anaemia. Medical Journal of Australia 145: 53–54, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. McVerry RM, Lethbridge J, Martin N, Mukerjee SK, Littler T, et al. Pharmacokinetics of naproxen in elderly patients. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 606P–607P, 1986aGoogle Scholar
  223. McVerry RM, Lethbridge J, Martin N, Mukerjee SK, Littler T, et al. Pharmacokinetics of naproxen in elderly patients. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 31: 463–468, 1986bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Miller DS, Talbot CA, Simpson W, Korey A. A comparison of naproxen sodium, acetaminophen and placebo in the treatment of muscle contraction headache. Headache 27: 392–396, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Milsom I, Andersch B. Effect of ibuprofen, naproxen sodium and paracetamol on intrauterine pressure and menstrual pain in dysmenorrhoea. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 91: 1129–1135, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Milsom I, Andersch B. Ibuprofen and naproxen-sodium in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: a double-blind cross-over study. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 23: 305–310, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Milsom I, Andersch B, Sundeil G. The effect of flurbiprofen and naproxen sodium on intra-uterine pressure and menstrual pain in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica 67: 711–716, 1988Google Scholar
  228. Mitchell RA, Woolf D, Murray-Leslie C, Huskisson EC, Wojtu-lewski J, et al. Problems in assessing the possible disease-modifying effect of naproxen. British Journal of Clinical Practice 41: 560–565, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Mordes JP. Possible naproxen-associated vasculitis. Archives of Internal Medicine 140: 985, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Mowat AM, Mowat AG, Jones CW, Engler C. A comparison of once and twice daily naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis. British Journal of Clinical Practice 38: 95–98, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Moyer S. Pharmacokinetics of naproxen sodium. Cephalalgia 6 (Suppl. 4): 77–80, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Mroszczak E, Runkel R, Roe R, Ortega E, Segre E. Naproxen pharmacokinetics and metabolism in renal failure. Abstract no. 0544. Presented at the World Conference in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, London, Aug 3–9, 1988aGoogle Scholar
  233. Mroszczak E, Yee JP, Bynum L. Absorption of naproxen-controlled release tablets in fasting and postprandial volunteers. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 28: 1128–1131, 1988bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Mugnier A, Schneck G, Champion P, Mignon H. Douleurs postopératoires: étude comparative de l’action antalgique du naproxène sodique et du paracétamol. Presse Médicale 13: 429–431, 1984Google Scholar
  235. Mungavin JM, Clarke TK. A multi-centre study of tiaprofenic acid (’surgam’) and five comparative drugs in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis in general practice. Current Medical Research and Opinion 8: 461–471, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Nader DA, Schillaci RF. Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia due to naproxen. Chest 83: 280–284, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Nestvold K. Naproxen and naproxen sodium in acute migraine attacks. Cephalalgia 6 (Suppl. 4): 81–84, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Nestvold K, Kloster R, Partinen H, Sulkava R. Treatment of acute migraine attack: naproxen and placebo compared. Cephalalgia 5: 115–119, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Ng HWK, MacFarlane AW, Graham RM, Verbov JL. Near fatal drug interactions with methotrexate given for psoriasis. British Medical Journal 295: 752–753, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Nielsen CB. Prostaglandin inhibition and central corneal thickness after cataract extraction. Acta Ophthalmologica 60: 252–258, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Nielsen CB. The effect of the prostaglandin-inhibitor naproxen on the endothelial cell-loss after cataract extraction. Acta Ophthalmologica 61: 102–107, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Nørrelykke Nissen J, Ehlers N. No additive effect of tranexamic acid and naproxen on corneal deswelling. Acta Ophthalmo-Iogica 64: 291–294, 1986Google Scholar
  243. Nygard N, Starkebaum G. Naproxen and agranulocytosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 257: 1732, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Nygren KG, Rybo G. Prostaglandins and menorrhagia. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica 113 (Suppl.): 101–103, 1983Google Scholar
  245. Oddsson E, Gudjónsson H, Thjodleifsson B. Endoscopic findings in the stomach and duodenum after treatment with enteric coated and plain naproxen tablets in healthy subjects. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 24 (Suppl. 159): 60, 1989Google Scholar
  246. Osborn TG, Parks RL, Moore TL, Grisanti MW, Nesher G, et al. Diflunisal versus naproxen in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Therapeutics 11: 736–743, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Ouellette RD, Feinberg A, Laraja R, Rothenberg RE, Welch GW. Naproxen sodium vs acetaminophen plus codeine in post-surgical pain. Current Therapeutic Research 39: 839–845, 1986Google Scholar
  248. Owen PR. Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 148: 96–103, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Page SR, Grattan CEH. Pustular reaction to naproxen with cholestatic jaundice. Abstract. British Medical Journal 293: 510, 1986Google Scholar
  250. Pagliara L, Baldelli A, Sanguineti F, Siri R. Proxen in the treatment of gonarthrosis. A controlled clinical double-blind study. Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research 12: 929–932, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Pedrón N, Aznar R. Effect of naproxen on IUD-induced hypermenorrhea. Contraceptive Delivery Systems 4: 39–42, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Pérez-Baspino J, Vaca-Vaca JM, Corbaláan AJ, Brugger AJ. Quantitative study of the uterus-inhibiting activity of sodium naproxen in rat isolated uterus. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 5: 625–629, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Petri M, Dobrow R, Neiman R, Whiting-O’Keefe Q, Seaman WE. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the treatment of the painful shoulder. Arthritis and Rheumatism 30: 1040–1045, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Physicians Desk Reference. Naprosyn®. 43 Edition, pp. 2140–2142, Medical Economics Company Inc., New Jersey, 1989Google Scholar
  255. Pisko EJ, Bockow BI, Box P, Brodsky AL, Burch FX, et al. Six-month multi-center study comparing nabumetone with naproxen in the treatment of osteoarthritis. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 4B): 86–91, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Plantema F. Worldwide studies comparing piroxicam with naproxen. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica 138: 15–17, 1986Google Scholar
  257. Poiley JE. Nabumetone versus naproxen in the treatment of osteoarthritis. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 4B): 82–85, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Pradalier A, Rancivel G, Dordain G, Verdive L, Rascol A, et al. Acute migraine attack therapy: comparison of naproxen sodium and an ergotamine tartrate compound. Cephalalgia 5: 107–113, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Pritchett PM, Jay WM, Aziz MZ, Green K. The effect of naproxen on the ocular inflammatory response following extracapsular lens extraction in rabbits. Acta Ophthalmologica 63: 519–524, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Ragheb M, Powell AL. Lithium interaction with sulindac and naproxen. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacplogy 6: 150–154, 1986Google Scholar
  261. Rameis H, Hitzenberger G, Liem KS, Hulkenberg-Tromp D. Comparison of gastrointestinal blood loss induced by cloximate in two formulations and by naproxen. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 22: 96–98, 1984Google Scholar
  262. Ravi S, Keat AC, Keat ECB. Colitis caused by non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Postgraduate Medical Journal 62: 773–776, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Ray PE, Rigolizzo D, Wara DR, Piel CF. Naproxen nephrotoxicity in a 2-year-old child. American Journal of Diseases in Children 142: 524–525, 1988Google Scholar
  264. Reeve PA, Moshiri M, Bell GD. Pulmonary oedema, jaundice and renal impairment with naproxen. British Journal of Rheumatology 26: 70–71, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Richards AM, Burry HC, Treadwell DU, Tweed JM, Mowles E. Nabumetone, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug: a comparison with naproxen. New Zealand Medical Journal 96: 1015–1016, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Roth SH. Endoscopy-controlled study of the safety of nabumetone compared with naproxen in arthritis therapy. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 4B): 25–30, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Roth SH. Naproxen: antirheumatic efficacy and safety in patients with pre-existing gastrointestinal disease. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 17 (Suppl. 2): 36–39, 1988aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Roth SH. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: gastropathy, deaths, and medical practice. Annals of Internal Medicine 109: 353–354, 1988bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Roth SH. Pharmacologic approaches to musculoskeletal disorders. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 4: 441–461, 1988cPubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Rothenberg RJ, Sufit RL. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy in a patient with psoriatic arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 30: 221–224, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Rugstad HE. The Norway study: plasma concentrations, efficacy, and adverse events. American Journal of Medicine 81 (Suppl. 5B): 11–14, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Rugstad HE, Hundal Ø, Holme I, Herland DB, Huby G, et al. Piroxicam and naproxen plasma concentrations in patients with osteoarthritis: relation to age, sex, efficacy and adverse events. Clinical Rheumatology 5: 389–398, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Ryan JR, Chremos AN, Vargas R, Johnson CL, McMahon FG. The influence of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), [sulindac (S) and naproxen (N)] on natriuretic, diuretic and renin (PRA) response to furosemide (F). Abstract no. C33. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 271, 1984Google Scholar
  274. Ryan J, McMahan F, Vargas R, Gotzkowsky S, McNamara D, et al. Effects of salsalate, aspirin and naproxen on plasma renin activity (PRA).and platelet thromboxane (T2 B2 ) synthesis. Abstract no. E66. Arthritis and Rheumatology 29 (Suppl.): S103, 1986Google Scholar
  275. Rybo G, Nilsson S, Sikström B, Nygren KG. Naproxen in menorrhagia. Lancet 1: 608–609, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Ryley NJ, Lingam G. A pharmacokinetic comparison of controlled-release and standard naproxen tablets. Current Medical Research and Opinion 11: 10–27, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Salom IL, Jacob G, Jallad N, Perdomo CA, Mullane JF, et al. Gastrointestinal microbleeding associated with the use of etodolac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and naproxen in normal males. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 240–246, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Sargent JD, Baumel B, Peters K, Diamond S, Saper JR, et al. Aborting a migraine attack: naproxen sodium v. ergotamine plus caffeine. Headache 28: 263–266, 1988aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Sargent JD, Peters K, Goldstein J, Madison DS, Solbach P. Naproxen sodium for muscle contraction headache treatment. Headache 28: 180–182, 1988bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Sargent J, Solbach P, Alger J, Damasio H, Baumel B, et al. A comparison of naproxen sodium to propranolol hydrochloride or a placebo control for the prophylaxis of migraine headache. Abstract no. 11. Headache 24: 164, 1984Google Scholar
  281. Scarpa R, Pucino A, Riccio A, Farinaro C, Oriente P. Clinical evaluation of analgesic effect of parenterally administered sodium naproxen (Axer Alfa) in osteoarthritis. Clinical Trials Journal 23: 77–80, 1986Google Scholar
  282. Scharf Y, Nahir M, Schapira D, Lorber M. A comparative study of naproxen with diclofenac sodium in osteoarthrosis of the knees. Rheumatology and Rehabilitation 21: 167–170, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Schorn D. A comparative study of isoxicam and naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis. South African Medical Journal 67: 452–454, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Schuna AA, Vejraska BD, Hiatt JG, Kochar M, Day R, et al. Lack of interaction between sulindac or naproxen and propranolol in hypertensive patients. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29: 524–528, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Schwartzman M, D’Agati V. Spontaneous relapse of naproxen-related nephrotic syndrome. American Journal of Medicine 82: 329–332, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Scoren RD, Corn H, Rhodes P, Schwarz M, Segal PL, et al. Pain following peridontal surgery: treatment with a nonnarcotic analgesic compared with two iodine combinations. Current Therapeutic Research 42: 463–471, 1987Google Scholar
  287. Sekker W, Schönmehl W, Rohde HJ, Brackertz D. Klinische Prüfung von Purprofen und Naproxen bei Patienter mit Gon- und Coxarthrosen. Fortschritte der Medizin 103: 182–184, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Seppälä E, Nissilä M, Isomäki H, Nuotio P, Nykänen E, et al. Comparison of the effects of different anti-inflammatory drugs on synovial fluid prostanoid concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Rheumatology 4: 315–320, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Sevelius H, Runkel R, Segre E, Bloomfield SS Bioavailability of naproxen sodium and its relationship to clinical analgesic effects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10: 259–263, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Shah J, Mroszczak E, Bynum L, Fratis A, Kiang C. Bioequivalence comparison of enteric-coated (EC) naproxen versus standard naproxen tablets. Abstract 1613. Pharmaceutical Research 6 (Suppl): S232, 1989Google Scholar
  291. Sheehan NJ. Pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia associated with naproxen. British Journal of Rheumatology 24: 302–305, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Shelley ED, Shelley WB, Burmeister V. Naproxen-induced pseudoporphyria presenting a diagnostic dilemma. Cutis 40: 314–316, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Shelley WB, Elpern DJ, Shelley ED. Naproxen-photosensitization demonstrated by challenge. Cutis 38: 169–170, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Shupp DL, Schroeter AL. An unusual case of salicylate toxicity. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 15: 300–301, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Siddle NC, Young O, Sledmere CM, Reading AE, Whitehead. A controlled trial of naproxen sodium for relief of pain associated with Vabra suction curettage. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 90: 864–869, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Simmons RLL, Owen S, Abbott CJA, Bouchier-Hayes TAI, Hunt HA. Naproxen sodium and paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene in sports injuries — a multicentre comparative study. British Journal of Sports Medicine 16: 91–95, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Sindet-Pedersen S, Petersen JK, Gøtzsche PC, Christensen H. A double-blind randomised study of naproxen and acetylsalicylic acid after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 15: 389–394, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Singh RR, Malavuja AN, Pardey JN, Guleria JS. Fatal interaction between methotrexate and naproxen. Lancet1: 1390, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Singhal PC, Faulkner M, Venkatesan J, Molho L. Hypersensitivity angiitis associated with naproxen. Annals of Allergy 63: 107–109, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Smith DL, McAsee JH, Lucas LM, Kumar KL, Romney DM. Treatment of nonseptic olecranon bursitis. Archives of Internal Medicine 149: 2527–2530, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Smith MD, Thomas D, McCredie M, Brooks PM. Piroxicam versus naproxen in the treatment of painful shoulder. Pharmatherapeutica 4: 585–589, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Solheim LF, Rönningen H, Barth E, Langeland N. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and naproxen on the mechanical and biochemical properties of intact skin in rats. Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 20: 161–163, 1986aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Solheim LF, Rönningen H, Langeland N. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and naproxen on the synthesis and mineralization of collagen in the rat femur. Archives of Orthopaedic and Traumatic Surgery 105: 1–4, 1986bGoogle Scholar
  304. Solheim LF, Rönningen H, Langeland N. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and naproxen on the mechanical properties of intact femora in rats. Archives of Orthopaedic and Traumatic Surgery 105: 5–10, 1986cGoogle Scholar
  305. Solheim LF, Rönningen H, Langeland N. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and naproxen on bone resorption and formation in rats. Archives of Orthopaedic and Traumatic Surgery 105: 137–141, 1986dGoogle Scholar
  306. Stacher G, Bauer P, Schneider C, Winklehner S, Schmierer G. Effects of a combination of oral naproxen sodium and codeine on experimentally induced pain. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 485–490, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Stull PA, Jobl P. Comparison of diflunisal and naproxen in the treatment of tennis elbow. Clinical Therapeutics 9 (Suppl. C): 62–66, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Sterling JC, Pye RJ. Naproxen-induced pseudoporphyria. British Journal of Rheumatology 26: 210–211, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Suprapto K, Reed S. Naproxen sodium for pain relief in first-trimester abortion. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 150: 1000–1001, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Svendsen VG. Effects of sulindac and naproxen on patients with glomerulonephritis and moderately impaired renal function. Abstract. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 59 (Suppl.): 94, 1986Google Scholar
  311. Svendsen VG, Gerstoft J, Hansen TM, Christensen P, Lorenzen I. The renal excretion of prostaglandins and changes in plasma renin during treatment with either sulindac or naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and thiazide treated heart failure. Journal of Rheumatology 11: 779–782, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Sylvia LM, Forlenza SW. Brocavich JM. Aseptic meningitis associated with naproxen. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 22: 399–401, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Szmyd L, Perry HD. Keratopathy associated with the use of naproxen. American Journal of Ophthalmology 99: 598, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Szórády I, Martonyi E, Santa A. Antipyretic effect of naproxen in children. Therapie 43: 155, 1988Google Scholar
  315. Taborn J, Anderson S, Goldberg M, Kantrowitz F, Menander-Huber K, et al. Relief of morning stiffness: a comparative study of naproxen and ibuprofen. Current Medical Research and Opinion 9: 359–365, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Taborn JD, Burch FX, Caldwell JR, Kantrowitz FG, Louie JS, et al. Comparative study of once a day dosing with naproxen versus twice a day dosing of sulindac in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Rheumatology (ILAR), Jun 21–27, 1981, Paris, pp. 23–25, 1982Google Scholar
  317. Tannenbaum H, Esdaile J, Topp JR, Prat A, Rostogi RB, et al. A double-blind, multicenter, controlled study on diclofenac (Voltaren®) and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Current Therapeutic Research 35: 357–362, 1984Google Scholar
  318. Tütinen S, Nissilä M, Ruutsalo HM, Isomäki H. Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the renal excretion of uric acid. Clinical Rheumatology 2: 233–236, 1983Google Scholar
  319. Treves TA, Korizyn AD, Streifler M. Naproxen in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Abstract. Neurology 36 (Suppl. 1): 101, 1986Google Scholar
  320. Trondstad RI, Aadland E, Holler T, Olaussen B. Gastroscopic findings after treatment with enteric-coated and plain naproxen tablets in healthy subjects. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 20: 239–242, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Trondstad R, Bell H, Holler T. Endoscopic evaluation of the effect of naproxen tablets and suppositories on the gastric mucosa in healthy volunteers. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 23 (Suppl. 145): 70, 1988Google Scholar
  322. Turi G, Boscaro C, De Bastiani G. Double-blind comparative study of isoxicam and naproxen in the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis. Current Therapeutic Research 33: 83–88, 1983Google Scholar
  323. Turner R. Hepatic and renal tolerability of long-term naproxen treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 17 (Suppl. 2): 29–35, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Upton RA, Williams RL, Kelly J, Jones RM. Naproxen pharmacokinetics in the elderly. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 207–214, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Uribe A, Johannson C, Slezak P, Rubio C. Ulcérations of the colon associated with naproxen and acetylsalicylic acid treatment. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 32: 242–243, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. van den Ouweland FA, Corstens FHM, van de Putte LBA, Gribnau FWJ. Gastrointestinal blood loss during treatment with naproxen for rheumatoid arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 16: 365–370, 1987aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. van den Ouweland FA, Franssen MJAM, van de Putte LBA, Tan Y, van Ginneken CAM, et al. Naproxen pharmacokinetics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis during active polyarticular inflammation. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 23: 189–193, 1987bPubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. van den Ouweland FA, Gribnau FWJ, van Ginneken CAM, Tan Y, van de Putte LBA. Naproxen kinetics and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a within-patient study. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 43: 79–85, 1988aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. van den Ouweland FA, Gribnau FWJ, Tai Y, van Ginneken CAM, van de Putte. Hypoalbuminaemia and naproxen pharmacokinetics in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 11: 511–515, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. van den Ouweland FA, Jansen PAF, Tan Y, van de Putte LBA, van Ginneken CAM, Gribnau FWJ. Pharmacokinetics of high-dosage naproxen in elderly patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 26: 143–147, 1988bGoogle Scholar
  331. van der Spek P, Warson F, van Overberg L, Peters O. Postoperative jaundice associated with naproxen. Abstract no. 84. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology 330 (Suppl.): R20, 1985Google Scholar
  332. Vasey FB, Germain BF, Espuoza LR, Box P, Bockow BI, et al. Controlled evaluation of nabumetone in the treatment of active adult rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 4B): 55–59, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Vesterqvist O, Green K. Effects of naproxen on the in vivo synthesis of thromboxane and prostacyclin in man. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 37: 563–565, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Vetter G. A comparison of naproxen and diclofenac sodium in the treatment of osteoarthritis in elderly patients. British Journal of Clinical Practice 39: 276–281, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Victorino RM, Baptista A, Silveira JC, De Moura MC. Jaundice associated with naproxen. Postgraduate Medical Journal 56: 368–370, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Vitting KE, Nichols NJ, Seligson GR. Naproxen and acute renal failure in a runner. Annals of Internal Medicine 105: 144, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Vriesendorp R, Donker AJM, de Zeeuw D, de Jong PE, van der Hem GK. Antiproteinuric effect of naproxen and indomethacin. American Journal of Nephrology 5: 236–242, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Wallis PJW, Lodwick R, Sirha SK, Constable TJ. Effect of naproxen on renal haemodynamics in elderly patients. Abstract no. 15. British Journal of Rheumatology 26 (Suppl.): 9, 1987Google Scholar
  339. Waltham-Weeks CD. Etodolac versus naproxen in rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind crossover study. Current Medical Research and Opinion 10: 540–547, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Warrington SJ, Horton M, Davies IB. High dose tiaprofenic acid, naproxen and aspirin: comparison of effects on gastrointestinal blood loss. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18: 301P–302P, 1984Google Scholar
  341. Wasser WG, Goldstern MH, Barba F, et al. Persistent renal failure following administration of naproxen. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 49: 127–129, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Watson WA, Freer JP. Effects of naproxen and sulindac in arthritic patients with renal impairment Abstract 26E. Pharmacotherapy 9: 177, 1989Google Scholar
  343. Watson WA, Freer JP, Katz RS, Basch C. Kidney function during naproxen therapy in patients at risk for renal insufficiency. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 17 (Suppl. 2): 12–16, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Waugh PK, Keatinge DW. Hypoprothrombinemia in naprdxen overdose. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 17: 549–550, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Weber SS, Bankhurst AD, Mroszczak E, Ding TL. Effect of Mylanta® on naproxen bioavailability. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 3: 75–83, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Webster J. Interactions of NSAIDs with diuretics and β-blockers: mechanisms and clinical implications. Drugs 30: 32–41, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Welch KMA. Naproxen sodium in the treatment of migraine. Cephalalgia 6 (Suppl. 4): 85–92, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. White R, De Jager JP, Fleming A. A double-blind crossover trial of diflunisal and naproxen in osteoarthritis. Current Medical Research and Opinion 10: 436–440, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Wilhelmson L, Jaderling J. A double-blind crossover study of piroxicam and naproxen sodium in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Abstract. European Journal of Rheumatology and Inflammation 8: 121–122, 1985Google Scholar
  350. Williams AA, Backhouse CI. A general practice study of naproxen sodium and a dextropropoxyphene-paracetamol combination in primary dysmenorrhoea. British Journal of Clinical Practice 36: 383–385, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Williams PL, Ansell BM, Bell A, Cain ARR, Chamberlain A, et al. Multicentre study of piroxicam versus naproxen in juvenile chronic arthritis, with special reference to problem areas in clinical trials of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in childhood. British Journal of Rheumatology 25: 67–71, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Williams RL, Upton RA, Cello JP, Jones RM, Blitstein M, et al. Naproxen disposition in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 291–296, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Willkens R, Crain D, Nussdorf RT, Partridge R, Sokoloff M, et al. Naproxen and sulindac in the treatment of osteoarthritis -a crossover comparison. Current Therapeutic Research 34: 45–58, 1983Google Scholar
  354. Wilson Downie W. Comparative studies of isoxicam in rheumatoid arthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 12 (Suppl. 2): 170–174, 1982Google Scholar
  355. Wiseman RL, Sodergren J, Guttadauria M, Ryan AJ. Treatment of acute musculoskeletal disorders with piroxicam: results of a double-blind multicenter comparison with naproxen. Current Therapeutic Research 42: 974–987, 1987Google Scholar
  356. Wojtecka-Lukasik E, Maslinski S. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte collagenase in carrageenin-induced inflammation: effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. International Journal of Tissue Reactions 8: 321–325, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Wong DG, Spense JD, Lamki L, Freeman D, McDonald JWD. Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on control of hypertension by beta-blockers and diuretics. Lancet 1: 997–1001, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Wu MJ, Kumar KS, Kulkarni G, Kaiser H. Multiple myeloma in naproxen-induced acute renal failure. New England Journal of Medicine 317: 170–171, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Ylikorkala O, Pekonen F. Naproxen reduces idiopathic but not fibromyoma-induced menorrhagia. Obstetrics and Gynecology 68: 10–12, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Zecchi V, Rodriguez L, Tartarini A, Chiarini A, Valenti P. In vitro studies of naproxen and its sodium and piperazine salts. Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae 59: 91–94, 1984Google Scholar
  361. Ziegler DK, Ellis DJ. Naproxen in prophylaxis of migraine. Archives of Neurology 42: 582–584, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter A. Todd
    • 1
  • Stephen P. Clissold
    • 1
  1. 1.Adis Drug Information ServicesAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Adis International LimitedMairangi Bay, Auckland 10New Zealand

Personalised recommendations