- 94 Downloads
Ranitidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, is now well established as a potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of gastrointestinal lesions aggravated by gastric acid secretion.
Therapeutic trials involving several thousands of patients with peptic ulcer disease confirm that ranitidine 300mg daily administered orally in single or divided doses is at least as effective as cimetidine 800 to 1000mg daily in increasing the rate of healing of duodenal and gastric ulcers. Similar dosages of ranitidine have been shown to relieve the symptoms of reflux oesophagitis and heal or prevent gastrointestinal damage caused by ulcerogenic drugs. Ranitidine 150mg orally at night maintains ulcer healing in the long term. Ranitidine has also demonstrated good results in the treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and in the prevention of aspiration pneumonitis when given prior to surgery and to pregnant women at full term. It may also have a place in the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and in the prevention of stress ulcers in the intensive care setting, although these areas require further investigation. Ranitidine has been used safely in obstetric patients during labour, in children, the elderly, and in patients with renal impairment when given in appropriate dosages. The drug is very well tolerated and is only infrequently associated with serious adverse reactions or clinically significant drug interactions. Even at high dosages, ranitidine appears devoid of antiandrogenic effects.
Ranitidine is clearly comparable or superior to most other antiulcer agents in the treatment and prevention of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders associated with gastric acid secretion. With its favourable efficacy and tolerability profiles, ranitidine must be considered a first-line agent when suppression of gastric acid secretion is indicated.
In vitro studies have shown that ranitidine specifically antagonises histamine H2-receptors, receptors which appear to mediate a final common pathway in the release of gastric acid. In normal volunteers and patients with peptic ulcer disease, ranitidine 150mg daily or 300mg daily in 1 or 2 divided doses decreases the number of low intragastric pH-metry readings per 24 hours and decreases 24-hour integrated hydrogen ion activity predominantly through suppression of nocturnal acid secretion. Ranitidine suppresses basal acid output and experimentally stimulated acid secretion but usual therapeutic dosages do not consistently suppress normal meal-stimulated acid secretion. Ranitidine also suppresses pepsin output which, in conjunction with decreased gastric acidity, results in decreased pepsin activity. The pattern of acid and pepsin inhibition achieved during ranitidine treatment of peptic ulcer disease appears not to facilitate microbial colonisation of the stomach, although colonisation may occur during the sustained achlorhydria produced by high-dose intravenous regimens in the critically ill.
Cholinomimetic effects have been ascribed to ranitidine in vitro and in vivo in animals but evidence of clinically significant cholinomimetic effects in humans is lacking. Mixed results have been reported regarding ranitidine-induced changes in gastric motility; the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance of these motility-modifying effects are unclear.
Some studies suggest that ranitidine treatment is associated with an increase in serum gastrin concentration and/or an increase in meal-stimulated gastrin release. Elevated serum gastrin concentrations return to pretreatment levels once ranitidine is discontinued.
Ranitidine, in therapeutic dosages, does not induce clinically significant changes in serum prolactin, cortisol or thyroid-stimulating hormone, and has no apparent antiandrogen activity. Because ranitidine possesses a furan rather than an imidazole nucleus, it binds only weakly to cytochrome P450 and, in consequence, has minimal effects on drug metabolism by the liver.
Following oral administration, peak plasma ranitidine concentrations are reached within 1 to 3 hours and are not influenced by food. A single 150mg oral dose of ranitidine produces a peak plasma concentration of about 0.4 mg/L. Bioavailability, which varies markedly between individuals, averages about 50%. The apparent volume of distribution in normal adults is approximately 1.4 L/kg. Comparison of ranitidine pharmacokinetics following intravenous and oral administration suggests significant hepatic biotransformation following oral absorption. Thus, 30% of an administered oral dose of ranitidine is excreted unchanged in the urine versus 70% of an intravenous dose. The normal elimination half-life of ranitidine is 2 to 3 hours, but it is prolonged to 4 to 9 hours in patients with severe renal disease. Ranitidine is approximately 15% protein bound and, while it is removed by dialysis, the percentage of total dose recovered in dialysate is small and dosage supplementation is not recommended.
Although the degree of acid inhibition required for ulcer healing is unknown, dose-response studies have found that experimentally stimulated acid secretion is decreased 50% by ranitidine at plasma concentrations of about 0.1 mg/L, which are maintained for at least 10 hours following a single 150mg oral dose. Limited studies to date suggest that, in patients with duodenal ulcer, sensitivity of the gastric mucosa to secretagogues may change during ranitidine treatment; however, the role of ranitidine in this process and its clinical significance are unclear.
In non-comparative, placebo-comparative and other controlled clinical trials, oral ranitidine 200 to 320mg daily has achieved cumulative duodenal ulcer healing rates of 62 to 96% after 4 weeks and 78 to 98% after 8 weeks. The superiority of ranitidine over placebo has been confirmed in a number of recent trials in patients with duodenal ulcer. The rate of healing achieved with oral ranitidine 150mg twice daily was comparable to that obtained with a single 300mg nightly dose. Oral ranitidine 300mg daily was superior or comparable to cimetidine 800 to 1000mg daily in achieving duodenal ulcer healing after 4 and 8 weeks. In comparisons of orally administered ranitidine 300mg daily, famotidine 40 to 80mg daily and nizatidine 300mg nocte, there were no significant differences in healing rates. Trials comparing the efficacy of ranitidine, enprostil, misoprostol and rioprostil in the treatment of duodenal ulceration showed ranitidine to be superior with respect to rates of healing and relief of symptoms. Healing rates of duodenal ulcer achieved with ranitidine are comparable with those of deglycyrrhizinised liquorice (‘Caved-S’), colloidal bismuth subcitrate and sucralfate, while ranitidine was superior to antacids and was better tolerated. Evidence to date indicates that ranitidine heals duodenal ulcers more slowly than omeprazole, and although the rate of healing of duodenal ulcers is faster with ranitidine than with selective anticholinergics such as pirenzepine, the reverse is true with respect to duodenal erosions. In small studies, combining the anxiolytic, prazepam, with ranitidine appeared to accelerate healing. The combination of ranitidine with ofloxacin in patients with positive Campylobacter pylori cultures from the ulcer site appeared to speed healing over that obtained with ranitidine alone, although this combination was seemingly less effective in eradicating C. pylori or in healing ulcers than was a bismuth subsalicylate/ofloxacin combination.
Ranitidine 150mg orally twice daily healed 59 to 88% of gastric ulcers after 3 to 6 weeks, compared with 20 to 53% healing in placebo-treated patients. A single oral dose of 300mg nightly was as effective as 150mg twice daily. Ranitidine was similar to cimetidine in healing gastric ulcers after 4 and 8 weeks, and similar healing rates were seen in trials comparing ranitidine with deglycyrrhizinised liquorice, rioprostil, enprostil, famotidine, and colloidal bismuth subcitrate over the same period. However, in comparison with omeprazole, ranitidine heals gastric ulcers and relieves their symptoms more slowly. In comparison with the anticholinergic drug pirenzepine, ranitidine was superior in healing gastric ulcers, and inferior in healing gastric erosions. Patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers which fail to respond to cimetidine treatment may respond to a subsequent course of ranitidine.
Prophylactic oral administration of ranitidine 150mg daily in patients with recently healed duodenal or gastric ulcers resulted in relapse in 15 to 49% of patients after 12 months, while 59 to 87% of placebo-treated patients relapsed. Continuous daily ranitidine treatment was superior to intermittent seasonal dosage (in the spring and autumn) in preventing relapse. Ranitidine appeared to be superior to enprostil and cimetidine in preventing relapse, and similar to sucralfate after 12 months of continuous treatment, and has proven to be effective in preventing relapse in the majority of patients treated for as long as 5 years.
Oral ranitidine is suitable for use in high dosages in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome to reduce gastric acid secretion and resultant damage and symptoms, and as an adjunct to surgery, as it appears to lack the endocrine adverse effects and effects on hepatic metabolism sometimes seen with cimetidine. Dosage must be individualised, and results may be improved by addition of an anticholinergic agent such as pirenzepine. In this syndrome, the dosage of ranitidine required to reduce gastric acid to below 10 mEq/h has been found to be 3 to 4 times less than that of cimetidine but nearly 10 times greater than that of famotidine.
Ranitidine has been studied in attempts to control acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to reduce rebleeding. Compared with placebo, ranitidine 150mg administered intravenously in divided doses and oral ranitidine 300mg daily significantly (p < 0.05) lowered the incidence of severely bleeding gastric ulcers and reduced the need for blood transfusions in patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer. However, the drug was not thought to influence significantly the outcome for patients with acute bleeding. Ranitidine was significantly (p > 0.05) superior to antacid in controlling bleeding and preventing rebleeding in high risk patients. Ranitidine appeared to be comparable to cimetidine in acute bleeding, although preliminary studies suggest that somatostatin may be superior. Overall, the role of ranitidine in the treatment and prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is still uncertain and further study is needed.
In critically ill patients, ranitidine was as effective as antacid in preventing stress ulcers when given orally or intravenously. Studies searching for optimal ranitidine dosages were equivocal, but found that continuous intravenous ranitidine infusion in the range of 0.125 to 0.25 mg/kg/h were effective. Ranitidine appeared to be comparable to cimetidine in preventing stress ulcers and ulcer bleeding, and although superior to pirenzepine in ulcer prevention, ranitidine-treated patients appeared to be at greater risk of pneumonia. Studies comparing ranitidine and sucralfate for stress ulcer prophylaxis show sucralfate recipients to be at a lower risk of both gastrointestinal bleeding and nosocomial pneumonia.
Ranitidine 150 to 300mg orally, 1 to 2.5 mg/kg or 50mg intravenously, or 50mg intramuscularly on the morning of surgery was superior to placebo or no treatment in reducing the risk of lung damage due to pulmonary aspiration of the acidic contents of the stomach while under general anaesthetic. Ranitidine appears to be comparable or superior to cimetidine and superior to metoclopramide alone, while the addition of metoclopramide to ranitidine provided no additional protection from pulmonary acid aspiration. In women in labour or undergoing emergency or elective caesarean section, intravenous or intramuscular (50mg) or oral (150mg) ranitidine provided adequate protection from acid aspiration, with no ill-effects on the newborn infant or complications in labour.
In gastro-oesophageal reflux disease oral ranitidine 300mg daily in single or divided doses healed lesions and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced symptoms of pain, pyrosis, regurgitation and dysphagia after 6 to 24 weeks compared with placebo group and baseline levels. After 4 to 8 weeks, ranitidine was comparable in efficacy to sucralfate, cisapride and domperidone, and superior to metoclopramide in treating reflux disease, but was less effective in relieving symptoms and slower at healing than omeprazole. Ranitidine appears to be useful in long term maintenance treatment of reflux disease, but further study is needed to clarify which patients will benefit from long term therapy of reflux disease.
Ranitidine is effective in preventing or treating gastrointestinal damage caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), reducing bleeding, gastric mucosal and duodenal damage in patients with rheumatic disease and with peptic ulcer, often despite continuation of NSAID treatment. One study tested the ability of ranitidine to prevent gastrointestinal damage in patients receiving cytostatic drugs and prednisone for lymphoproliferative disease, with promising results in a small number of patients.
Ranitidine has been studied in children and was effective in healing and preventing the recurrence of peptic ulceration, particularly when dosages were titrated to reduce acid secretion by 90%. In critically ill children, ranitidine 0.75 to 1.5 mg/kg intravenously or 2 to 4 mg/kg orally prevented the development of stress ulcers. Ranitidine 2 mg/kg administered orally 1 to 3 hours prior to surgery protected children from the risk of pulmonary aspiration of the acidic contents of the stomach.
Ranitidine is very well tolerated, producing minor adverse effects such as headache, diarrhoea and constipation in less than 5% of patients. The frequency and profile of these effects are similar to those seen in patients receiving placebo. Serious and treatment-limiting adverse effects occur rarely, with elderly and seriously ill patients being more susceptible, or appear to be idiosyncratic. Hepatotoxicity, with raised hepatic enzyme levels and biopsy-proven hepatocellular changes, has been seen rarely. Haematological changes, such as thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis and general myelosuppression, have been reported sporadically in a small number of patients. Central nervous system adverse effects of mental confusion, severe headache, hallucinations and mania have also occurred in small numbers of patients, but rarely in patients without predisposing risks. A variety of idiosyncratic reactions have been reported in individuals, including fever, rashes, bradycardia, heart block, gouty arthritis attacks, erosive duodenitis and gynaecomastia. Seriously ill patients and those with renal insufficiency may require close monitoring for unusual effects.
Dosage and Administration
The usual oral dosage of ranitidine for the treatment of duodenal or benign gastric ulcer or gastro-oesophageal reflux is 150mg twice daily or 300mg nightly, with treatment continuing for 4 to 8 weeks or until healing occurs. For maintenance prophylaxis oral ranitidine 150mg nightly may be given. In Zollinger-Ellison syndrome an initial dosage of 150mg twice daily may be increased up to 6g daily as needed. Ranitidine 50mg intravenously or intramuscularly every 6 to 8 hours may be used to treat and prevent acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A ranitidine dosage of 150mg orally 2 or more hours prior, or 50mg intravenously or intramuscularly 45 to 60 minutes prior to general anaesthesia may minimise the risk of pulmonary damage due to acid aspiration. Oral ranitidine 150mg 6-hourly in women in labour may be supplemented by a non-particulate antacid to prevent pulmonary acid aspiration in the event of emergency surgery. In patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance < 50 ml/min) only half the normal ranitidine dose is recommended. Dosage adjustments may also be needed in elderly patients. Children aged 8 to 18 years have been treated with oral ranitidine up to 150mg twice daily.
KeywordsCimetidine Duodenal Ulcer Ranitidine Famotidine Pirenzepine
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Alexandre C, Amouretti M, Ansenay M, Bader J-P, Baillet J, et al. A multicenter controlled trial of ranitidine and cimetidine in treatment of cimetidine-resistant peptic ulcer disease. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique 9: 147–152, 1985Google Scholar
- Arcidiacono R, Benvestito V, Bonomo GM, Bottari M, Buscarini L, et al. Comparison between ranitidine 150mg b.d. and ranitidine 300mg nocte in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 24: 381–384, 1986Google Scholar
- Ayoola EA, Atoba MA, Lewis EA. Ranitidine and cimetidine in duodenal ulcer: comparison in Nigerian patients. Current Therapeutic Research 37: 992–995, 1985Google Scholar
- Azzolini A, Gianrossi R, Livi S, Corazza M, Petillo A, et al. Cardiac function during ranitidine long-lasting administration. Current Therapeutic Research 33: 1023–1028, 1983Google Scholar
- Bacigalupa A, Van Lint MT, Peralvo J, Figari GPO, Marmont AM. Ranitidine and hematologic recovery in aplastic anemia. Haematologica 72: 378–379, 1988Google Scholar
- Barbara L, Corinaldesi R, Adamo S, Comin V, Dobrilla G, et al. A double-blind controlled trial of ranitidine 300mg nocte and ranitidine 150mg bid in the short-term treatment of gastric ulcer. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 24: 104–107, 1986Google Scholar
- Barbara L, Saggioro A, Olsson J, Cisternino M, Franceschi M. Omeprazole 20mg om and ranitidine 150mg bd in the healing of benign gastric ulcers — an Italian multicentre study. Gut 28: A1341, 1987bGoogle Scholar
- Barr GD, Paris CH, Middleton WRJ, Piper DW. Comparison of ranitidine with cimetidine in duodenal ulcer healing. In: Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds). The Clinical Use of Ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 146–151, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Bertaccini G, Lucchin L, Bonoldi C, Felder M, Dobrilla G. Absence of cholinergic-like activity of ranitidine on human salivary and lacrimal secretions. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 13: 253–254, 1981Google Scholar
- Bertrand J, Dorval ED, Metman EH. Huten N. Ranitidine-induced modifications of gastric emptying in controls and duodenal ulcer patients. Abstract. Gut 25: A1320, 1984Google Scholar
- Bianchi Porro G, Cheli R. Gynecomastia and ranitidine. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 16: 56, 1984Google Scholar
- Bianchi Porro G, Dal Monte PR, Lazzaroni M, Petrillo M, D’Imperio N, et al. Pirenzepine and ranitidine for chronic gastric ulcer: a comparison in short-term and maintenance treatment. Current Therapeutic Research 39: 149–155, 1986Google Scholar
- Bianchi Porro G, Parente F. Single morning dose vs bedtime dose of ranitidine in duodenal ulcer healing. Hepato-gastroenterology 35: 44, 1988Google Scholar
- Bianchi Porro G, Petrillo M, Lazzaroni M, Caruso I, Montrone F. Ranitidine in the treatment of gastric lesions induced by anti-inflammatory drugs. Hepato-gastroenterology 29: 86–87, 1982Google Scholar
- Blasi A, Mangiameli A, Castelli G, Girelli M, Familiari L, et al. Long-term (24 month) ranitidine in prevention of duodenal ulcer relapses: comparison of continuous and seasonal treatment. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19: 141–144, 1987Google Scholar
- Bogues K, Dixon GT, Fowler P, Jenner WN, Maconochie JG, et al. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of ranitidine in humans. British Journal of Pharmacology 73: 275P, 1981Google Scholar
- Bohnet HG, Riley AJ. An investigation of the effect of oral ranitidine treatment on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in male and female volunteers. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds). The clinical use of ranitidine. Medicine Publishing Foundation series 5, pp. 69–76, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Boschi S, DiMarco MG, Pigna A, Rossi R. The effect of ranitidine on gastric pH and volume in patients undergoing caesarian section: possible relationship to Mendelson’s syndrome. Current Therapeutic Research 35: 654–662, 1984Google Scholar
- Bossa R, Galatulas I. Neuromuscular blocking activity of H2receptor antagonists. British Journal of Pharmacology 86: 779P, 1985Google Scholar
- Bove A, Cirella M, Amitrano L, Ficco C, Gullace R, et al. Gastrooesophageal Candida colonisation in the course of ranitidine treatment. Clinical Trials Journal 22: 208–212, 1985Google Scholar
- Boyd EJS, Peden NR, Brauning MCK, Saunders JHB, Wormsley KG. Clinical and endocrine aspects of treatment with ranitidine. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 69): 81, 1981Google Scholar
- Brackmann HP, Brinkhoff H, Dammann HG, Gierthmühlen FW, Hüttemann W, et al. Akutbehandlung der ulkus-duodeni-erkrankung mit ranitidin. 2 mal 150mg täglich versus 300mg nocte. Therapiewoche 34: 5232–5237, 1984Google Scholar
- Brazer SR, Pancotto FS, Brice RS, Garbutt JT, Wildermann NM, et al. A comparison of famotidine 40mg once daily with ranitidine 150mg twice daily in the treatment of benign gastric ulcer: a community-based U.S. multicenter trial. Gastroenterology 92: 1327, 1987Google Scholar
- Brockmeyer NH, Breithaupt H, Hattingberg MV, Ohnhaus EE. Metabolism of mexiletine alone and in combination with cimetidine and ranitidine in vivo and in vitro British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 246P, 19Google Scholar
- Brunner G, Losgen H, Harke U. Ranitidine in the treatment of cimetidine-resistant ulcerations of the upper intestinal tract. In Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds) The Clinical Use of Ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 252–254, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Carey PF, Martin LE, Owen P. A method for the determination of ranitidine and its metabolites in urine by h.p.l.c. and its application to study the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in man. Biochemical Society Transactions 1: 112, 1981Google Scholar
- Chiverton SG, Burget DW, Hunt RH. Smoking does not impair the response to therapy in duodenal ulcer healing. Gastroenterology 94: A69, 1988Google Scholar
- Corinaldesi R, Scarpignato C, Galassi A, Stanghellini V, Calamelli R, et al. Effect of ranitidine and cimetidine on gastric emptying of a mixed meal in man. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 22: 498–501, 1984Google Scholar
- Cortot A, Henry-Amar M, Pappo M, Paris JC. Efficacité comparée de la ranitidine (150mg × 2) et de la cimétidine (400mg × 2) dans le traitment de l’ulcère duodenal en poussée. Essai thérapeutique contrôlé multicentrique français. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique 11: 136–141, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Craven DE, Kunches LM, Kilinsky V, Lichtenberg DA, Make BJ, et al. Risk factors for pneumonia and fatality in patients reeiving continuous mechanical ventilation. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 133: 792–796, 1986Google Scholar
- Dal Negro RW, Turco P, Zoccatelli O. Effects of orally administered cimetidine, ranitidine and oxmetidine on bronchomotor tone in normal volunteers. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 4: 481–482, 1984Google Scholar
- Dal Negro R, Turco P, Zoccatelli O, Trevisan F, Pomart C. H2-antagonist derangement of the kinetics of sustained-release oral theophylline. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 23: 329–332, 1985Google Scholar
- Dammann HG, Burkhardt F, Müller P, Simon B. Effect of intravenous famotidine and ranitidine on intragastric pH and hormone levels in critical care patients. 5th International Conference on Experimental Ulcer. Abstract. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 30: 372, 1985Google Scholar
- Delle Fave G, Annibale B, Puoti M, Forte A, Giordano E, et al. Reversible sustained hypergastrinemia in subjects long term treated with H2 antagonists (H2A). Gastroenterology 92: 1367, 1987Google Scholar
- Dixon GT, Fowler PA, Maconochie JG. Preclinical volunteer studies with ranitidine. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 11–17, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Dobrilla G, De Pretis G, Piazzi L, Boero A, Camarri E, et al. Comparison of once-daily bedtime administration of famotidine and ranitidine in the short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer: a multicenter, double-blind, controlled study. Gastroenterology 22 (Suppl. 134): 21–28, 1987Google Scholar
- Duma St. Prophylaxis of stress ulcers with cimetidine and ranitidine. Weiner Medizinische Wochenschrift (Wein) 136: 467–472, 1986Google Scholar
- Eandi M, De Carli GF, Buraglio M, Recchia G. Ranitidine: seven years of drug surveillance. Clinical Trials Journal 25: 152–157, 1988Google Scholar
- Elwood RJ, Hildebrand PJ, Dundee JW, Collier PS. Influence of ranitidine on uptake of oral midazolam. British Journal of Anaesthesia 55: 241P, 1983Google Scholar
- Eshelman FN, Plachetka JR, Brown DCP. Bioavailability and tolerance of repeated intramuscular injections of ranitidine. Abstract no. C10. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 33: 251, 1983Google Scholar
- Familiari L, Germanotta G, Maimone P, Pustorino S, Ferrau O. Short-term ranitidine (Ranidil) and cimetidine therapy of duodenal ulcer: a comparative endoscopic investigation. Clinical Trials Journal 20: 126–132, 1983Google Scholar
- Fontana G, Maiolo P, Baratta PF, Fratton A, Bombardieri F, et al. Ranitidine short-term treatment of duodenal ulcer: 150mg b.d. v 300mg nocte, a multicentre randomised trial. Clinical Trials Journal 22: 324–334, 1985Google Scholar
- Gabryelewicz A, Sarosiek J, Laszewicz W. The effect of ranitidine on gastric mucus, pepsin and hydrochloric acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer. Acta Medica Polona 22: 335–339, 1983Google Scholar
- Gabryelewicz A, Konturek S, Piotrowski J, Rydzewska G, Kwiecień N. Preventative effect of ranitidine against gastrointestinal disorders in rheumatic patients treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Gastroenterology 92: 1398, 1987Google Scholar
- Gafter U, Komlos L, Weinstein T, Zevin D, Levi J. Thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, and ranitidine. Annals of Internal Medicine 106: 447, 1987Google Scholar
- Galmiche JP, Desechalliers JP, Denis P, Chevalier B, Colin R. Ranitidine treatment of cimetidine-resistant peptic ulcers: preliminary clinical and 24-hour intragastric acidity results. In Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds) The Clinical use of ranitidine. Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 241–248, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Garg DC, Weidler DJ, Baltodano N, Eshelman FN. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine, a new histamine H2-receptor blocker. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 29: 248, 1981Google Scholar
- Garg DC, Baltodano N, Jallad NS, Perez G, Oster JR, et al. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in patients with renal failure. Journal of Clinical Pharmacokinetics 26: 286–291, 1986Google Scholar
- Giacosa A, Cheli R, Molinari F, Parodi MC. Comparison between ranitidine, cimetidine, pirenzepine and placebo in the short term treatment of duodenal ulcer. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 17 (Suppl. 72): 215–219, 1982Google Scholar
- Gonzalez-Martin G, Paulos C, Veloso B, Chesta J, Novoa X, et al. Ranitidine disposition in severe hepatic cirrhosis. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 25: 139–142, 1987Google Scholar
- Griffin PJA, Ross WB, Salaman JR. The use of ranitidine or aluminum hydroxide in preventing gastrointestinal complications after renal transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 18: 1439–1440, 1986Google Scholar
- Hanslip JI, Gidden D, Boyd EJS, Marks IN, Wormsley KG. Effects of ‘mucosal protective’ and antisecretory drugs on assimilation of food bound vitamin B12. Abstract. Gut 28: A1341, 1987Google Scholar
- Hanson RG, Mihaly GW, Smallwood RA, Louis WJ, Yeomans ND. The inhibition of gastric acid secretion by ranitidine: the effect of 6 weeks ranitidine therapy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 12: 111, 1982Google Scholar
- Harman PJ, Gannoulis N, Kamm M, Desmond PV, Mashford ML. The effect of antacids and food on the absorption of cimetidine and ranitidine. Abstract no. 202. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology Suppl. 10: 114, 1987Google Scholar
- Harron DWG, Uprichard ACG. Are cimetidine and ranitidine proarrhythmic? British Journal of Pharmacology 91: 325P, 1987Google Scholar
- Hetzel DJ, Shearman DJC, Korman MG, Hansky J, Piper D, et al. Famotidine (MK208) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer (DU). Short term multicentre studies and a maintenance trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 15 (Suppl. 2): 547, 1985Google Scholar
- Hitanant S, Tuchinda P, Kachintorn U, Petchroungrong B, Plengvanit U, et al. A comparison of prostaglandin E2 analogue (enprostil) and ranitidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. (Abstract. Gastroenterology 92: 1436, 1987Google Scholar
- Hui WM, Lam SK, Lau WY, Branicki FT, Lai CL, et al. Omeprazole (OME) vs ranitidine (RAN) for duodenal ulcer (DU) — one week, low-dose regimens and factors affecting healing. Gastroenterology 92: 1443, 1987Google Scholar
- Huscher C, Falchetti D, Besozzi F, Dessanti A, Ekema G. Ranitidine and total gastric emptying of liquids and solids. Current Therapeutic Research 36: 916–920, 1984Google Scholar
- Hyman PE, Abrams C, Garvey TQ. Ranitidine tachyphylaxis. Gastroenterology 88: 1426, 1985aGoogle Scholar
- Janisch H, Bouzo M, Hütteman W. Cisapride versus ranitidine in reflux oesophagitis. Abstract PO8. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19 (Suppl.): 52S, 1987Google Scholar
- Kapur BK, Bardhan KD. 24-Hour intra-gastric pH profile in healed and in active duodenal ulcer disease. Abstract. Gut 29: A1452, 1988Google Scholar
- Kempf M, Kaufmann D, Walt RP, Heim J, Mappes A, et al. TV snacks are bad for H2 receptor blockade. Abstract. Gastroenterology 94 (Part 2): A222, 1988Google Scholar
- Ketterl R, Hölscher AH, Weiser HF, Siewert JR. Control of intragastric pH in patients with sepsis or peritonitis by ranitidine versus cimetidine — a double blind study. Zeitschrift für Gastroenterology 22: 602–608, 1984Google Scholar
- Koelz HR, Aeberhard P, Wagner H, Hassler H, Kunz H, et al. Prevention of acute gastroduodenal stress lesions: low dose antacid treatment without and with additional ranitidine (Abstract). Gastroenterology 92: 1476, 1987Google Scholar
- Konturek SJ, Obtulowicz W, Kwiecien N, Kopp B, Oleksy J. Kinetics and duration of action of ranitidine on gastric secretion and its effect on pancreatic secretion in duodenal ulcer patients. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 69): 91, 1981Google Scholar
- Kopitar Z, Cvelbar P, Zorz M, Milutinović S, Jankovič N. Pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in adult patients with end stage renal disease after single and multiple dosing. Acta Pharmaceutica Jugoslavia 37: 371–379, 1987Google Scholar
- Kozarek R, Berenson M, Berkowitz J, Bright-Asare P, DeLuca V, et al. Maintenance therapy with ranitidine following healing of acute duodenal ulcer. Current Therapeutic Research 38: 341–351, 1985Google Scholar
- Kubacka RT, Antal EJ, Juhl RP. The effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on glyburide pharmacokinetics. Abstract no. 82. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy 19: 461, 1985Google Scholar
- Lalonde RL, North DS, Mattern AL, Kapil RP. Tocainide pharmacokinetics after H-2 antagonists. Abstract no. IIIA-1. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 41: 241, 1987Google Scholar
- Lanza F, Robinson M, Bowers J, Griffin J, Kogut D, et al. A multi-center double-blind comparison of ranitidine vs placebo in the prophylaxis of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) induced lesions in gastric and duodenal mucosae. Gastroenterology 94: A250, 1988Google Scholar
- Lanzon-Miller S, Pounder RE, Raymond F, Hamilton MR, Chronos NAF, et al. 24 hour intragastric acidity and plasma gastrin concentration in healthy volunteers taking nizatidine 150mg, nizatidine 300mg, ranitidine 300mg or placebo at 21:15h. Gastroenterology 92: 1492, 1987aGoogle Scholar
- Lanzon-Miller S, Pounder RE, Chronos NAF, Hamilton M, Ball S, et al. Can high dose oral ranitidine eliminate intragastric acid, and what does it do to plasma gastrin? Gastroenterology 92: 1491, 1987cGoogle Scholar
- Lazzaroni M, Sangaletti O, Parente F, Imbimbo BP, Bianchi Porro G. Inhibition of food stimulated acid secretion by association of pirenzepine and ranitidine in duodenal ulcer patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 24: 685–688, 1986Google Scholar
- Lee JH, Kim JM, Ha TY. Effect of the new histamine H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, on the immune response in mice. Medical Abstracts, Korea 12: 96, 1985a. Abstract no. 038-105-84Google Scholar
- Leeder JS, Harding L, MacLeod SM. Ranitidine pharmacokinetics in children. Abstract no. A23. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 201, 1985Google Scholar
- Loperfido S, Monica F, Godena F, Grigoletto S, Melchiori S, et al. Efficacy of ranitidine in the treatment of severe upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Medicina Rivista Delia Enciclopedia Medica Italiana 7: 446–449, 1987Google Scholar
- Maconochie JG, Thomas M, Michael MF, Jenner WR, Tanner RJN. Ranitidine sucralfate interaction. Abstract no. P110-2. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 41: 205, 1987Google Scholar
- MacWalter RS, El Debani AH, Felly J, Stevenson IH. Potentiation by ranitidine of the hypoglycaemic response to glipizide in diabetic patients. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 121P, 1985Google Scholar
- Mahon WA, MacLeod PA, Lebert SJ, Soldin SJ. Ranitidine vs cimetidine: effects on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid and pepsin. Abstract no. 73. World Conference on Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, London, August, 1980Google Scholar
- Mangiameli A, Condorelli G, Dato A, Monaco S. Cardiovascular response to the acute intravenous administration of the H2-receptor antagonists ranitidine and cimetidine. Current Therapeutic Research 36: 13–17, 1984Google Scholar
- Mandai SK. Psychiatric side effects of ranitidine. British Journal of Clinical Practice 40: 260, 1986Google Scholar
- Marchant J, Summers K, Reed PI, Stevens LA, Wood RJ. Ranitidine pharmacokinetics: effect of administration time and food. Gastroenterology 92: 1516, 1987Google Scholar
- Marchesi M, Pedrazzoni M, Palummeri E, Provvedini D, Passeri M. Effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in young healthy subjects. Clinical Trials Journal 20: 275–286, 1983Google Scholar
- Marks IN, Young GO, Tigler-Wybrandi NA, Newton K, Winter TA. Acid secretory response and parietal cell sensitivity in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after healing with sucralfate or ranitidine. Abstract. Gastroenterology International 1 (Suppl. 1): 627A, 1988aGoogle Scholar
- Marks IN, Winter TA, Lucke W, Wright JP, Newton KA, et al. Omeprazole and ranitidine in duodenal ulcer healing. South African Medical Journal 24 (Suppl.): 54–56, 1988bGoogle Scholar
- Marks IN, Young GO. Changes in acid secretory response and parietal cell sensitivity on healing predict early relapse in patients with duodenal ulcer. Abstract no. 233. American Journal of Gastroenterology 83: 1075, 1988Google Scholar
- Martin LE, Bell JA, Carey PF, Dallas FAA, Dixon GT, et al. A review of pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ranitidine in animals and man. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds). The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation series 5, pp. 23–31, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Martin L, Ruiz-Capellan R, Dicenta C. A randomized, double-blind study comparing famotidine with ranitidine in the treatment of benign gastric ulcers. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19 (Suppl.): 165 (Abstract), 1987Google Scholar
- Masci E, Testoni PA, Passaretti S, Guslandi M, Tittobello A. Comparison of ranitidine, domperidone maleate and ranitidine + domperidone maleate in the short-term treatment of reflux oesophagitis. Drugs under Experimental Clinical Research 11: 687–692, 1985Google Scholar
- McFadyen ML, Folf PI, Marks IN, Wright JP, Lucke W. The pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in patients with chronic duodenal ulceration. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 69): 109, 1981Google Scholar
- McGonigle RJS, Williams LC, Amphlett GE, England RJ, Parsons V. The pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in renal disease. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 41–46, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982aGoogle Scholar
- McGonigle RJS, Williams LC, Amphlett GE, England RJ, Parsons V. Ranitidine clearance in patients with renal impairment. Abstract no. 435. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 17 (Suppl. 78): 109, 1982bGoogle Scholar
- Merki H, Witzel L, Harre K, Scheurle E, Bauerfeind P, et al. Circadian pattern of intragastric acidity in duodenal ulcer patients. A comparison with healthy controls. Abstract. Gastroenterology 90 (Part 2): 1549, 1986Google Scholar
- Merki H, Witzel L, Harre K, Scheurle E, Neumann J, et al. Single dose treatment with H2 receptor antagonists: is bedtime administration too late? Gut 28: 451–454, 19Google Scholar
- Mignon M, Vallot T, Bonfils S. Use of ranitidine in the management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds) The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 279–280, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Miller J, Nelson HS. Suppression of immediate skin tests (IST) by ranitidine. Abstract no. 3. Annals of Allergy 60: 154, 1988Google Scholar
- Mills JG, Clancy A, Bond B, Burland WL, Bradbrook I, et al. A comparison of the effects of cimetidine, ranitidine, oxmetidine and placebo on the metabolism and clearance of racemic warfarin. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: 566P, 1986Google Scholar
- Missale G, Agosti A, Bertelè A. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion in man by nizatidine and ranitidine. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19: 261–263, 1987Google Scholar
- Mojaverian, Rocci ML Jr., Kellner PE, Gordon SJ, Vlasses PH. Oral ranitidine decreases the gastric residence time of an indigestible solid in man. Abstract. Gastroenterology 92 (Part 2): 1538, 1987Google Scholar
- Morgan AG, McAdam WAF, Pacsoo C. A comparison of ranitidine with Caved-S in duodenal ulcer treatment. In The clinical use of ranitidine, Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds), Medical Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 166–169, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Morgan AG, McAdam WAF, Pacsoo C. Comparison between enprostil and ranitidine in the treatment of gastric ulceration and subsequent follow up (interim report). Gut 26: A1149 (Abstract F13), 1985bGoogle Scholar
- Muirhead M, Somogyi A, Rolan P, Bochner F. Multiple site interactions between triamterene and ranitidine in man: a common mechanism for reduced renal and hepatic clearance? Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology Suppl. 10: 44, 1987Google Scholar
- Müller P, Biewer R, Bouzo F, Dammann HG, Schultz E, et al. Ranitidine heals gastroduodenal lesions associated with chronic NOSAC therapy in rheumatic patients. Gastroenterology 92: 1543, 1987aGoogle Scholar
- Müller P, Dammann HG, Simon B. Does ranitidine improve gastroduodenal tolerability of indomethacin and acemetacin in man? Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 5 (Suppl. 2): 270, 1987bGoogle Scholar
- Muller-Lissner SA, Sonnenberg A, Eichenberger P, Blum AL. Effect of ranitidine on gastric acid and pepsin secretion following sham feeding. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 69): 27, 1981Google Scholar
- Myren J, Osnes M, Larsen S, Hansen T, Ness K. The effect of ranitidine on the gastroduodenal motility as determined by the maximal pressure periods. Gastroenterology 21: 733–736, 1986Google Scholar
- O’Connor HJ, Riley SE, Axon ATR, Garner RC. Effect of histamine H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA) therapy on mutagenic activity in gastric juice. Abstract no. T71. Gut 27: A608, 1986Google Scholar
- Pace F, Bianchi Porro G, Sangaletti O. Ranitidine therapy in peptic oesophagitis: doubling the dose or duration of treatment? Gut 29: A1446, 1988bGoogle Scholar
- Pajares J, Pique J, Guardia J, Pita L, Alcalá R, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing famotidine versus ranitidine in the treatment of active duodenal ulcer disease. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19 (Suppl.): 68S, Abstract P69, 1987Google Scholar
- Patel L, Weerasuriya K. Effect of cimetidine and ranitidine on propranolol clearance. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 15: 152P, 1983Google Scholar
- Pearce P, Funder JW. Histamine H2-receptor antagonist: radio-receptor assay for antiandrogen side effects. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 7: 442, 1980Google Scholar
- Penston JG, Wormsley KG. Long-term treatment of duodenal ulcers. Gastroenterology 94: A349, 1988Google Scholar
- Perret G, Hugues JN, Louchahi M, Varoquaux O, Modigliani E. Effect of short-term oral administration of cimetidine and ranitidine on the basal and thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated serum concentrations of prolactin, thyrotropin and thyroid hormones in healthy volunteers. A double-blind crossover study. Pharmacology 32: 101–108, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pöch G, Londong W. Simple approach to assess potentiated drug combinations in clinical trials: studies with pirenzepine plus H2-receptor antagonists. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 23: 283–287, 1985Google Scholar
- Pollock EMM, Dougall JR, Bryce C, McIntosh M, Wallace PGM, et al. Loss of ranitidine during continuous haemofiltration. British Journal of Anaesthesia 58: 1322P, 1986Google Scholar
- Polloni A, Marchi S, Bellini M, Savalli E, Cecconi N, et al. Use of antisecretory drugs for gastroprotection during antiblastic chemotherapy. Drugs under Experimental Clinical Research 11: 303–306, 1985Google Scholar
- Poynter D, Pick CR, Harcourt RA, Sutherland MF, Spurling NW, et al. Evaluation of ranitidine safety. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 48–56, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Puppo F, Corsini G, Mangini P. Ranitidine does not modify lymphocyte in vitro reactivity to the mitogens PHA, CON A and PWM. IRCS Medical Science: Classified List 10: 538, 1982Google Scholar
- Quina M. Clinical trial of ranitidine in duodenal ulcer in Portugal. In: Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds) The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 176–177, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Quinton A, Goldfain D, Weber F, Briaud M, Plane D, et al. Gastric ulcer healing. Rioprostil versus ranitidine. Gastroenterology 92: 1586 (Abstract), 1987Google Scholar
- Riley AJ, Crowley P, Harrison C. Transfer of ranitidine to biological fluids: milk and semen. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 77–86, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Rogers M, Holmfield J, Primrose J, Gledhill T, Johnston D. Is suppression of nocturnal acid important for the healing of duodenal ulcers? Abstract no. T42. Gut 29: A710, 1988Google Scholar
- Rohner HG, Wienbeck M, Ran 2-1-Study Group. Zwei oder eine tagesdosis ranitidin zur behandlung der refluxösophagitis? Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie 24: 396–402, 19Google Scholar
- Rylance GW, Woods CG, Lamb R. The use of intravenous ranitidine in stressed children. Gastroenterology 92: 1606, 1987Google Scholar
- Sacco T, Corinaldesi R, Miglioli M, Accorsi A, Moretti G, et al. The prevention of Mendelson’s syndrome. Oral and intravenous administration of ranitidine. Clinical Trials Journal 23: 193–200, 1986Google Scholar
- Sandhar BK, Maltby JR, Goresky G, Strunin L Preoperative fluids and ranitidine in children. British Journal of Anaesthesia 60: 324P-325P, 19Google Scholar
- Sannia A, Benna GM. LH, FSH and PRL levels after a high intra- venous dose of ranitidine. IRCS Medical Science: Classified List 10: 126, 1982Google Scholar
- Savarino V, Sandro Mela G, Scalabrini P, Di Timoteo E, Magnolia RM, et al. Continuous 24-hour intragastric pH monitoring in the evaluation of the effect of a nightly dose of famotidine, ranitidine and placebo on gastric acidity in patients with duodenal ulcer. Digestion 37: 103–109, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Scarpignato C, Vitulo F, Zimbaro G, Pezzetta A. Effect of some H2-receptor antagonists on gastric emptying of solids in humans: are H2-receptors involved? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 11 IP, 19Google Scholar
- Scobie IN, Saunders J, Barnes GD, Hood J, Wheeler MJ, et al. A comparative study of the effects of ranitidine and cimetidine on carbohydrate tolerance, growth hormone secretion and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in man. Current Medical Research and Opinion 10: 285–290, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sewing K-Fr. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in man. In Misiewicz JJ, Wormsley KG (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 32–40, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar
- Sica DA, Harford A, Comstock T, Eshelman F. Ranitidine (R) pharmacokinetics in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Abstract no. B26. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 37: 229, 1985Google Scholar
- Sica DA, Comstock TJ, Stone S, Garnett WR, Karnes HT, et al. Ranitidine accumulation kinetics in hemodialysis patients. Abstract no. P111D-1. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 41: 220, 1987Google Scholar
- Siepler J, Prindiville T, Nishikawa R, Trudeau W. Prophylaxis of stress ulceration in the ICU: a comparison of cimetidine and ranitidine constant infusion. (Abstract.) Gastroenterology 92: 1639, 1987Google Scholar
- Simon B, Bianchi Porro G, Cremer M, Dobrilla G, Haglund U, et al. A single nighttime dose of ranitidine 300mg versus ranitidine 150mg twice daily in the acute treatment of duodenal ulcer: a European multicentre trial. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 8: 367–370, 1986aPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Socha J, Rondio H, Chaba-Celinska D, Rasiński A, Bogoniowska Z. Treatment of hyperchlorhydria in children and teenagers with ranitidine and cimetidine. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 17 (Suppl 78): 776, 1982Google Scholar
- Stock KP, Bach GL. Ranitidine heals ulcers caused by antiphlogistic treatment. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 5 (Suppl. 2): 258, 1987Google Scholar
- Susi D, Iannetti G, DiPietro AM. Long-term therapy of peptic ulcer: our experience with ranitidine after four years. (Abstract P74.) Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 19 (Suppl.): 695, 1987Google Scholar
- Texereau P, Ancelin P, Briaud M, Moussie D. Un cas d’agranulocytose aiguë chez un malade traité par ranitidine. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologie 11: 829–830, 1987Google Scholar
- Thomas M, Michael M, Chilton A, Fowler P, Maconochie JG, et al. Effect of higher doses of ranitidine on antipyrine metabolism in man. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 19: 543P-544P, 1985Google Scholar
- Van Deventer GM, Cagliola A, Whipple J, Humphries T, and the Omeprazole DU Comparative Study Group. Duodenal ulcer healing with omeprazole: a multicenter, double-blind, ranitidine controlled study. Gastroenterology 94 (Part 2): A476, 1988Google Scholar
- Voudouris C, Parpoulas S, Kalligatsis C, Banavas K, Trifonidis P, et al. Histamine H2 antagonists do not prevent gastrointestinal damage caused by antiinflammatory agents. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 5 (Suppl. 2): 56, 1987Google Scholar
- Walt RP, La Brooy SJ, Avgerinos A, Oehr T, Riley A, et al. Investigation on the penetration of ranitidine into the cerebrospinal fluid and a comparison of the effects of ranitidine on male sex hormones. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (Suppl. 60): 19, 1981bGoogle Scholar
- Wolff AA, Levi R, Chenouda AA, Fisher VJ. Ventricular arrhythmias parallel cardiac histamine release after coronary artery occlusion in the dog: effects of ranitidine. Abstract no. 899. Circulation 70: II–225, 1984Google Scholar
- Zeitoun P, d’Azemar P. International multicentre clinical trial of ranitidine in duodenal ulcer. Comparison with cimetidine. In: Misiewicz and Wormsley (Eds), The clinical use of ranitidine, Medicine Publishing Foundation Series 5, pp. 141–145, Medicine Publishing Foundation, Oxford, 1982Google Scholar