- First Online:
- 57 Downloads
Synopsis: Domperidone1 is a dopamine antagonist that does not readily enter the central nervous system. Given parenterally or orally it increases gastric emptying of liquids and increases lower oesophageal sphincter pressure in healthy subjects. The antiemetic and pharmacodynamic profile of domperidone is similar to that of metoclopramide, although domperidone has a lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal side effects. Domperidone effectively alleviates symptoms of chronic postprandial dyspepsia and nausea and vomiting due to a wide variety of underlying causes and in some studies has been superior to metoclopramide. Vomiting associated with the administration of moderately emetic cytotoxic drugs is controlled in the majority of patients. Alleviation of the dose-limiting peripheral side effects (nausea and vomiting) of the anti-Parkinsonian drugs bromocriptine and levodopa, enables a higher optimum dose, with consequent improvement in Parkinsonian symptoms. Domperidone does not aggravate the extrapyramidal side effects of neuroleptic drugs. Control of cytotoxic-induced, and postprandial nausea and vomiting in children has been achieved with domperidone without evidence of extrapyramidal side effects. Indeed, side effects have seldom occurred with therapeutic doses of domperidone.
Pharmacodynamic Studies: Domperidone is a dopamine antagonist with antiemetic properties similar to those of metoclopramide and certain neuroleptic drugs. Unlike these drugs, however, domperidone does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier and seldom causes extrapyramidal side effects.
The wide dissociation between the peripheral and central effects of domperidone has been clearly demonstrated in animal studies by the low brain concentrations after systemic administration, the lack of effect on plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid, the marked differences in the effect of intracerebrally and systemically administered domperidone in antagonising the behavioural effects of dopamine, and the wide difference in the intravenous dosage needed to antagonise the peripheral (emetic) and central effects of apomorphine.
Studies in humans have shown intravenous and oral domperidone to increase lower oesophageal sphincter pressure in healthy subjects, to increase the duration of antral and duodenal contractions, to increase the gastric emptying of liquids and semi-solids such as a barium meal, and to shorten the stationary phase for solids in healthy subjects and in patients in whom it was delayed. The effect in patients with histologically confirmed reflux oesophagitis has, however, been equivocal.
Administered orally or intravenously, domperidone is a potent stimulant of prolactin release in both males and females, although peak concentrations of prolactin are consistently higher in females than in males. The increase in plasma prolactin occurs in healthy subjects, in hyperprolactinaemia after childbirth, and in hypothyroid patients, but domperidone has little effect on plasma prolactin in patients with a prolactin-secreting tumour. Domperidone does not affect plasma growth hormone or aldosterone concentrations.
Pharmacokinetics: Peak plasma concentrations are attained at 10 to 30 minutes after intramuscular and oral administration, and at 1 to 2 hours after rectal administration of suppositories. Systemic bioavailability of intramuscular domperidone is about 90%, whereas that of oral domperidone is 13 to 17%. The low systemic bioavailability is probably due to ‘first-pass’ hepatic and gut wall metabolism. Oral bioavailability is increased when domperidone is administered 90 minutes after a meal, but is decreased by prior administration of cimetidine or sodium bicarbonate.
Distribution data in humans are lacking, but studies in rats with radiolabelled drug have shown wide distribution in body tissues except the central nervous system, where only low concentrations occur. Small amounts of radioactivity cross the placental barrier.
In humans, the apparent volume of distribution is 440L, or 5.7 L/kg, after intravenous administration. The human plasma protein binding of tritiated domperidone is about 92%.
Domperidone undergoes rapid and extensive biotransformation by hydroxylation and oxidative N-dealkylation. The proportion of the drug remaining unchanged is small, accounting for only 1.4% of the total urinary radioactivity and 10% of the faecal radioactivity. After oral administration of 40mg l4C-domperidone in healthy volunteers, 31% of the radioactivity is excreted in the urine and 60% in the faeces over a period of 4 days. Practically all of the urinary radioactivity is recovered within the first 24 hours, with only 1.4% (0.43% of the dose) present as unchanged drug. The greatest proportion of that part of the dose recovered in the urine is in the form of glucuronide conjugates of the metabolite formed by oxidative N-dealkylation. The elimination half-life of domperidone is 7.5 hours in healthy subjects and is prolonged to up to 20.8 hours in patients with severe renal dysfunction. However, since renal clearance is small compared with total plasma clearance (700 ml/minute), accumulation should not occur in renal dysfunction.
Therapeutic Trials: Domperidone has been extensively studied in the treatment of a cluster of symptoms commonly referred to as chronic dyspepsia and in the treatment and prevention of nausea and vomiting resulting from a variety of causes.
In studies comparing oral domperidone 30 to 80mg with placebo or with an equal dose of metoclopramide in patients with functional postprandial dyspepsia, domperidone has been superior to placebo where adequate numbers of patients have been studied and at least as effective as metoclopramide. Assessment has usually been by changes in symptom scores and global assessment.
Studies in patients with reflux oesophagitis confirmed by endoscopy and/or biopsy, have usually shown no difference between the effect of domperidone 30 to 80mg daily and placebo as assessed by repeat endoscopy, biopsy or acid infusion tests. However, domperidone has relieved some symptoms to a greater extent than placebo.
Preliminary studies in endoscopically confirmed gastric ulcer have reported domperidone 60mg to be more effective than placebo in promoting healing. In a single study, lasting only 3.5 weeks, no significant difference between the rates of healing with cimetidine 1g daily and domperidone 50mg daily could be detected. Further well designed studies of longer duration are needed to determine the role of domperidone in promoting healing of gastric ulcers.
Domperidone has been shown to be an effective antiemetic in patients with postoperative vomiting, when administered after the first vomiting episode. However, when administered before induction or near the end of anaesthesia, postoperative emetic sequelae have not consistently been prevented. The reasons for the indifferent efficacy of domperidone in these studies is unclear, but may be associated with the route of administration, narcotic premedication and the time between administration and the postoperative recovery period.
Nausea and vomiting associated with cytotoxic drug therapy has generally been effectively controlled by parenteral domperidone administered immediately before the cytotoxic regimen. Domperidone has usually been found to be superior to placebo and comparable with metoclopramide. As might be expected, symptoms accompanying the use of strongly emetic drugs like mustine (mechlorethamine; nitrogen mustard) and dacarbazine have been controlled less often than those associated with moderately emetic cytotoxic drugs.
In children, domperidone has been successfully used to treat cytotoxic-induced vomiting, that associated with various underlying conditions such as gastroenteritis, gastritis and acetonaemia, and acute and persistent symptoms arising after food. There have been no reported instances of extrapyramidal side effects.
When administered concomitantly with the anti-Parkinsonian drug, bromocriptine, domperidone has suppressed peripheral dose-limiting side effects (nausea and vomiting), thus enabling patients to tolerate higher doses of bromocriptine. Gastrointestinal symptoms induced by levodopa have also been alleviated by oral domperidone. The beneficial central effects of the anti-Parkinsonian drugs were not aggravated by domperidone, and extrapyramidal side effects attributable to domperidone were not reported.
Side Effects: Domperidone has been particularly well tolerated and has seldom caused any important side effects. There have been no extrapyramidal side effects reported during controlled therapeutic trials with domperidone, although a few anecdotal reports of such effects have been published.
Dosage: In adults with chronic postprandial dyspepsia the usual adult dose is 10mg 3 or 4 times daily before meals and at night. In children 0.3 mg/kg bodyweight is recommended. In acute vomiting requiring parenteral administration the daily dose should not exceed 1 mg/kg bodyweight. When administered rectally, the adult dosage is 60mg 2 to 4 times daily. In children younger than 2 years, a 10mg suppository should be inserted 2 to 4 times daily. In older children the usual daily rectal dose is 60mg in those aged 2 to 4 years, 90mg in those 4 to 6 years and 120mg in those over 6 years.
Adult patients with acute symptoms who are able to take the drug orally should be given 20 to 40mg 3 or 4 times daily. Children should receive 0.6 mg/kg 3 to 4 times daily.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Agnoli, A.; Baldassarre, M.; Del Roscio, S.; Palesse, N. and Ruggieri, S.: Piribedil and Parkinson’s disease: Protection of peripheral side effects by domperidone; in Corsini and Gessa (Eds) Apomorphine and other Dophaminomimetics (Vol. 2) Clinical Pharmacology pp.117–122 (Raven Press, New York 1981).Google Scholar
- Bernier, J. and Huys, J.: The effect of domperidone on the symptomatic treatment of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Postgraduate Medical Journal 55(Suppl. 1): 52 (1979).Google Scholar
- Besser, G.M.; Delitala, G.; Grossman, A.; Stubbs, W.A. and Yeo, T.: Chlorpromazine, haloperidol, metoclopramide and domperidone release prolactin through dopamine antagonism at low concentrations but paradoxically inhibit prolactin release at high concentrations. British Journal of Pharmacology 71: 569 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blackwell, J.N.; Heading, R.C. and Fettes, M.R.: Effects of domperidone on lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with peptic oesophagitis. Progress with domperidone. Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series (No. 36) p.57 (1981).Google Scholar
- Bogaerts, M.; Braems, M. and Martens, C.: Domperidone in the prevention of L-dopa induced nausea. Postgraduate Medical Journal 55(Suppl. 1): 51 (1979).Google Scholar
- Bourgeois, E.; Evenepoel, L.; Janssen, J.; Reyntjens, A.; Van Ganse, W. and Van De Mierop, L.: Domperidone (parenteral and oral) in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Postgraduate Medical Journal 55(Suppl. 1): 50 (1979).Google Scholar
- Bouzo, H.: Double-blind comparison of domperidone and cimetidine in endoscopic healing of gastric ulcers (abstract). Gastroenterology 80 (No. 5, Part 2): 1115 (1981).Google Scholar
- Broekaert, A.: Effect of domperidone on gastric empyting and secretion. Abstract 69, Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Pharmacology, p.34 (Pergamon Press 1978).Google Scholar
- Calvet, M.N.: Single blind crossover comparison of the gastrokinetic effects of clebopride and domperidone in patients with retarded gastric evacuation. Current Therapeutic Research 31 (Suppl.): 69 (1982).Google Scholar
- Camanni, F.; Massara, F.; Santia, M. and Müller, E.E.: Impaired prolactive responsiveness to dopamine antagonists in acromegaly. Metabolism (In press 1982).Google Scholar
- Cavagnini, F.; Benetti, G.; Invitti, C.; Ramella, G.; Pinto, M.; Lassa, M.; Dubini, A.; Marelli, A. and Müller, E.E.: Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in man: Influence of pimozide and domperidone. Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 51: 789 (1980).Google Scholar
- Chey, W.Y.; Lee, K.Y. and Menguy, R.: Gastric dysrhythmia syndrome: Clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment. (Abstract.) Gastroenterology 80(5) p.1124 (1981).Google Scholar
- Chey, W.Y.; You, C.H. and Ange, D.A.: Open and double-blind clinical trials of domperidone in patients with unexplained nausea, vomiting, abdominal bloating and early satiety. Abstract of paper presented at a meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association at Chicago, May, 1982.Google Scholar
- Chuma, Y.: Clinical experience of domperidone on unidentified abdominal complaints. Shinryo to Shinyaku 17: 85 (1980).Google Scholar
- Cianchetti, C.; Masala, C.; Olivani, P.; Marrosu, G. and Gessa, G.L.: Sleep pattern modifications by dopamine agonists in man; in Corsini and Gessa (Eds). Apomorphine and other Dopaminomimetics Vol. 2: Clinical Pharmacology, pp. 173–181 (Raven Press, New York 1981).Google Scholar
- Clara, R.: Chronic regurgitation and vomiting treated with domperidone (R33812), a multicentre evaluation. Acta Paediatrica Belgica 32: 203 (1979).Google Scholar
- Corinaldesi, R.; Galassi, A.; Calamelli, R.; Zarabini, G.E.; Stanghellini, V. and Barbara, L.: Domperidone promotes the gastric emptying of both solid and liquid phases of a mixed meal, (unpublished data).Google Scholar
- Corsini, G.U.; Piccardi, M.P.; Bocchetta, A.; Bernardi, F. and Del Zompo, M.: Behavioural effects of apomorphine in man: Dopamine receptor implications in Corsini and Gessa (Eds) Apomorphine and other Dopaminomimetics Vol. 2: Clinical Pharmacology pp. 13–24 (Raven Press, New York 1981).Google Scholar
- Debontridder, O.: Extrapyramidal reactions due to domperidone. (Letter) Lancet 1: 802 (1980).Google Scholar
- Decraene, A.: A controlled crossover study of domperidone, metoclopramide and placebo in the treatment of haemodialysis-associated vomiting. Postgraduate Medical Journal 55(Suppl. 1): 52 (1979).Google Scholar
- De Loose, F.: Domperidone in chronic dyspepsia: A pilot open study and a multicentre general practice crossover comparison with metoclopramide and placebo. Pharmatherapeutics 2: 140 (1979).Google Scholar
- De Meester, J.: The effect of domperidone on nausea and vomiting caused by head injury and intra-cranial lesions. Postgraduate Medical Journal 55(Suppl. 1): 51 (1979).Google Scholar
- Depuydt, L.; Geens, H.; Lambrecht, A.; Sandra, M. and Schiettekatte, L.: Effect of domperidone on the gastric tolerance and the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in osteoarthritis. Postgraduate Medical Journal 55(Suppl. 1): 52 (1979).Google Scholar
- Dhondt, F.; Traen, S.; Van Eygen, M.; Baran, D.; Willaert, H.; Delobel, L. and Van Oproy, F.: Domperidone (R33812) suppositories: An effective antiemetic agent in diverse pediatric conditions. A multicentre trial. Current Therapeutic Research 24: 912 (1978).Google Scholar
- D’Souza, D.P.; Reyntjens, A. and Thornes, R.D.: Domperidone in the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by antineoplastic agents: A three-fold evaluation. Current Therapeutic Research 27: 384 (1980).Google Scholar
- Ennis, C.; Lee, T.-F. and Cox, B.: Relative potency of domperidone and a series of centrally active dopamine antagonists on apomorphine induced hypothermia in the mouse and the rat; in Cox et al. (Eds) Thermoregulatory Mechanism and Their Therapeutic Implications, pp.24–25 (Kargon, New York 1980).Google Scholar
- Eyre-Brook, I.A.; Linhardt, G.E. and Johnson, A.G.: Effects of domperidone on antroduodenal motor activity in man: A double-blind study with a new technique. Abstract of a paper presented at the Surgical Research Society Meeting January 8th (1982).Google Scholar
- Gomi, K.: Effect of domperidone on unidentified gastrointestinal complaints in gastric/duodenal ulcer patients. Kiso to Rinsho 14: 282 (1980).Google Scholar
- Gordon, S.J. and Joseph, R.E.: Domperidone in patients with postprandial upper gastrointestinal distress. Progress with domperidone. Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series (No. 36) p.67 (1981).Google Scholar
- Guzman, V.; Toscano, G.; Canales, E.S. and Zárate, A.: Improvement of defective lactation by using oral metoclopramide. Acta Obstetrica et Gynaecologica Scandinavica 58: 53 (1979).Google Scholar
- Haase, H.J.; Kaumeier, S.; Schwarz, H.; Gundel, A.; Linde, O.K.; Schnabele, E. and Stripf, L.: Domperidone: A preliminary evaluation of a potential antiemetic. Current Therapeutic Research 23: 702 (1978).Google Scholar
- Hanson, M. and Plichart, P.: The use of domperidone as premedication for oesophagogastroscopy. Postgraduate Medical Journal 55(Suppl. 1): 52 (1979).Google Scholar
- Harasawa, S. and Miwa, T.: Effects of domperidone on gastric emptying in man. A placebo-controlled evaluation. Naika Hokan 28(3): 67 (1981).Google Scholar
- Heykants, J.; Hendriks, R.; Meuldermans, W.; Michiels, M.; Scheygrond, H. and Reyntjens, H.: On the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in animals and man. IV. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous domperidone and its bioavailability in man following intramuscular, oral and rectal administration. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 6: 61 (1981b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heykants, J.; Knaeps, A.; Meuldermans, W. and Michiels, M.: On the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in animals and man. I. Plasma levels of domperidone in rats and dogs. Age related absorption and passage through the blood brain barrier in rats. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 6: 27 (1981a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huizing, G.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J. and Westhuis, P.: Plasma drug concentration and prolactin release after acute and sub-chronic oral administration of domperidone and metoclopramide; in Merkus (Ed.) The Serum Concentration of Drugs, pp.271–277 (Exerpta Medica, Amsterdam 1980).Google Scholar
- Jacobs, F.; Akkermans, L.M.A.; Yol, O.H. and Wittebol, P.: Effects of domperidone on gastric emptying of semi-solid and solid food. Progress with Domperidone. Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series (No. 36) pp.11–19 (1981).Google Scholar
- Jaecques, N.; Lambrecht, A.; Schiettekatte, L. and Waelkens, J.: Treatment of nausea and vomiting during migraine attacks with intravenous domperidone. Postgraduate Medical Journal 55(Suppl. 1): 51 (1979).Google Scholar
- Joss, R.; Galeazzi, R.; Goldhirsch, A.; Ryssel, H.J. and Brunner, K.: Phase-I trial of the antiemetic domperidone as a continuous infusion in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Abstract of paper presented at Congress UICC, Conference on Clinical Oncology, Lausanne, Switzerland, Oct 28–31 (1981).Google Scholar
- Kamijo, K.; Saito, A.; Suzuki, M. and Wada, T.: Effect of domperidone on prolactin secretion. Igaku No Ayumi 110: 683 (1979).Google Scholar
- Kessler, E.; Bremner, C.H. and Bremner, C.G.: The effect of intravenous domperidone on the resting lower oesophageal sphincter pressure in dogs and baboons. South African Medical Journal, Oct 679 (1979).Google Scholar
- Kubo, K.: Effect of domperidone on the gastrointestinal symptoms induced by anticancer agents. Shinryo to Shinyaku 17: 153 (1980).Google Scholar
- Laduron, P. and Leysen, J.: Domperidone, a novel gastrokinetic and anti-nauseant drug, interacts selectively with dopamine receptors. Abstract of Paper presented at the 7th International Congress of Pharmacology, Paris, 1978.Google Scholar
- Lazareno, S. and Nahorski, S.R.: A comparative study of 3H-domperidone and 3H-spiperone binding in the rat striatum. British Journal of Pharmacology 74: 231P (1981).Google Scholar
- Lienard, J.; Janssen, J.; Verhaegen, H.; Burgeois, E. and Willcox, R.: Oral domperidone (R33812) in the treatment of chronic dyspepsia: A multicentre evaluation. Current Therapeutic Research 23: 529 (1978).Google Scholar
- Lux, G.; Engel, H. and Rösch, W.: The stimulation of oesophageal motility with bromopride, domperidone and metoclopramide. Progress with Domperidone, Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series (No. 36) p.29 (1981).Google Scholar
- Madangopalan, N.; Ravi, N.; Ravi, V.V. and Raghuram, K.: Clinical evaluation of efficacy of domperidone in reflux oesophagitis and non-ulcer dyspepsia. Indian Practitioner 34(7): 481 (1981).Google Scholar
- Meuldermans, W.; Hurkmans, R.; Swysen, E.; Hendrickx, J.; Michiels, M.; Lauwens, W. and Heykants, J.: On the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in animals and man. III. Comparative study on the secretion and metabolism of domperidone in rats, dogs and man. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 6: 49 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moriga, M.: A multicentre double-blind study of domperidone and metoclopramide in the symptomatic control of dyspepsia. Progress with domperidone. Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series (No. 36) p.77 (1981).Google Scholar
- Müller, E.E.; Genazzani, A.R.; Camanni, F.; Cocchi, D.; Massara, F.; Picciolini, E.; Locatelli, V. and Molinatti, G.M.: Neuropharmacologic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of pituitary secreting adenomas. Presented at International Symposium on Pituitary Microadenomas, Milan (1978).Google Scholar
- Munehisa, T.: Effect of domperidone on liver cancer patients with gastrointestinal symptoms induced by anticancer agents. Igaku to Yakugaku 3: 87 (1980).Google Scholar
- Murakami, M.: Preventative effect of domperidone on the side effects of cancer chemotherapy such as nausea and vomiting. (Abstract.) Paper presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of Japan Society for Cancer Therapy, Tokyo (1979).Google Scholar
- Muroaka, T.; Kawakami, A.; Nomiyama, H.; Sesoko, M. and Tsuneoka, K.: LESP-increasing factors, especially those in the form of drugs. Paper presented at the 65th Congress of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology, Tokyo (1979).Google Scholar
- Nagaoka, M.: Effect of domperidone (KW5338) on gastrointestinal symptoms caused by L-dopa. Shinyaku to Rinsho 29: 2 (1980).Google Scholar
- Nagura, E.: Effect of KW5338 (domperidone) on nausea and vomiting induced by anticancer agents. Gan no Rinsho 26: 889 (1980).Google Scholar
- Nomura, K. and Iwasa, T.: Clinical investigation of domperidone on gastrointestinal tract disease. Shinryo to Shinyaku 16: 131 (1979).Google Scholar
- O’Shea, M.: A double-blind comparison of domperidone and metoclopramide in the treatment of postprandial dyspeptic symptoms. Current Therapeutic Research 28: 367 (1980).Google Scholar
- Proctor, J.D.; Fratkin, M.J.; Evans, E.F. and Wasserman, A.J.: Effect of domperidone on apomorphine retarded gastric emptying. Progress with Domperidone, Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series (No. 36) p.37 (1981).Google Scholar
- Remeysen, P.; Wouters, L. and Xhonneux, R.: Long lasting intravenous infusion of domperidone in anaesthetised dogs: Effects on ECG and blood pressure. Data on File, Janssen Pharmaceutica Research Laboratories.Google Scholar
- Saez, J.M.E. and Cirera, A.C.: Double-blind parallel comparison of the gastrokinetic effects of clebopride, domperidone and placebo in human volunteers with gastric stasis induced by glucagon. Current Therapeutic Research 31 (Suppl.): 58 (1982).Google Scholar
- Sáenz, V.; Ramos, H. and Morales, P.: Evaluación de clinica domperidona en ciertas formas de dispepsia. Investigaci ón Médica Internaci ónal 7: 318 (1980).Google Scholar
- Scanion, M.F.; Weightman, D.R.; Mora, B.; Heath, M.; Shale, D.J.; Snow, M.H. and Hall, R.: Evidence for dopaminergic control of thyrotrophin secretion in man. Lancet 2: 421 (1977).Google Scholar
- Schuurkes, J.A.J, and Van Nueten, J.M.: Is dopamine an inhibtory modulator of gastrointestinal motility? Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 16(Suppl. 67): 33 (1981a).Google Scholar
- Schuurkes, J.A.J. and Van Nueten, J.M.: Effects of dopamine and its antagonist domperidone cannot be explained by an effect of α 1-adrenergic receptors. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamic et de Therapie 250: 324 (1981b).Google Scholar
- Schuurkes, J.A.J.; Helsen, L.F.M. and Van Nueten, J.M.: Improved gastroduodenal coordination by the peripheral dopamine-antagonist domperidone; in Wienbeck (Ed.) Motility of the Digestive Tract, pp.565–572 (Raven Press, New York 1982).Google Scholar
- Sinnett, H.D. and Leathard, H.L.: Domperidone: its effect on human gastric adaptive relaxation. Progress with domperidone. Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 36, p.43 (1981).Google Scholar
- Sitsen, J.M.A. and Brouwers, J.R.B.J.: Lactation improvement by tablets? (in Dutch). Pharmaceutisch Weekblad 115: 629 (1980).Google Scholar
- Sol, P.; Pelet, B. and Guignard, J.-P.: Extrapyramidal reactions due to domperidone. (Letter.) Lancet 2: 802 (1980).Google Scholar
- Sugiura, H. and Kasugai, T.: Effect of domperidone on the side effects of anti-cancer drugs. Shinryo to Shinyaku 17: 67 (1980).Google Scholar
- Suyama, T. and Miyoshi, A.: Clinical and experimental studies on the effect of domperidone on gastric emptying rate. Japanese Archives of Internal Medicine 27(12): 367 (1980).Google Scholar
- Umeda, N. and Sakagami, R.: Clinical experience of domperidone in patients with gastrointestinal disease. Kiso to Rinsho 10: 275 (1980).Google Scholar
- Valenzuela, J.E.: Effects of domperidone on the symptoms of reflux oesophagitis. Progress with Domperidone. Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series (No. 36) p.51 (1981).Google Scholar
- Valenzuela, J.E.; Defilippi, C. and Gutierrez, F.: Effect of domperidone on patients with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux. (Abstract.) Digestive Diseases and Sciences 25(9): 716 (1980).Google Scholar
- Valenzuela, J.E. and Liu, D.P.: The effect of variations in intragastric pressure and gastric emptying of a saline meal in man. Paper presented at the 8th International Symposium on Gastrointestinal Motility, Germany (1981).Google Scholar
- Valenzuela, J.E.; Miranda, M.; Ansari, A.N. and Lim, B.R.: Delayed gastric emptying in patients with reflux esophagitis. Abstract of paper presented at meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association (May, 1981).Google Scholar
- Van Eygen, M.; Traen, S.; Van Ravensteyn, H.; Goethals, C.; Van de Mierop, L.; Milo, R. and Rutgeerts, L.: A double-blind, placebo controlled study to assess the efficacy of domperidone in the treatment of acute nausea and vomiting. Clinical Research Reviews 1: 211 (1981).Google Scholar
- Van Ganse, W.; Van Damme, L.; Van de Mierop, L.; Deruyttere, M.; Lauwers, W. and Coenegrachts, J.: Chronic dyspepsia: Double blind treatment with domperidone (R33 812) or a placebo. A multicentre therapeutic evaluation. Current Therapeutic Research 23: 695 (1978).Google Scholar
- Van Mierlo, F. and Van de Mierop, L.: Anti-emetic treatment with domperidone suppositories in geriatric patients. Postgraduate Medical Journal 55(Suppl. 1): 51 (1979).Google Scholar
- Van Nueten, J.M.: Is dopamine an inhibitory modulator of gastric motility. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. P.233 (May 1980).Google Scholar
- Van Nueten, J.M. and Janssen, P.A.: Is dopamine an endogenous inhibitor of gastric emptying; in Duthie (Ed.) Gastrointestinal Motility in Health and Disease pp. 173–180 (MTP, 1978).Google Scholar
- Van Nueten, J.M. and Janssen, P.A.J.: Effect of domperidone on gastric relaxation caused by dopamine, secretin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, substance P, and adenosine triphosphate in Christensen (Ed.) Gastrointestinal Motility, pp.225–231 (Raven Press, New York 1980).Google Scholar
- Van Nueten, J.M. and Schuurkes, J.A.J.: Animal pharmacology of domperidone, antiemetic and gastrokinetic properties. Progress with domperidone. Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 36, p.22 (1981).Google Scholar
- Wanquier, A.; Niemegeers, C.J.E. and Janssen, P.A.J.: Neuropharmacological comparison between domperidone and metoclopramide. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 31: 305 (1981a).Google Scholar
- Wanquier, A.; Van Den Broeck, W.A.E. and Niemegeers, C.J.E.: On the antagonistic effects of pimozide and domperidone on apomorphine-disturbed sleep-wakefulness in dogs; in Koella (Ed.) Sleep 1980, Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Sleep Research, Amsterdam, pp.279–282 (Karger, Basel 1981b).Google Scholar
- Weihrauch, T.R. and Ehl, W.: Effect of domperidone on the motility of antrum, pylorus and duodenum in man. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (Suppl. 67): 195 (1981).Google Scholar
- Weihrauch, T.R. and Ewe, K.: A controlled double-blind trial of the effect of domperidone on the healing of benign gastric ulceration. Progress with domperidone. Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series (No. 36) p.89 (1981).Google Scholar
- Zissis, N.P.; Zouboulis-Vafiadis, I.; Dispyraki-Seidon, K. and Daikos, G.K.: Domperidone, a peripheral domperidone blocker, in acute nausea and vomiting. Current Therapeutic Research 26: 402 (1979).Google Scholar