Clinical Pharmacokinetics

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 110–128 | Cite as

Pharmacokinetics of Rectal Drug Administration, Part II

Clinical Applications of Peripherally Acting Drugs, and Conclusions
  • Ewoud J. van Hoogdalem
  • Albertus G. de Boer
  • Douwe D. Breimer
Review Article Drug Disposition


Part I of this article, which appeared in the previous issue of the Journal, covered general considerations, the physiology of the rectum, spreading of drugs into the colon, rectal absorption, partial avoidance of first-pass elimination, rate-controlled rectal delivery of drugs, irritation of the rectal mucosa and clinical applications of rectal administration, and discussed centrally acting drugs. In Part II, this discussion is extended to drugs which act peripherally and to methods of enhancing rectal drug absorption. The overall summary appeared in Part I.


Mesalazine Rectal Administration Rectal Diazepam Isoxicam Rectal Absorption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abd Elbary A, Ibrahim SA, Elsorady H, Elmonem HA. Availability of paracetamol from different suppository bases, part 2: rectal absorption profile of paracetamol in humans. Pharmazeutische Industrie 45: 307–309, 1983Google Scholar
  2. Abdel-Gawad AGH, El-Din EEZ. In vitro release and in vivo availability of chloroquine phosphate formulated suppositories. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 15: 2681–2693, 1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Accardo S, Galletti F, Gallotti A, Samanta E. Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of isoxicam after oral and rectal administration in man. Current Therapeutic Research 33: 976–981, 1983Google Scholar
  4. Acerbi L, de la Pierre L, Perletti L, Coppi G. Bioavailability studies of erythromycin administered by rectal route in paediatric patients. Chemioterapia 2: 200–202, 1983Google Scholar
  5. Allgayer H, Kruis W, Eisenburg J, Paumgartner G. Comparative pharmacokinetics of sulphasalazine and sulphapyridine after rectal and oral administration to patients with ulcerative colitis. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26: 275–277, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aungst B, Shen DD. Gastrointestinal absorption of toxic agents. In Rozman & Hänninen (Eds) Gastrointestinal toxicology, pp. 29–56, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 1986Google Scholar
  7. Barker EM, Aitchison JM, Cridland JS, Baker LW. Rectal administration of metronidazole in severely ill patients. British Medical Journal 287: 311–313, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartle WR, Walker SE, Silverberg JDH. Rectal absorption of propylthiouracil. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 26: 285–287, 1988Google Scholar
  9. Becker P, Jamez R, Weber M. Concentrations plasmatiques de quelques anti-inflammatoires non-steroidiens, après administration rectale unique chez le volontaire sain. Acta Therapeutica 9: 333–343, 1983Google Scholar
  10. Bergström BKV, Bertilson SO, Movin G. Clinical evaluation of rectally administered ampicillin in acute otitis media. Journal of International Medical Research 16: 376–385, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Binder HJ, Sandle GI. Electrolyte absorption and secretion in the mammalian colon. In Johnson (Ed.) Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, 2nd ed., pp. 1389–1418, Raven Press, New York, 1987Google Scholar
  12. Björkman S, Gabrielsson J, Quaynor H, Corbey M. Pharmacokinetics of i.V. and rectal methohexitone in children. British Journal of Anaesthesia 59: 1541–1547, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bondesen S, Brønnum Schou J, Pedersen V, Rafiolsadat Z, Honoré Hansen S, et al. Absorption of 5-aminosalicylic acid from colon and rectum. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 269–272, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Breimer DD (Ed.) International Symposium on Rectal Diazepam for Acute Therapy, Frankfurt am Main, 1982, W. Zuckschwerdt Verlag GmbH, Munich, 1983Google Scholar
  15. Breimer DD. The OSMET-osmotic pump in pharmaceutical research. Proceedings of the Pharm Tech Conference, September 10–12, pp. 189–193, Hyatt Cherry Hill, Cherry Hill, 1985Google Scholar
  16. Breimer DD. Drug delivery system design inter-related with clinical pharmacology and drug metabolism. Yakuzaigaku 48: 75–85, 1988Google Scholar
  17. Breimer DD, de Leede LGJ, de Boer AG. Rate-controlled rectal drug delivery. In Prescott & Nimmo (Eds) Rate control in drug therapy, pp. 54–64, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1985Google Scholar
  18. Brogden RN, Sorkin EM. Mesalazine: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Drugs 38: 500–523, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bülow PM, Ibraheem JJ, Paalzow G, Tfelt-Hansen P. Comparison of pharmacodynamic effects and plasma levels of oral and rectal ergotamine. Cephalgia 6: 107–111, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Calvo MV, Lanao JM, Dominguez-Gil A. Bioavailability of rectally administered naproxen. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 38: 117–122, 1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Campieri M, Lanfranchi GA, Boschi S, Brignola C, Bazzocchi G, et al. Topical administration of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with ulcerative colitis: studies on rectal absorption and excretion. Gut 26: 400–405, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cann PA, Holdsworth CD. Systemic absorption from hydrocortisone foam enema in ulcerative colitis. Lancet 1: 922–923, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chiandussi L, Fonzo D, Franzone JS, Springolo V, Borella F, et al. Pharmacokinetics of co-tetroxazine in volunteers after rectal administration. Current Therapeutic Research 43: 503–507, 1988Google Scholar
  24. Cid E, Mella F, Lucchini L, Cárcamo M, Monasterio J. Plasma concentrations and bioavailability of propranolol by oral, rectal and intravenous administration in man. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 7: 559–566, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clausen TG, Wolff J, Hansen PB, Larsen F, Rasmussen SN, et al. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam and β-hydroxy-midazolam following rectal and intravenous administration. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 25: 457–463, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cole ML, Kunka RL. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of theophylline following enema and suppository administration in man. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 5: 229–240, 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Davis SS, Burnham WR, Wilson P, O’Brien J. Use of adjuvants for enhancement of rectal absorption of cefoxitin in humans. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 28: 211–215, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De Blaey CJ, Polderman J. Rationale in the design of rectal and vaginal delivery forms of drugs. In Ariëns (Ed.) Drug Design, Vol. 9, Academic Press, London, 1980Google Scholar
  29. De Boer AG, de Leede LGJ, Breimer DD. Drug absorption by sublingual and rectal routes. British Journal of Anaesthesia 56: 69–82, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. De Boer AG, Moolenaar F, de Leede LGJ, Breimer DD. Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 7: 285–311, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. De Boer CN, Thornton JG. Prophylactic short course rectal metronidazole for cesarean section: a double-blind controlled trial of a simple low cost regimen. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 28: 103–107, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Kroon IFI, Langendijk PNJ, de Goede PNFC. Simultaneous determination of midazolam and its three hydroxy metabolites in human plasma by electron-capture gas chromatography without derivatization. Journal of Chromatography 491: 107–116, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De Leede LGJ, de Boer AG. Rectal infusion of the model drug antipyrine with an osmotic delivery device. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 2: 131–136, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Leede LGJ, de Boer AG, Feijen CD, Breimer DD. Site specific rectal drug administration in man with an osmotic system: influence on ‘first-pass’ elimination of lidocaine. Pharmaceutical Research 129–134, 1984aGoogle Scholar
  35. De Leede LGJ, de Boer AG, Pörtzgen E, Feijen J, Breimer DD. Rate-controlled rectal drug delivery in man with a hydrogel preparation. Journal of Controlled Release 4: 17–24, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. De Leede LGJ, de Boer AG, van Velzen SL, Breimer DD. Zero-order rectal delivery of theophylline in man with an osmotic system. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics 10: 525–537, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. De Leede LGJ, Hug CC, de Lange S, de Boer AG, Breimer DD. Rectal and intravenous propranolol infusion to steady state: kinetics and β-receptor blockade. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 35: 148–155, 1984bPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Del Tacca M, Danesi R, Senesi S, Gasperini M, Mussi A, et al. Penetration of clofoctol into human lung. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 19: 679–683, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dew MJ, Cardwell M, Kidwai NS, Evans BK, Rhodes J. 5-Aminosalicylic acid in serum and urine after administration by enema to patients with colitis. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 35: 323–324, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dhillon S, Oxley J, Richens A. Bioavailability of diazepam after intravenous, oral and rectal administration in adult epileptic patients. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 13: 427–432, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dichter MA. The epilepsies and convulsive disorders. In Petersdorf et al. (Eds) Harrison’s principles of internal medicine, 10th ed., McGraw-Hill Inc., Tokyo, 1983Google Scholar
  42. Diquet B, Nguyen-Huu JJ, Goursot J. Étude chez l’opéré digestif de la pharmacocinétique du métronidazole après administration intraveineuse et après administration rectale de la forme ovule. Thérapie 39: 323–332, 1984Google Scholar
  43. Djimbo M, Moës AJ. Influence de l’interaction paracetamol-surfactifs non ioniques sur l’absorption rectale à partir de suppositoires. Journal de Pharmacie de Belgique 41: 393–401, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Eandi M, Viano I, Ricci Gamalero S. Absolute bioavailability of paracetamol after oral or rectal administration in healthy volunteers. Arzneimittel-Forschung 34: 903–907, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Eckardt VF, Kanzler G, Remmele W. Anorectal ergotism: another cause of solitary rectal ulcers. Gastroenterology 91: 1123–1127, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Eller MG, Wright C, Della-Coletta AA. Absorption kinetics of rectally and orally administered ibuprofen. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 10: 269–278, 1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ellison NM, Lewis GO. Plasma concentrations following single doses of morphine sulfate in oral solution and rectal suppository. Clinical Pharmacy 3: 614–617, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Farinotti R, Sainte-Marie D, Fichelle A, Dauphin A, Desmonts JM. Prophylaxie des infections postopératoires à germes anaérobies. Presse Médicale 13: 141–144, 1984Google Scholar
  49. Farthing MJG, Rutland MD, Clark ML. Retrograde spread of hydrocortisone containing foam given intrarectally in ulcerative colitis. British Medical Journal 822–824, 1979Google Scholar
  50. Forbes RB, Murray DJ, Dillman JB, Dull DL. Pharmacokinetics of two per cent rectal methohexitone in children. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 36: 160–164, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fredj G, Farinotti R, Hakkou F, Astier A, Dauphin A. Biodisponibilité de l’indométhacine par voie orale et par voie rectale. Journal de Pharmacie de Belgique 38: 105–108, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Frijlink HW. Biopharmaceutical aspects of cyclodextrins, Ph.D Thesis, State University of Groningen, The Netherlands, 1990Google Scholar
  53. Fujii T, Kubota A, Arai Y, Mizushima N. Rectal absorption of aminophylline suppositories prepared in hospital pharmacy: plasma and saliva levels of theophylline in humans. Japanese Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 8: 161–165, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gainant A, Sautereau D, Rigault M, Denax A, Nouaille Y, et al. Sténose rectale iatrogène par suppositoires de Véganine. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique 11: 951, 1989Google Scholar
  55. Gaudreault P, Guay J, Nicol O, Dupuis C. Pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of intrarectal solution of acetaminophen. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 35: 149–152, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Graves NM, Holmes GB, Kriel RL, Jones-Saete C, Ong B, Ehresman DJ. Relative bioavailability of rectally administered phenobarbital sodium parenteral solution. DICP: Annals of Pharmacotherapy 23: 565–568, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Graves NM, Kriel RL, Jones-Saete C, Cloyd JC. Relative bioavailability of rectally administered carbamazepine suspension in humans. Epilepsia 26: 429–433, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gregg MR, Jack DB, Kendall MJ. The pharmacokinetics of oxprenolol following oral and rectal dosing — a comparison of delivery sytems and routes of administration. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 12: 91–99, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Guelen PJM, Janssen TJ, Brueren MM, Vree TB, Lipperts GJH. The pharmacokinetic profile of naproxen suppository in man. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 26: 190–193, 1988Google Scholar
  60. Hagenlocher M, Soliva M, Wittwer F, Ziegler WH, Speiser P. Absorption rate and bioavailability of acetaminophen from hard gelatin rectal capsules. Pharmazeutische Industrie 49: 1290–1294, 1987Google Scholar
  61. Hanauer SB. 5-ASA enema therapy. Netherlands Journal of Medicine 35: S11–S20, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hanning CD, Vickers AP, Smith G, Graham NB, McNeil ME. The morphine hydrogel suppository. British Journal of Anaesthesia 61: 221–227, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hardy JG, Feely LC, Wood E, Davis SS. The application of gamma-scintigraphy for the evaluation of the relative spreading of suppository bases in rectal hard gelatin capsules. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 38: 103–108, 1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hardy JG, Lee SW, Clark AG, Reynolds JR. Enema volume and spreading. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 31: 151–155, 1986aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hardy JG, Wood E, Clark AG, Reynolds JR. Colonic motility and enema spreading. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12: 176–178, 1986bPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harnoss B-M, Borner K, Borner E, Harnoss CM, Lode H, et al. Vergleichende Pharmakokinetik von Metronidazole nach intravenöser und rektaler Applikation. Zeitschrift für Antimikrobielle und Antineoplastische Chemotherapie 3: 65–71, 1985Google Scholar
  67. Hayton WL. Rate-limiting barriers to intestinal drug absorption: a review. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics 8: 321–334, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hellstern A, Hellenbrecht D, Sailer R, Gatzen M, Manus B, et al. Absolute bioavailability of metoclopramide given orally or by enema in patients with normal liver function or with cirrhosis of the liver. Arzneimittel-Forschung 37: 733–736, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Holmes GB, Rosenberg WE, Graves NM, Remmel RP, Carlson GH, et al. Absorption of valproic acid suppositories in human volunteers. Archives of Neurology 46: 906–909, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hooker KD, DiPiro JT, Stanfield JA, DeLaurier GA, Lampert BM, Stewart JT, Knapp FF. Absorption of theophylline administered via colostomy. Clinical Pharmacy 8: 354–358, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Houin G, Barre J, Tillement JP. Absolute intramuscular, oral, and rectal bioavailability of alizapride. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 73: 1450–1453, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ibraheem JJ, Paalzow L, Tfelt-Hansen P. Low bioavailability of ergotamine tartrate after oral and rectal administration in migraine sufferers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 16: 695–699, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Issakainen J, Bourgeois BFD. Bioavailability of sodium valproate suppositories during repeated administration at steady state in epileptic children. European Journal of Pediatrics 146: 404–407, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jackson MJ. Drug transport across gastrointestinal epithelia. In Johnson (Ed.) Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, 2nd ed., pp. 1597–1621, Raven Press, New York, 1987Google Scholar
  75. Jantzen JPAH, Erdmann K, Witton PK, Klein AM. Der Einfluss der rektalen pH-Wertes auf die Resorption von Methohexital. Anaesthesist 35: 496–499, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Järnerot G. Newer 5-aminosalicylic acid based drugs in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Drugs 37: 73–86, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jay M, Beihn RM, Digenis GA, Deland FH, Caldwell L. Disposition of radiolabelled suppositories in humans. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 37: 266–268, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Johannessen SI, Henriksen O, Munthe-Kaas AW, Salvesen B. Serum concentration profile studies of tablets and suppositories of valproate and carbamazepine in healthy subjects and patients with epilepsy. In Levy et al. (Eds) Metabolism of anti-epileptic drugs, pp. 61–71, Raven Press, New York, 1984Google Scholar
  79. John VA, Monk JP, Hubbard J, Theobald W. Plasma profiles following single, oral, and rectal doses of phenylbutazone in healthy volunteers. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 4: 95–99, 1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jonkman JHG, van der Boon WJV, Schoenmaker R, Holtkamp A. Clinical pharmacokinetic comparison of two indomethacin containing suppositories with different véhicula. Arzneimittel-Forschung 34: 523–525, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Jonsson T, Christensen CB, Jordening H, Frølund C. The bioavailability of rectally administered morphine. Pharmacology and Toxicology 62: 203–205, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kahela P, Laine E, Anttila M. A comparison of the bioavailability of paracetamol from a fatty and a hydrous suppository base and the effect of storage on the absorption in man. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 13: 213–224, 1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kaji Y, Uekama K, Yoshikawa H, Takada K, Muranishi S. Selective transfer of 1-hexylcarbamoyl-5-fluorouracil into lymphatics by combination of β-cyclodextrin polymer complexation and absorption promoter in the rat. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 24: 79–89, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kanamoto I, Nakagawa T, Horikoshi I, Koizumi T. Pharmacokinetics of two rectal dosage forms of ketoprofen in patients after anal surgery. Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics 11: 141–145, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kanazawa O, Sengoku A, Kawai I. Atypical absence status occurred in a case of congenital muscular dystrophy (Fukuyama Type). A trial of therapy by rectal administration of valproate. Journal of the Japanese Epilepsy Society 3: 141–150, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kaniwa N, Ogata H, Aoyagi N, Takeda Y, Uchiyama M. Power analyses of moment analysis parameter in bioequivalence tests. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 78: 1020–1024, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kestin IG, McIlvaine WB, Lockhart CH, Kestin KJ, Jones MA. Rectal methohexital for induction of anesthesia in children with and without rectal aspiration after sleep. Anesthesia and Analgesia 67: 1102–1104, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kleinbloesem CH, van Brummelen P, Danhof M, Faber H, Urquhart J, et al. Rate of increase in the plasma concentration of nifedipine as a major determinant of its hemodynamic effects in humans. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 41: 26–30, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kleinbloesem CH, van Harten J, de Leede LGJ, van Brummelen P, Breimer DD. Nifedipine kinetics and dynamics during rectal infusion to steady state with an osmotic system. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 36: 396–401, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Klosterskov Jensen P, Abild K, Poulsen MN. Serum concentration of clonazepam after rectal administration. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 68: 417–420, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Knudsen FU. Plasma-diazepam in infants after rectal administration in solution and by suppository. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 66: 563–567, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Knudsen FU. Rectal administration of diazepam in solution in the acute treatment of convulsions in infants and children. Archives of Disease in Childhood 54: 855–857, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Knudsen FU. Successful intermittent diazepam prophylaxis in febrile convulsions: preliminary results of a prospective, controlled study. In Dam et al. (Eds) Advances in epileptology: XIIth International Symposium, pp. 165–168, Raven Press, New York, 1981Google Scholar
  94. Kraus G, Frank S, Knoll R, Prestele H. Pharmakokinetische Untersuchungen nach intravenöser, intramuskulärer und rektaler Applikation von Methohexital bei Kindern. Anaesthesist 33: 266–271, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kurosawa S, Kurosawa N, Owada E, Matsuhashi N, Ito K. Rectal administration of nifedipine: haemodynamic effects and pharmacokinetics in hypertensives. Journal of International Medical Research 15: 121–127, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kurosawa N, Owada E, Ito K, Ueda K, Takahashi A, et al. Bioavailability of nifedipine suppository in healthy subjects. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 27: 81–88, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kuzemko JA, Le Cotonnec JY, Simpson-Laing JE, Weibel MA. Rectal absorption of a theophylline solution in asthma. Practitioner 229: 187–189, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Langendijk P, van Loenen AC, Scheepstra GL, Terhoeven PA, Danhof M, et al. Effect and kinetics of midazolam after rectal administration. Symposium on Measurement and Kinetics of In Vivo Drug Effects, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990Google Scholar
  99. Lanthier P, Detry R, Debognie JC, Mahieu P, Vanheuverzwyn R. Lésions solitaires du rectum dues à des suppositoires associant acide acétylsalicylique et paracétamol. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique 11: 250–253, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lee DAH, Taylor M, James VHT, Walker C. Rectally administered prednisolone: evidence for a predominantly local action. Gut 21: 215–218, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Leuwer M, Rogowski Weber AK. Rektale Einleitung von Kindernarkosen; Thiopental, Thiobutobarbital, Hexobarbital und Methohexital im Vergleich. In Lehmann et al. (Eds) Intravenöse Narkosemittel, pp. 271–275, perimed Fachbuch-Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Erlangen, 1984Google Scholar
  102. Lie-A-Huen L, Kingma JH. Rectal absorption of flecainide acetate. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 35: 89–91, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Liu LMP, Gaudreault P, Friedman PA, Goudsouzian NG, Liu PL. Methohexital plasma concentrations in children following rectal administration. Anesthesiology 62: 567–570, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lundgren S, Ekman A, Blombäck U. Rectal administration of diazepam in solution. Swedish Dental Journal 2: 161–166, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lunell E, Andersson K-E, Borgå O, Fagerström P-O, Johannesson N, et al. Absorption of enprofylline from the gastrointestinal tract in healthy subjects. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 329–333, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lyon AJ, Mcintosh N. Rectal aminophylline in the management of apnoea of prematurity. Archives of Disease in Childhood 60: 38–41, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Maggi GC, Renzetti I. Controlled study of the bioavailability of a naproxen salt by various routes of administration in healthy volunteers. Current Therapeutic Research 43: 303–310, 1988Google Scholar
  108. Marteau P, Flourié B, Froguel E, Contou JF, Galian A, et al. Rectites secondaires à l’utilisation prolongée de suppositoires de dextropropoxyphène et de paracétamol: le risque persiste malgré le changement d’excipient. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique 14: 102–103, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Mather LE, Austin KL, Philpot CR, McDonald PJ. Absorption and bioavailability of oral erythromycin. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12: 131–140, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Matsumoto Y, Watanabe Y, Hori N, Matsumoto M, Iizuka F, et al. Therapeutic management of terminal cancer pain by morphine rectal delivery. Yakuzaigaku 50: 53–57, 1990Google Scholar
  111. Mattila MAK, Ruoppi MK, Ahlström-Bengs E, Larni HM, Pekkola PO. Diazepam in rectal solution as premedication in children, with special reference to serum concentrations. British Journal of Anaesthesia 53: 1269–1272, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. McEvoy GK (Ed.) Drug Information 88, American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Inc., Bethesda, 1988Google Scholar
  113. Meijer RTW, Oostinga J, Schwietert HR, Scholtanus J, van Schoonhoven JC. A comparison of metronidazole serum concentrations after rectal administration of defined suppositories and intravenous administration. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad 119: 351–355, 1984Google Scholar
  114. Michel P, Benoit I, Grellet J, Saux MC, Hazane C. Evaluation pharmacocinétique et clinique en pédiatrie d’un gel rectale hydrophile de sulfate d’atropine. Journal de Pharmacie Clinique 7: 4–19, 1988Google Scholar
  115. Milligan N, Dhillon S, Oxley J, Richens A. Absorption of diazepam from the rectum and its effect on interictal spikes in the EEG. Epilepsia 23: 323–331, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Milligan N, Dhillon S, Richens A, Oxley J. Rectal diazepam in the treatment of absence status: a pharmacodynamic study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 44: 914–917, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Milligan NM, Dhillon S, Griffiths A, Oxley J, Richens A. A clinical trial of single dose rectal and oral administration of diazepam for the prevention of serial seizures in adult epileptic patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 47: 235–240, 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Minagawa K, Miura H, Mizuno S, Shirai H. Pharmacokinetics of rectal diazepam in the prevention of recurrent febrile convulsions. Brain Development 8: 53–59, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Minkov E, Lambov N, Kirchev D, Bantutova I, Tencheva J. Biopharmaceutical investigation of rectal suppositories: part 2. Pharmazie 40: 257–259, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Möller H. Bioverfügbarkeit von rektalen Indometacin-Präparaten. Pharmazeutische Industrie 46: 285–291, 1984Google Scholar
  121. Møller Jensen K, Grenabo L. Bioavailability of indomethacin after intramuscular injection and rectal administration of solution and suppositories. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 57: 322–327, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Moolenaar F, Bakker S, Visser J, Huizinga T. Comparative biopharmaceutics of diazepam after single rectal, oral, intramuscular and intravenous administration in man. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 5: 127–137, 1980aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Moolenaar F, Cox HLM. Rectaal absorptieprofiel van codeïne vanuit zetpillen bereid met codeïnefosfaat en acetylsalicylzuur. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad 118: 818–821, 1983Google Scholar
  124. Moolenaar F, Fiets G, Visser J, Meijer DKF. Preliminary study on the absorption profile after rectal and oral administration of methadone in human volunteers. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad — Scientific Edition 6: 237–240, 1984aPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Moolenaar F, Grasmeijer G, Visser J, Meijer DKF. Rectal versus oral absorption of codeine phosphate in man. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 4: 195–199, 1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Moolenaar F, Greving WJ, Huizinga T. Absorption rate and bioavailability of valproic acid and its sodium salt from rectal dosage forms. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 17: 309–315, 1980bPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Moolenaar F, Insing JG, Bolhuis BG, Visser J. Absorption rate and bioavailability of promethazine from oral and rectal dosage forms. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 9: 353–359, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Moolenaar F, Kaufmann BG, Visser J, Meijer DKF. Rectal absorption of methadone from dissolution-promoting vehicles. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 33: 249–252, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Moolenaar F, Olthof L, Huizinga T. Absorption rate and bioavailability of paracetamol from rectal aqueous suspensions. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad — Scientific Edition 1: 25–30, 1979Google Scholar
  130. Moolenaar F, Pronk J, Visser J, Meijer DKF. Rectal versus oral absorption of diflunisal in man. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 19: 161–167, 1984bCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Moolenaar F, Yska JP, Visser J, Meijer DKF. Drastic improvement in the rectal absorption profile of morphine in man. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29: 119–121, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Morimoto K, Iwamoto Y, Katashima T, Takeeda T, Nakamoto Y, et al. Absorption and bioavailability of diclofenac after rectal administration of diclofenac-Na gel preparation in rat and man. Pharmaceutical Research 166–170, 1985Google Scholar
  133. Mulder CJJ, Rondas AALM, Wiltink EHH, Tytgat GNJ. Topical corticosteroids in inflammatory bowel disease. Netherlands Journal of Medicine 35: S27–S34, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Müller BW (Ed.) Suppositorien, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Stuttgart, 1986Google Scholar
  135. Müller BW, Franzky HJ, Kölln CJ, Mengel W. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Bioverfügbarkeit von Paracetamol aus Suppositorien. Arzneimittel Forschung 34: 1319–1322, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Murakami T, Yata N, Kamada A. Effect of isoxazolyl-penicillin on the rectal absorption of ampicillin in rabbits and humans. Chemical Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31: 1708–1713, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Muranishi S. Characteristics of drug absorption via the rectal route. Methods and Findings in Experimental Clinical Pharmacology 6: 763–772, 1984Google Scholar
  138. Netter FH. In Oppenheimer (Ed.) The Ciba collection of medical illustrations. Digestive system, lower digestive tract, Vol. 3, Pt 2, pp. 57–59, Ciba Pharmaceutical Co., Summit, 1973Google Scholar
  139. Neumann G, Niv Y, Bat L, Abramowich D, Shemesh E. Effectiveness and absorption of rectal hydrocortisone acetate foam in nonspecific proctocolitis. Israeli Journal of Medical Sciences 25: 189–192, 1989Google Scholar
  140. Neuvonen PJ, Tokola O. Bioavailability of rectally administered carbamazepine mixture. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24: 839–841, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Nishihata T, Kamada A, Sakai K, Yagi T, Kawamori R, et al. Effectiveness of insulin suppositories in diabetic patients. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 4: 799–801, 1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Nishihata T, Okamura Y, Inagaki H, Sudho M, Kamada A, et al. Trials of rectal insulin suppositories in healthy humans. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 34: 157–161, 1986aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Nishihata T, Sudho M, Kamada A, Keigami M, Fujimoto T, et al. Investigation of sustained-release suppository of sodium diclofenac in humans. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 33: 181–186, 1986bCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. O’Hagan DT, Palin KJ, Davis SS. Intestinal absorption of proteins and macromolecules and the immunological response. CRC Critical Reviews of Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems 4: 197–220, 1987Google Scholar
  145. Okor RS, Nwankwo MU. Chloroquine absorption in children from polyethylene glycol base suppositories. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 13: 219–223; 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Olsson GL, Bejersten A, Feychting H, Palmér L, Petterson B-M. Plasma concentrations of atropine after rectal administration. Anaesthesia 38: 1179–1182, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ontyd J, Erckenbrecht JF, Berges W. Rektumstenosen bei Langzeittherapie mit Ergotamin. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 114: 1702–1705, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Pannuti F, Vancini B, Comparsi R, Strocchi E, Camaggi CM. Rectal administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate in cancer patients: a pharmacokinetic study. Cancer Treatment Reports 70: 937–938, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Parab PV, Ritschel WA, Coyle DE, Gregg RV, Denson DD. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous, peroral and rectal administration to human subjects. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 9: 187–199, 1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Perrin VL. Clinical pharmacokinetics of ergotamine in migraine and cluster headache. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 10: 334–352, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Pozzi E, Ferrara A, Sardi A, Berti MA, Coppi G. Bioavailability studies on erythromycin administered by rectal and oral routes. Current Therapeutic Research 31: 530–535, 1982Google Scholar
  152. Quaynor H, Corbey M, Björkman S. Rectal induction of anaesthesia in children with methohexitone. British Journal of Anaesthesia 57: 573–577, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ralph ED. Clinical pharmacokinetics of metronidazole. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 8: 43–62, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ramboer C, Verhamme M. Rectale sténose door analgetische suppositoria. Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 43: 925–928, 1987Google Scholar
  155. Ravnborg M, Hasselstrøm L, Østengård D. Premedication with oral and rectal diazepam. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 30: 132–138, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Reid AS, Thomas NW, Palin KJ, Gould PL. Formulation of fenbufen suppositories, I: quantitative histological assessment of the rectal mucosa of rats following treatment with suppository bases. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 40: 181–185, 1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rey E, Nandakumaran M, Richard MO, Loose JP, d’Athis P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of flunitrazepam after single rectal administration in children. Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics 7: 206–212, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Ritschel WA, Parab PV, Denson DD, Coyle DE, Gregg RV. Absolute bioavailability of hydromorphone after peroral and rectal administration in humans: saliva/plasma ratio and clinical effects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 647–653, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Rodrigues C, Lennard-Jones JE, English J, Parsons DG. Systemic absorption from prednisolone rectal foam in ulcerative colitis. Lancet 1: 1497, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rotenberg A, Chauveinc L, Rauh P, Rozenberg H, Nemeth J, Potet F. Lésions rectales secondaires à l’abus de suppositoires de dextropropoxyphène et paracétamol. Presse Médicale 17: 1545, 1988Google Scholar
  161. Rylance GW, Poulton J, Cherry RC, Cullen RE. Plasma concentrations of clonazepam after single rectal administration. Archives of Disease in Childhood 61: 186–188, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Saint-Maurice C, Meistelman C, Rey E, Esteve C, de Lauture D, et al. The pharmacokinetics of rectal midazolam for premedication in children. Anesthesiology 65: 536–538, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sandberg-Gertzén H, Ryde M, Järnerot G. Absorption and excretion of azodisal sodium and its metabolites in man after rectal administration of a single 2g dose. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 18: 571–575, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sanders SW, Haering N, Mosberg H, Jaeger H. Pharmacokinetics of ergotamine in healthy volunteers following oral and rectal dosing. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 30: 331–334, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Scanabissi E, Dal Pozzo D, Franzoni E, Galloni C, Mengoli G, et al. Rectal administration of sodium valproate in children. Italian Journal of Neurological Sciences V: 189–193, 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Scaroni C, Mazzoni PL, D’Amico E, Benvenuti C, Hind ID. Pharmacokinetics of oral and rectal flurbiprofen in children. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 367–369, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Schwinghammer TL, Juhl RP. Comparison of the bioavailability of oral, rectal and intramuscular promethazine. Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 5: 185–194, 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Shirai H, Miura H, Sunaoshi W. A clinical study on the effectiveness of intermittent therapy with rectal diazepam suppositories for the prevention of recurrent febrile convulsions and the development of epilepsy during the study period. Brain and Development 10: 201–202, 1988Google Scholar
  169. Sjövall J, Westerlund D, Alván G, Magni L, Nord CE, et al. Rectal bioavailability of bacampicillin hydrochloride in man as determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Chemotherapy 30: 137–147, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Sugito K, Ogata H, Noguchi M, Kogure T, Takano M, et al. The spreading of radiolabelied fatty suppository bases in the human rectum. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 47: 157–162, 1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sutherland LR, Martin F, Greer S, Robinson M, Greenberger N, et al. 5-Aminosalicylic acid enema in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis, proctosigmoiditis, and proctitis. Gastroenterology 92: 1894–1898, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Swanson DR, Barclay BL, Wong PSL, Theeuwes F. Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl 6B): 3–9, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Takahashi T, Mizusawa H, Kato T, Yamaguchi T. Preoperative irradiation and 5-fluorouracil suppository for carcinoma of the rectum. American Journal of Surgery 156: 58–62, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Teunissen MWE, de Leede LGJ, Boeijinga JK, Breimer DD. Correlation between antipyrine metabolite formation and theophylline metabolism in humans after simultaneous single-dose administration and at steady state. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 233: 770–775, 1985aPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Teunissen MWE, Kleinbloesem CH, de Leede LGJ, Breimer DD. Influence of cimetidine on steady state concentration and metabolite formation from antipyrine infused with a rectal osmotic mini pump. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 28: 681–684, 1985bPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Theeuwes F. Rate controlled delivery by the oral and rectal route. In Breimer & Speiser (Eds) Topics in pharmaceutical sciences 1985, pp. 119–132, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 1985Google Scholar
  177. Theeuwes F. Triggered, pulsed and programmed drug delivery. In Prescott & Nimmo (Eds) Novel drug delivery and its therapeutic application, pp. 323–340, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., New York, 1989Google Scholar
  178. Thompson JF, Pike JM, Chumas PD, Rundle JSH. Rectal diclofenac compared with pethidine injection in acute renal colic. British Medical Journal 229: 1140–1141, 1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Tiel-Van Buul MMC, Mulder CJJ, van Royen EA, Wiltink EHH, Tytgat GNJ. Retrograde spread of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid)-containing enema in patients with ulcerative colitis. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 20: 247–251, 1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Tjandramaga TB, Verbesselt R, van Hecken A, de Schepper PJ. Comparative systemic bioavailability of rectal and oral preparations of microcrystalline theophylline. Current Medical Research and Opinion 6 (Suppl. 6): 142–150, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Tukker JJ, Blankenstein MA, Nortier JWR. Comparison of bioavailability in man of tamoxifen after oral and rectal administration. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 38: 888–892, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Van Buul MMC, Mulder CJJ, Wiltink EHH, van Royen EA, Tytgat GNJ. Retrograde spread of therapeutic enemas in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Hepato-Gastroenterology 36: 199–201, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Van der Meer YG, Benedek-Jaszmann LJ, van Loenen AC. Effect of high-dose progesterone on the pre-menstrual syndrome: a double-blind cross-over trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2: 220–222, 1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Van der Meer YG, van Loenen AC, Loendersloot EW, Jaszmann LJB. Plasma progesterone levels after using high dose suppositories: a preliminary report. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad — Scientific Edition 4: 135–136, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Van Hoogdalem EJ, de Boer AG, Breimer DD. Intestinal drug absorption enhancement: an overview. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 44: 407–443, 1989aPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Van Hoogdalem EJ, Heijligers-Feijen CD, de Boer AG, Verhoef JC, Breimer DD. Rectal absorption enhancement of des-enkephalin-γ-endorphin (DEγE) by medium-chain glycerides and EDTA in conscious rats. Pharmaceutical Research 6: 91–95, 1989bPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Van Hoogdalem EJ, Vermeij-Keers C, de Boer AG, Breimer DD. Topical effects of absorption enhancing agents on the rectal mucosa of rats in vivo. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 79: 866–870, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Van Hoogdalem EJ, Wackwitz ATE, de Boer AG, Cohen AF, Breimer DD. Rate-controlled rectal absorption enhancement of cefoxitin by co-administration of sodium salicylate or sodium octanoate in healthy volunteers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27: 75–81, 1989cPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Vetrovec GW, Parker VE, Cole S, Procacci PM, Tabatznik B, et al. Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system in stable angina pectoris. American Journal of Medicine 83 (Suppl. 6B): 24–29, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Vitti RA, Meyers F, Knight LC, Siegel JA, Malmud LS, et al. Quantitative distribution of radiolabeled 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with left-sided ulcerative colitis. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 34: 1792–1797, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Vromans H, Moolenaar F, Visser J, Meijer DKF. Rectal absorption of metronidazole from polyethylene glycol suppositories. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad — Scientific Edition 6: 18–20, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Walker R, Newman P, Candlish P, Hiller C, Seviour J. Absorption of diazepam in man following rectal administration of a suppository, solution and emulsion. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 34 (Suppl.): 33P, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Walter RM, Bartle WR. Rectal administration of propylthiouracil in the treatment of Graves’ disease. American Journal of Medicine 88: 69–70, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Walter-Sack I, Luckow V, Guserle R, Weber E. Untersuchungen der relativen Bioverfügbarkeit von Paracetamol nach Gabe von festen und flüssigen oralen Zubereitungen sowie rektalen Applikationsformen. Arzneimittel Forschung 39: 719–724, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Westerling D, Andersson K-E. Rectal administration of morphine hydrogel: absorption and bioavailability in women. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 28: 540–543, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Wood E, Wilson CG, Hardy JG. The spreading of foam and solution enemas. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 25: 191–197, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Yoshikawa H, Muranishi S, Kato C, Sezaki H. Bifunctional delivery system for selective transfer of bleomycin into lymphatics via enteral route. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 8: 291–302, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Yoshikawa H, Satoh Y, Naruse N, Takada K, Muranishi S. Comparison of disappearance from blood and lymphatic delivery of human fibroblast interferon in rat by different administration routes. Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics 8: 206–210, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ewoud J. van Hoogdalem
    • 1
    • 2
  • Albertus G. de Boer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Douwe D. Breimer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Brocades Pharma B.V.DelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Center for Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Sylvius LaboratoriesUniversity of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations