Drug Safety

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 27–46

Drug-Induced Musculoskeletal Disorders

Review Article

Abstract

Drug-induced musculoskeletal disorders represent a broad clinical spectrum, from asymptomatic biological abnormalities to severe and even life-threatening diseases. Since an increasing number of drugs have been implicated in inducing rheumatic symptoms and/or syndromes, this review is not meant to be exhaustive, bearing in mind that the development of any musculoskeletal disorder should be considered as possibly related to a medication.

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the more frequent drug-induced musculoskeletal disorders. These include: (i) arthralgias and arthropathies, including chondropathies and inflammatory arthritis; (ii) connective tissue diseases, especially lupus-like syndromes; (iii) periarticular disorders, including tendinopathies, enthesopathies and frozen shoulder; (iii) bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia and osteonecrosis; and (iv) myopathies. Although virtually all drug classes may induce musculoskeletal disorders, a significant part of them are related to corticosteroids, vaccines, antibacterials and lipid-lowering agents.

Knowledge of drug-induced musculoskeletal disorders avoids carrying out unnecessary investigations, and allows optimal management of the patients, i.e. early discontinuation of the offending agent, adequate treatment monitoring and/or intervention with appropriate preventive actions.

References

  1. 1.
    Bannwarth B. Drug-induced rheumatic disorders. Rev Rhum Engl Ed 1996; 63: 639–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cohen MG, Prowse MV. Drug-induced rheumatic syndromes. Diagnosis, clinical features and management. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp 1989; 4: 199–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vergne P, Bertin P, Bonnet C, et al. Drug-induced rheumatic disorders: incidence, prevention and management. Drug Saf 2000 Oct; 23(4): 279–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bannwarth B. Drug-induced myopathies. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2002; 1: 65–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stahlmann R, Förster C, Van Sickle D. Quinolones in children. Are concerns over arthropathy justified? Drug Saf 1993; 9: 397–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hampel B, Hullmann R, Schmidt H. Ciprofloxacin in pediatrics: worldwide clinical experience based on compassionate use. Safety report. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997 Jan; 16(1): 127–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Camp KA, Miyagi SL, Schroeder DJ. Potential quinolone-induced cartilage toxicity in children. Ann Pharmacother 1994; 28: 336–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Doherty M, Jones A. Indomethacin hastens large joint osteoarthritis in humans. How strong is the evidence? J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 2013–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reijman M, Bierma-Zeinstra SMA, Pols HAP, et al. Is there an association between the use of different types of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and radiologic progression of osteoarthritis? The Rotterdam study. Arthritis Rheum 2005 Oct; 52(10): 3137–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hunter JA, Blyth TH. A risk-benefit assessment of intra-articular corticosteroids in rheumatic disorders. Drug Saf 1999 Nov; 21(5): 353–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roberts WN, Babcock EA, Breitbach SA, et al. Corticosteroid injection in rheumatoid arthritis does not increase rate of total joint arthroplasty. J Rheumatol 1999; 23: 1001–4Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Raynaud JP, Buckland-Wright C, Ward R, et al. Safety and efficacy of long-term intra-articular steroid injections in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2003 Feb; 48(2): 370–7Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mikuls TR, Farrar JT, Bilker WB, et al. Gout epidemiology: results from the UK general practice database, 1990-1999. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 267–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Terkeltaub RA. Gout. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 1647–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schlesinger N. Management of acute and chronic gouty arthritis. Present state-of-the art. Drugs 2004; 64: 2399–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borstad GC, Bryant LR, Abel MP, et al. Colchicine for prophylaxis of acute flares when initiating allopurinol for chronic gouty arthritis. J Rheumatol 2004 Dec; 31(12): 2429–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gerster JC, Dudler M, Halkic N, et al. Gout in liver transplant patients receiving tacrolimus. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 894–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abbott KC, Kimmel PL, Dharnidharka V, et al. New-onset gout after kidney transplantation: incidence, risk factors and implications. Transplantation 2005; 80: 1383–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mazzali M. Uric acid and transplantations. Semin Nephrol 2005 Jan; 25(1): 50–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meier CR, Jick H. Omeprazole, other anticulcer drugs and newly diagnosed gout. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44: 175–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Young-Min SA, Herbert L, Dick M, et al. Weekly alendronate-induced acute pseudogout. Rheumatology 2005; 44: 131–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arrich J, Piribauer F, Mad P, et al. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ 2005; 172: 1039–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Adams ME, Lussier AJ, Peyron JG. A risk-benefit assessment of injections of hyaluronan and its derivatives in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Drug Saf 2000 Aug; 23(2): 115–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pullman-Mooar S, Mooar P, Sieck M, et al. Are there distinctive inflammatory flares after hylan G-F 20 intraarticular injections? J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 2611–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brandt KD, Smith GN, Simon LS. Intraarticular injection of hyaluronan as treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2000 Jun; 43(6): 1132–203Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leopold SS, Warme WJ, Pettis PD, et al. Increased frequency of acute local reaction to intra-articular Hylan GF-20 (Synvisc) in patients receiving more than one course of treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002 Sept; 84A(9): 1619–23Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Harrison BJ, Thomson W, Pepper L, et al. Patients who develop inflammatory polyarthitis (IP) after immunization are clinically indistinguishable from other patients with IP. Br J Rheumatol 1997; 36: 366–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Symmons DPM, Chakravarty K. Can immunisation trigger rheumatoid arthritis? Ann Rheum Dis 1993; 5: 843–4Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Geier DA, Geier MR. A case-control study of serious autoimmune adverse events following hepatitis B immunization. Autoimmunity 2005 Jun; 28(4): 295–301Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sibilia J, Maillefert JF. Vaccination and rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61: 575–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Geier MR, Geier DA, Zahalsky AC. A review of hepatitis B vaccination. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2003 Mar; 2(2): 113–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Elkayam O, Yaron M, Caspi D. Safety and efficacy of vaccination against hepatitis B in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61: 623–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pope JE, Stevens A, Howson W, et al. The development of rheumatoid arthritis after recombination hepatitis B vaccination. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 1687–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tingle AJ, Mitchell LA, Grace M, et al. Randomised double-blind placebo controlled study on adverse effects of rubella immunisation in seronegative women. Lancet 1997; 349: 1277–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Geier DA, Geier MR. A one year followup of chronic arthritis following rubella and hepatitis B vaccination upon analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2002; 20: 767–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ray P, Black S, Shinefield H, et al. Risk of chronic arthropathy among women after rubella vaccination. JAMA 1997; 278: 551–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tingle AJ, Allen M, Petty RE, et al. Rubella-associated arthritis. I. Comparative study of joint manifestations associated with natural rubella infection and RA 27/3 rubella immunisation. Ann Rheum Dis 1986; 45: 110–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Slater PE. Chronic arthropathy after rubella vaccination in women. False alarm? JAMA 1997; 278: 594–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Buchs N, Chevrel G, Miossec P. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin induced aseptic arthritis: an experimental model of reactive arthritis. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 1662–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Miossec P. Cytokine-induced autoimmune disorders. Drug Saf 1997 Aug; 17(2): 93–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ioannou Y, Isenberg DA. Current evidence for the induction of autoimmune rheumatic manifestations by cytokine therapy. Arthritis Rheum 2000 Jul; 43(7): 1431–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nesher G, Ruchlemer R. Alpha-interferon-induced arthritis: clinical presentation, treatment, and prevention. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1998; 27: 360–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nissen MJ, Fontanges E, Allam Y, et al. Rheumatological manifestations of hepatitis C: incidence in a rheumatology and non-rheumatology setting and the effect of methotrexate and interferon. Rheumatology 2005; 44: 1016–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tsukadaira A, Takashi S, Kubo K, et al. Repeated arthralgia associated with granulocyte colony stimulating factor administration. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61: 850–1Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    ten Holder SM, Joy MS, Falk RJ. Cutaneous and systemic manifestations of drug-induced vasculitis. Ann Pharmacother 2002; 36: 130–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cohen MG, Kevat S, Prowse MV, et al. Two distinct quinidine-induced rheumatic syndromes. Ann Intern Med 1988; 108: 369–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dakik HA, Salti I, Haidar R, et al. Ticlopidine associated with acute arthritis. BMJ 2002; 324: 27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Boulman N, Rozenbaum M, Slobodin G, et al. Acute polyarthritis associated with clopidogrel treatment. Isr Med Assoc J 2005; 7: 670–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jolliet P, Veyrac G, Bourin M. First report of mirtazapine-induced arthralgia. Eur Psychiatry 2001 Dec; 16(8): 503–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ornetti P, Disson-Dautriche A, Muller G, et al. Joint symptoms in patients on bupropion therapy. Joint Bone Spine 2004; 71: 583–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gamarra RM, McGraw SD, Drelichman VS, et al. Serum sickness-like reactions in patients receiving intravenous infliximab. J Emerg Med 2006; 30: 41–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Adami S, Zamberlan N. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates. A comparative review. Drug Saf 1996 Mar; 14(3): 158–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gerster JC, Nicole F. Acute polyarthritis related to once-weekly alendronate in a women with osteoporosis. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 829–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wysowski DK, Chang JT. Alendronate and risedronate: reports of severe bone, joint, and muscle pain. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 346–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Berkovitch M, Laxer RM, Inman R, et al. Arthropathy in thalassaemia patients receiving deferiprone. Lancet 1994; 343: 1471–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kontoghiorghes GJ, Neocleous K, Kolnagou A. Benefits and risks of deferiprone in iron overload in thalassaemia and other conditions. Drug Saf 2003; 26: 553–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Price EJ, Venables PJW. Drug-induced lupus. Drug Saf 1995; 12: 283–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sarzi-Puttini P, Atzeni F, Capsoni F, et al. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus. Autoimmunity 2005 Nov; 38(7): 507–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brogan BL, Olsen NJ. Drug-induced rheumatic syndromes. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2003; 15: 76–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Khanna D, McMahon M, Furst DE. Safety of tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists. Drug Saf 2004; 27: 307–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Day R. Adverse reactions to TNF-α inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 2002; 359: 540–1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hyrich KL, Silman AJ, Watson KD, et al. Anti-tumour necrosis factor α therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: an update on safety. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 1538–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    De Bandt M, Sibilia J, Le Löet X, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus induced by anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha therapy: a French national survey. Arthritis Res Ther 2005; 7: R545–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Haustein UF, Haupt B. Drug-induced scleroderma and sclerodermiform conditions. Clin Dermatol 1998; 16: 353–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Khaliq Y, Zhanel GG. Fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy: a critical review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 1404–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Van der Linden PD, Sturkenboom MCJM, Herings RMC, et al. Fluoroquinolone and risk of Achilles tendon disorders: case-control study. BMJ 2002; 324: 1306–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Van der Linden PD, Sturkenboom MCJM, Herings RMC, et al. Increased risk of Achilles tendon rupture with quinolone antibacterial use, especially in elderly patients taking oral corticosteroids. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 1801–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Leone R, Venegoni M, Motola D, et al. Adverse drug reactions related to the use of fluoroquinolone antimicrobials: an analysis of spontaneous reports and fluoroquinolone consumption data from three Italian regions. Drug Saf 2003; 26: 109–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sendzik J, Shakibaei M, Schafer-Korting M, et al. Fluoroquinolones cause changes in extracellular matrix, signalling proteins, metalloproteinases and capsase-3 in cultured human tendon cells. Toxicology 2005; 212: 24–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Blanco I, Krähenbühl S, Schlienger RG. Corticosteroid-associated tendinopathies. An analysis of the published literature and spontaneous pharmacovigilance data. Drug Saf 2005; 28: 633–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chazerain P, Hayem G, Hamza S, et al. Four cases of tendinopathy in patients on statin therapy. Joint Bone Spine 2001; 68: 430–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hernandez Rodriguez I, Allegue F. Achilles and suprapatellar tendinitis due to isotretinoin. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 2009–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nesher G, Zuckner J. Rheumatologic complications of vitamin A and retinoids. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1995 Feb; 24(4): 291–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Vincent V, Zabraniecki L, Loustau O, et al. Acitretin-induced enthesitis in a patient with psoriatic arthritis. Joint Bone Spine 2005; 72: 326–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gerster JC, Fallet GH. Periarticular hand hydroxyapatite deposition after corticosteroid. J Rheumatol 1987; 14: 1156–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Khot A, Bowditch M, Powell J, et al. The use of intradiscal steroid therapy for lumbar spinal discogenic pain. A randomized controlled trial. Spine 2004; 29: 833–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Dias R, Cutts S, Massoud S. Frozen shoulder. BMJ 2005; 331: 1453–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Muller LP, Muller LA, Happ J, et al. Frozen shoulder: a sympathetic dystrophy? Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2000; 120: 84–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Florence E, Schrooten W, Verdonck K, et al. Rheumatological complications associated with the use of indinavir and other protease inhibitors. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61: 82–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Friess S, Lecocq J, Isner ME, et al. Frozen shoulder and fluoroquinolones. Two case reports. Joint Bone Spine 2000; 67: 245–9Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Falasca GF, Toly TM, Teginato AJ, et al. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy associated with antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 1994; 35: 394–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Villaverde V, Cantalejo M, Balsa A, et al. Leg bone pain syndrome in a kidney transplant patient with tacrolimus (FK506). Ann Rheum Dis 1999; 58: 653–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Adachi JD, Papaioannou A. Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Detection and management. Drug Saf 2001; 24: 607–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Patschan D, Loddenkemper K, Buttgereit F. Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Bone 2001; 29: 498–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Naganathan V, Jones G, Nash P, et al. Vertebral fracture risk with long-term corticosteroid therapy. Prevalence and relation to age, bone density, and corticosteroid use. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 2917–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Van Staa TP, Laan RF, Barton IP, et al. Bone density threshold and other predictors of vertebral fracture in patients receiving oral glucocorticoid therapy. Arthritis Rheum 2003 Nov; 48(11): 3224–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, et al. A meta-analysis of prior corticosteroid use and fracture risk. J Bone Miner Res 2004; 19: 893–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Baltzan MA, Suissa S, Bauer DC, et al. Hip fractures attributable to corticosteroid use. Lancet 1999; 353: 1327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Verstergaard P, Olsen ML, Johnsen SP, et al. Corticosteroid use and risk of hip fracture: a population-based case-control study in Denmark. J Intern Med 2003; 254: 486–93Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Van Staa TP, Leufkens HGM, Abenhaim L, et al. Oral corticosteroids and fracture risk: relationship to daily and cumulative doses. Rheumatology 2000; 39: 1383–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sharma PK, Malhotia S, Pandhi P, et al. Effect of inhaled steroids on bone mineral density: a meta-analysis. J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43: 193–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lau E, Mamdani M, Tu K. Inhaled or systemic corticosteroids and the risk of hospitalization for hip fracture among elderly women. Am J Med 2003; 114: 142–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sambrook PN. How to prevent steroid induced osteoporosis. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 176–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Adler RA, Hochberg MC. Suggested guidelines for evaluation and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis for the department of Veterans Affairs. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 2619–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Summey BT, Yosipovitch G. Prevention of osteoporosis associated with chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Arch Dermatol 2006; 142: 82–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hawkins D, Evans J. Minimising the risk of heparin-induced osteoporosis during pregnancy. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2005; 4: 583–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jones G, Sambrook PN. Drug-induced disorders of bone metabolism. Drug Saf 1994; 10: 480–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gage BF, Birman-Deych E, Radford MJ, et al. Risk of osteoporotic fracture in elderly patients taking warfarin: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation 2. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 241–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jamal SA, Browner WS, Bauer DC, et al. Warfarin use and risk for osteoporosis in elderly women. Ann Intern Med 1998; 128: 829–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wawrzynska L, Tomkowoki WZ, Przedlacki J, et al. Changes in bone density during long-term administration of low-molecular-weight heparins or acenocoumarol for secondary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb 2003; 33: 64–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Holmes-Walker DJ, Woo H, Gurney H, et al. Maintaining bone health in patients with prostate cancer. Med J Aust 2006; 184: 176–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dowsett M, Folkert E, Doody D, et al. The biology of steroid hormones and endocrine treatment of breast cancer. Breast 2005; 14: 452–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Howell A, Cuzick J, Baum M, et al. Results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial after completion of 5 years adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Lancet 2005; 365: 60–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wermers RA, Hurley DL, Kearns AE. Osteoporosis associated with megestrol acetate. Mayo Clin Proc 2004; 79: 1557–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mazzantini M, Di Munno O. Methotrexate and bone mass. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2000; 18Suppl. 21: S87–92Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rozin AP. Is methotrexate osteopathy a form of bone idiosyncrasy? [letter]. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cummings RG. Epidemiology of medication-related falls and fractures in the elderly. Drugs Aging 1998; 12: 43–53Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kinjo M, Setoguchi S, Schneeweiss S, et al. Bone mineral density in subjects using central nervous system active medication. Am J Med 2005; 118: 1414.e7–1414.e12Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bannwarth B. Risk-benefit assessment of opioids in chronic noncancer pain. Drug Saf 1999 Oct; 21(4): 283–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Grimley Evans J. Drugs and falls in later life. Lancet 2003; 361: 448Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lawlor DA, Patel R, Ebrahim S. Association between falls in elderly women and chronic diseases and drug use: cross sectional study. BMJ 2003; 327: 712–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    O’Keane V, Meaney AM. Antipsychotic drugs: a new risk factor for osteoporosis in young women with schizophreina? J Clin Psychopharmacol 2005; 25: 26–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Howes OD, Wheeler MJ, Meaney AM, et al. Bone mineral density and its relationship to prolactin levels in patients taking antpsychotic treatment. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2005; 25: 259–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Jackson HA, Sheehan AH. Effect of vitamin A on fracture risk. Ann Pharmacother 2005 Dec; 39(12): 2086–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pack AM, Morrell MJ. Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs on bone structure. Epidemiology, mechanisms and therapeutic implications. CNS Drugs 2001; 15: 633–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Andress DL, Ozuna J, Tirschwell D, et al. Antiepileptic drug-induced bone loss in young male patients who have seizures. Arch Neurol 2002; 59: 781–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pack AM, Gidal B, Vasquez B. Bone disease associated with antiepileptic drugs. Cleve Clin J Med 2004; 71Suppl. 2: S42–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ensrud KE, Walczak TS, Blackwell T, et al. Antiepileptic drug increases rates of bone loss in older women: a prospective study. Neurology 2004; 62: 2051–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jones LC, Hungerford DS. Osteonecrosis: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2004; 16: 443–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    McKey MD, Waddel JP, Kudo PA, et al. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head in men following short-course corticosteroid therapy: a report of 15 cases. CMAJ 2001; 164: 205–6Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Oinuma K, Harada Y, Nawata Y, et al. Osteonecrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus develops very early after starting high dose corticosteroid treatment. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 1145–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Zabinski SJ, Sculo TP, Dicarlo EF, et al. Osteonecrosis in the rheumatoid femoral head. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 1674–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Marx RE. Parmidronate (Aredia) and zoledronic acid (Zometa) induced avascular necrosis of the jaws: a growing epidemic. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003; 61: 1115–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Marx RE, Sawatari Y, Fortin M, et al. Bisphophonate-induced exposed bone (osteonecrosis/osteopetrosis) of the jaws: risk factors, recognition, prevention, and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2005; 63: 1567–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Durie BGM, Katz M, Crowley J. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and bisphosphonates. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 99–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Wortmann RL. Lipid-lowering agents and myopathy. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2002; 14: 643–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Thompson PD, Clarkson P, Karas RH. Statin-associated myopathy. JAMA 2003; 289: 1681–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ballantyne CM, Corsini A, Davidson MH, et al. Risk for myopathy with statin therapy in high risk patients. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 553–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Graham DJ, Staffa JA, Shatin D, et al. Incidence of hospitalized rhabdomyolysis in patients treated with lipid lowering drugs. JAMA 2004; 292: 2585–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hansen KE, Hildenbrand JP, Ferguson EE, et al. Outcomes in 45 patients with statin associated myopathy. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 2671–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gabriel SE, Sunku J, Salvaranic C, et al. Adverse outcomes of antiinflammatory therapy among patients with polymyalgia rheumatica. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 1873–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Saag KG, Koehnke R, Caldwell JR, et al. Low dose long-term corticosteroid therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: an analysis of serious adverse events. Am J Med 1994; 96: 115–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Casado E, Gratacos J, Tolosa C, et al. Antimalarial myopathy: an underdiagnosed complication? Prospective longitudinal study of 119 patients. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 385–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Avina-Zubieta JA, Johnson ES, Suarez-Almazor ME, et al. Incidence of myopathy in patients treated with antimalarials. Report of three cases and a review of the literature. Br J Rheumatol 1995; 34: 166–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Phanish MK, Krishnamurty S, Bloodworth LLO. Colchicine-induced rhabdomyolysis. Am J Med 2003; 114: 166–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ogedegbe AE, Thomas DL, Diehl AM. Hyperlactataemia syndromes associated with HIV therapy. Lancet Infect Dis 2003; 3: 329–37PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© 2007 Adis Data Information BV 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Therapeutics, Victor Segalen University & Department of RheumatologyUniversity Hospital of BordeauxPellegrinFrance

Personalised recommendations