Drug Safety

, Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 741–754 | Cite as

Oral Contraceptives and Cancer

An Update
  • Carlo La Vecchia
  • Andrea Altieri
  • Silvia Franceschi
  • Alessandra Tavani
Review Article

Abstract

Most up-to-date information on oral contraceptives (OCs) and breast cancer risk comes from a collaborative re-analysis of individual data on 53 297 cases and 100 239 controls. It is now established that there is a moderately increased breast cancer risk among current OC users, which tends to level off in the few years after stopping use. With regard to cervical cancer, OC use has been found to be associated with increased risk in human papilloma virus—positive women. With reference to the well known protective effects of OCs against endometrial carcinogenesis, additional information has suggested a consistent protection across types of OCs used. Further data on ovarian cancer confirm that the protection of OCs is long lasting, and may well be observed 15 to 20 years after stopping use. Several studies have suggested an inverse relationship between use of OCs and risk of colorectal cancer, and in a meta-analysis of published data the pooled relative risk of colorectal cancer for OC ever-use was 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.74 to 0.97). There was no association with duration of use. The increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of hepatitis B viruses is the only established evidence of a direct association between OC use and cancer risk, which led an International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group to classify OCs as carcinogenic to humans in 1998.

References

  1. 1.
    Beral V, Hermon C, Kay C, et al. Mortality associated with oral contraceptive use: 25 year follow up of cohort of 46000 women from Royal College of General Practitioners’ oral contraception study. BMJ 1999; 318: 96–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chaouki N, Bosch FX, Munoz N, et al. The viral origin of cervical cancer in Rabat, Morocco. Int J Cancer 1998; 75: 546–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moreno V, Bosch FX, Munoz N, et al. The risk of cervical cancer in relation to hormonal contraceptives in women that are HPV-DNA carriers. Pooled analysis of the IARC multicentric case-control study [abstract 61]. Proceedings of the 18th International Papillomavirus Conference; 2000 Jul 25; Barcelona. 23–28, 129Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lacey Jr JV, Brinton LA, Abbas FM, et al. Oral contraceptives as risk factors for cervical adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999; 8: 1079–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thomas DB, Ray RM, The World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Oral contraceptives and invasive adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144: 281–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parazzini F, Chatenoud L, La Vecchia C, et al. Time since last use of oral contraceptives and risk of invasive cervical cancer. Eur J Cancer 1998; 34: 884–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fernandez E, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, et al. Oral contraceptive use and risk of colorectal cancer. Epidemiology 1998; 9: 295–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fernandez E, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, et al. Sex differences in colorectal cancer mortality in Europe, 1955-1966. Eur J Cancer Prev 2000; 9; 99–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beard CM, Hartmann LC, Atkinson EJ, et al. The epidemiology of ovarian cancer: A population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935-1991. Ann Epidemiol 2000; 10: 14–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ness RB, Grisso JA, Klapper J, et al. And the SHARE Study Group. Risk of ovarian cancer in relation to estrogen and progestin dose and use characteristics of oral contraceptives. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 233–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Greggi S, Parazzini F, Paratore MP, et al. Risk factors for ovarian cancer in central Italy. Gynecol Oncol 2000; 79: 50–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Narod DA, Risch H, Moslehi R, et al. For the Hereditary Ovarian Cancer Clinical Study Group. Oral contraceptives and the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 424–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chiaffarino F, Pelucchi C, Parazzini F, et al. Reproductive and hormonal factors and ovarian cancer. Ann Oncol 2001; 12: 337–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Weiderpass E, Adami H-O, Baron JA, et al. Use of oral contraceptives and endometrial cancer risk (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 1999; 10: 277–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McCann SE, Freudenheim JL, Marshall JR, et al. Diet in the epidemiology of endometrial cancer in Western New York (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 965–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Collaborative MILTS Project Team. Oral contraceptives and liver cancer. Contraception 1997; 56: 275–84Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    La Vecchia C, Ron E, Franceschi S, et al. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. III: oral contraceptives, menopausal replacement therapy and other female hormones. Cancer Causes Control 1999; 10: 157–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 72. Hormonal contraception and post-menopausal hormonal therapy. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1999Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    La Vecchia C, Tavani A, Franceschi S, et al. Oral contraceptives and cancer: a review of the evidence. Drug Saf 1996; 14: 260–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53297 women with breast cancer and 100239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies. Lancet 1996; 347: 1713–27Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grabrick DM, Hartmann LC, Cerhan JR, et al. Risk of breast cancer with oral contraceptive use in women with a family history of breast cancer. JAMA 2000; 284: 1791–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lipworth L, Katsouyanni K, Stuver S, et al. Oral contraceptives, menopausal estrogens, and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Greece. Int J Cancer 1995; 62: 548–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Levi F, Lucchini F, La Vecchia C. Oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone replacement treatment and breast cancer risk. Eur J Cancer Prev 1996; 5: 259–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Newcomb PA, Longnecker MP, Storer BE, et al. Recent oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1996; 7: 525–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tryggvadottir L, Tulinius H, Gudmundsdotttir GB. Oral contraceptive use at a young age and the risk of breast cancer: an Icelandic, population-based cohort study of the effect of birth year. Br J Cancer 1997; 75 139–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Magnusson CM, Persson IR, Baron JA, et al. The role of reproductive factors and use of oral contraceptives in the aetiology of breast cancer in women age 50 to 74 years. Int J Cancer 1999; 80: 231–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ursin G, Wu AH, Hoover RN, et al. Breast cancer and oral contraceptive use in Asian-American women. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150: 561–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Van Hoften C, Burger H, Peeters PHM, et al. Long-term oral contraceptive use increases breast cancer risk in women over 55 years of age: the DOM cohort. Int J Cancer 2000; 87: 591–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shapiro S, Rosenberg L, Hoffman M, et al. Risk of breast cancer in relation to the use of injectable progestogen contraceptives and combined estrogen/progestogen contraceptives. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 151: 396–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 64. Human papillomaviruses. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1995Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Walboomers JMM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol 1999; 189: 12–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Daling JR, Madeleine MM, McKnight B, et al. The relationship of human papillomavirus-related cervical tumors to cigarette smoking, oral contraceptive use, and prior herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996; 5: 541–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ngelangel C, Munoz N, Bosch FX, et al. Causes of cervical cancer in the Philippines: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 43–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chichareon S, Herrero R, Munoz N, et al. Risk factors for cervical cancer in Thailand: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 50–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Deacon JM, Evans CD, Yule R, et al. Sexual behaviour and smoking as determinants of cervical HPV infection and of CIN3 among those infected: a case-control study nested within the Manchester cohort. Br J Cancer 2000; 88: 1565–72Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vizcaino AP, Moreno V, Bosch FX, et al. International trends in the incidence of cervical cancer: I, adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous cell carcinomas. Int J Cancer 1998; 75: 536–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    La Vecchia C. The long-term impact of oral contraceptives on ovarian and endometrial carcinogenesis. Eur J Cancer Prev 2000; 9: 137–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    CASH (Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute ofChild Health and Human Development). Combination oral contraceptive use and the risk of endometrial cancer. JAMA 1987; 257: 796–800Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Voigt LF, Deng Q, Weiss NS. Recency, duration and progestin content or oral contraceptives in relation to the incidence of endometrial cancer (Washington, USA). Cancer Causes Control 1994; 5: 227–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Levi F, La Vecchia C, Gulie C, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1991; 2: 99–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Parslov M, Lidegaard 0, Klintorp S, et al. Risk factors among young women with endometrial cancer: a Danish case-control study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182: 23–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parazzini F, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C, et al. The epidemiology of ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 1991; 43: 9–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    La Vecchia C, Lucchini F, Negri E, et al. Trends of cancer mortality in Europe, 1955-1989. III: breast and genital sites. Eur J Cancer 1992; 28A: 927–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    La Vecchia C, Negri E, Levi F, et al. Cancer mortality in Europe: effects of age, cohort of birth and period of death. Eur J Cancer 1998; 34: 118–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    La Vecchia C, Franceschi S. Oral contraceptives and ovarian cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 1999; 8: 297–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Levi F, Gutzwiller F, Decarli A, et al. Oral contraceptive use and breast and ovarian cancer mortality in Switzerland. J Epidemiol Comm Health 1987; 41: 267–8Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Villard-Mackintosh L, Vessey MP, Jones L. The effects of oral contraceptives and parity on ovarian cancer trends in women under 55 years of age. Br J Obstet Gynecol 1989; 96: 783–8Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Adami H-O, Hsieh C-C, Lambe M, et al. Parity, age at first childbirth, and risk of ovarian cancer. Lancet 1994; 334: 1250–4Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    dos Santos Silva I, Swerdlow AJ. Recent trends in incidence of and mortality from breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers in England and Wales and their relation to changing fertility and oral contraceptive use. Br J Cancer 1995; 72: 485–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Koper NP, Kiemeney LALM, Massuger LFAG, et al. Ovarian cancer incidence (1989-1991) and mortality (1954-1993) in the Netherlands. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 88: 387–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Levi F, Lucchini F, Negri E, et al. Cancer mortality in Europe, 1990-94, and an overview of trends from 1955 to 1994. Eur J Cancer 1999; 35: 1477–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tarone RE, Chu KC. Age-period-cohort analyses of breast-, ovarian, endometrial- and cervical-cancer mortality rates for Caucasian women in the USA. J Epidemiol Biostat 2000; 5: 221–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ramcharan S, Pellegrin FA, Ray R, et al. The Walnut Creek Contraceptive Study: a prospective study of the side effects of oral contraceptives. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Health, 1981: NIH publication no. 81–564, Vol. IIIGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vessey MP, Painter R. Endometrial and ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: findings in a large cohort study. Br J Cancer 1995; 71: 1340–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, et al. A prospective study of reproductive factors and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer 1995; 76: 284–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Beral V, Hannaford P, Kay C. Oral contraceptive use and malignancies of the genital tract: results of the Royal College of General Practitioners’ Oral Contraception Study. Lancet 1988; I: 1331–5Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Willett WC, Bain C, Hennekens CH, et al. Oral contraceptives and risk of ovarian cancer. Cancer 1981; 48: 1684–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hildreth NG, Kelsey JL, LiVolsi VA, et al. An epidemiologic study of epithelial carcinoma of the ovary. Am J Epidemiol 1981; 114: 398–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Weiss NS, Lyon JL, Liff JM, et al. Incidence of ovarian cancer in relation to the use of oral contraceptives. Int J Cancer 1981; 28: 669–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cramer DW, Hutchison GB, Welch WR, et al. Factors affecting the association of oral contraceptives and ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 1047–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Zauber AG, et al. A case-control study of oral contraceptive use and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139: 654–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Risch HA, Weiss NS, Lyon JL, et al. Events of reproductive life and the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1983; 117: 128–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tzonou A, Day NE, Trichopoulos D, et al. The epidemiology of ovarian cancer in Greece: a case-control study. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1984; 20: 1045–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Harlow BL, Weiss NS, Roth GJ, et al. Case-control study of borderline ovarian tumors: reproductive history and exposure to exogenous female hormones. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 5849–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wu ML, Whittemore AS, Paffenbarger Jr RS, et al. Personal and environmental characteristics related to epithelial ovarian cancer. I: reproductive and menstrual events and oral contraceptive use. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128: 1216–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shu XO, Brinton LA, Gao YT, et al. Population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in Shangai. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 3670–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Epithelial ovarian cancer and combined oral contraceptives. Int J Epidemiol 1989; 18: 538–45Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hartge P, Schiffman MH, Hoover R, et al. A case-control study of epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989; 161: 10–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Booth M, Beral V, Smith P. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study. Br J Cancer 1989; 60: 592–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Parazzini F, La Vecchia C, Negri E, et al. Oral contraceptives use and the risk of ovarian cancer: an Italian case-control study. Eur J Cancer 1991; 27: 594–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Parazzini F, Restelli C, La Vecchia C, et al. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian tumours of borderline malignancy. Int J Epidemiol 1991; 20: 871–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Polychronopoulou A, Tzonou A, Hsieh C, et al. Reproductive variables, tobacco, ethanol, coffee and somatometry as risk factors for ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer 1993; 55: 402–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rosenberg L, Shapiro S, Slone D, et al. Epithelial ovarian cancer and combination oral contraceptives. JAMA 1982; 247: 3210–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Risch HA, Marrett LD, Howe GR. Parity, contraception, infertility, and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 140: 585–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Risch HA, Marrett LD, Jain M, et al. Differences in risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer by histologic type. Results of a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144: 363–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Purdie D, Green A, Bain C, et al. For the Survey of Women’s Health Group. Reproductive and other factors and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: an Australian case-control study. Int J Cancer 1995; 62: 678–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Franceschi S, Parazzini F, Negri E, et al. Pooled analysis of 3 European case-control studies of epithelial ovarian cancer. III: oral contraceptive use. Int J Cancer 1991; 49: 61–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Whittemore AS, Harris R, Intyre J, the Collaborative Ovarian Cancer Group. Characteristics relating to ovarian cancer risk: collaborative analysis of 12 US case-control studies. II: invasive epithelial ovarian cancers in white women. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 1184–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    John EM, Whittemore AS, Harris R, et al., and the Collaborative Ovarian Cancer Group Characteristics relating to ovarian cancer risk: collaborative analysis of seven U.S. case-control studies. Epithelial ovarian cancer in black women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85: 142–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Harris R, Whittemore AS, Intyre J, and the Collaborative Ovarian Cancer Group. (1992) Characteristics relating to ovarian cancer risk: collaborative analysis of 12US case-control studies. III: epithelial tumors of low malignant potential in white women. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 1204–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fioretti F, La Vecchia C, Tavani A, et al. Package inserts of oral contraceptives in Italy. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1996; 5: 315–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Horn-Ross PL, Whittemore AS, Harris R, et al., and the Collaborative Ovarian Cancer Group. Characteristics relating to ovarian cancer risk: collaborative Analysis of 12 U.S. case-control Studies. VI: nonepithelial cancers among adults. Epidemiology 1992; 3: 490–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Parazzini F, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, et al. Risk factors for endometrioid, mucinous and serous benign ovarian cysts. Int J Cancer 1989; 18: 108–12Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Booth M, Beral V, Maconochie N, et al. Acase-control study of benign ovarian tumours. J Epidemiol Community Health 1992; 46: 528–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Westhoff C, Pike M, Vessey M. Benign ovarian teratomas: a population-based case-control study. Br J Cancer 1988; 58: 93–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Parazzini F, La Vecchia C, Negri E, et al. Risk factors for benign ovarian teratomas. Br J Cancer 1995; 71: 644–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rosenblatt KA, Thomas DB, Noonan EA, the WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Highdose and low-dose combined oral contraceptives: protection against epithelial ovarian cancer and the length of the protective effect. Eur J Cancer 1992; 28A: 1872–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jernstrom H, Chu W, Vesprini D, et al. Genetic factors related to racial variation in plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1: implications for premenopausal breast cancer risk. Mol Genet Metab 2001; 72: 144–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Simon WE, Albrecht M, Hänsel M, et al. Cell lines derived from human ovarian carcinomas: growth stimulation by gonadotropic and steroid hormones. J Natl Cancer Inst 1983; 70: 839–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Negri E, Tzonou A, Beral V, et al. Hormonal therapy for menopause and ovarian cancer in a collaborative re-analysis of European studies. Int J Cancer 1999; 80: 848–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gross TP, Schlesselman JJ. The estimated effect of oral contraceptive use on the cumulative risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 1994; 83: 419–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fraumeni JF, Lloyd JW, Smith EM, et al. Cancer mortality among nuns: role of marital status in etiology of neoplastic disease in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1969; 42: 455–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Herbert-Croteau N. A meta-analysis of hormone replacement therapy and colon cancer in women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7: 653–9Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fernandez E, La Vecchia C, Balducci A, et al. Oral contraceptives and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer; 2001; 84: 722–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Weiss NS, Daling JR, Chow WH. Incidence of cancer of the large bowel in women in relation to reproductive and hormonal factors. J Natl Cancer Inst 1981; 67: 57–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Potter JD, McMichael AJ. Large bowel cancer in women in relation to reproductive and hormonal factors: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1983; 71: 703–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Furner SE, Davis FG, Nelson RL, et al. A case-control study of large bowel cancer and hormone exposure in women. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 4936–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kune GA, Kune S, Watson LF. Oral contraceptive use does not protect against large bowel cancer. Contraception 1990; 41: 19–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wu-Williams AH, Lee M, Wittemore AS, et al. Reproductive factors and colorectal cancer risk among Chinese females. Cancer Res 1991; 51: 2307–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Fernandez E, La Vecchia C, D’Avanzo B, et al. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 1996; 73: 1431–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Talamini R, Franceschi S, Dal Maso L, et al. The influence of reproductive and hormonal factors on the risk of colon and rectal cancer in women. Eur J Cancer 1998; 34: 1070–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Martinez ME, Grodstein F, Giovannucci E, et al. A prospective study of reproductive factors, oral contraceptive use, and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6: 1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Troisi R, Schairer C, Chow W-H, et al. Reproductive factors, oral contraceptive use, a risk of colorectal cancer. Epidemiology 1997; 8: 75–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    van Wayenburg CAM, van der Schouw YT, van Noord PAH. Age at menopause, body mass index, and the risk of colorectal cancer mortality in the Dutch Diagnostisch Onderzoeck Mammacarcinoom (DOM) cohort. Epidemiology 2000; 11: 304–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    McMichael AJ, Potter J. Host factors in carcinogenesis: certain bile-acid metabolis profiles that selectively increase the risk of proximal colon cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1985; 75: 185–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lointier P, Wildrick DM, Boman BM. The effects of steroid hormones on a human colon cancer cell line in vitro. Anticancer Res 1992; 12: 1327–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Thomas ML, Xu X, Norfleet AM, et al. The presence of functional estrogen receptors in intestinal epithelial cells. Endocrinology 1993; 132: 426–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Issa JP, Ottaviano YL, Celano P, et al. Methylation of the oestrogen receptor CpG island links ageing and neoplasia in human colon. Nat Genet 1994; 7: 536–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Campagnoli C, Biglia N, Cantamessa C, et al. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) serum level modifications during transdermal estradiol treatment in postmenopausal women: a possible bimodal effect depending on basal IGF-I values. Gynecol Endocrinol 1998; 12: 259–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    El Atiq F, Garrouste F, Remacle-Bonnet M, et al. Alterations in serum levels of insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth-factor-binding proteins in patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 1994; 57: 491–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Giovannucci E, Pollak MN, Platz EA, et al. Aprospective study of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 and binding protein-3 and risk of colorectal neoplasia in women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000; 9: 345–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Potter JD. Colorectal cancer: molecules and populations. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 916–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    La Vecchia C. Oral contraceptives, cancer and vascular disease. Eur J Cancer Prev. In pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International Limited 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo La Vecchia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrea Altieri
    • 1
  • Silvia Franceschi
    • 3
  • Alessandra Tavani
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ‘Mario Negri’MilanItaly
  2. 2.Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  3. 3.Field and Intervention Studies UnitInternational Agency for Research on CancerLyonFrance

Personalised recommendations