Molecular Medicine

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 988–1001 | Cite as

Simvastatin and a Plant Galactolipid Protect Animals from Septic Shock by Regulating Oxylipin Mediator Dynamics through the MAPK-cPLA2 Signaling Pathway

  • Maria Karmella Apaya
  • Chih-Yu Lin
  • Ching-Yi Chiou
  • Chung-Chih Yang
  • Chen-Yun Ting
  • Lie-Fen Shyur
Research Article


Sepsis remains a major medical issue despite decades of research. Identification of important inflammatory cascades and key molecular mediators are crucial for developing intervention and prevention strategies. In this study, we conducted a comparative oxylipin metabolomics study to gain a comprehensive picture of lipid mediator dynamics during the initial hyperinflammatory phase of sepsis, and demonstrated, in parallel, the efficacy of simvastatin and plant galactolipid, 1,2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-O-β-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (dLGG) in the homeostatic regulation of the oxylipin metabolome using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis C57BL/6J mouse model. LPS increased the systemic and organ levels of proinflammatory metabolites of linoleic acid including leukotoxin diols (9-,10-DHOME, 12-,13-DHOME) and octadecadienoic acids (9-HODE and 13-HODE) and arachidonic acid-derived prostanoid, PGE2, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (8-, 12- and 15-HETE). Treatment with either compound decreased the levels of proinflammatory metabolites and elevated proresolution lipoxin A4, 5(6)-EET, 11(12)-EET and 15-deoxy-PGJ2. dLGG and simvastatin ameliorated the effects of LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent activation of cPLA2, cyclooxygenase-2, lipoxygenase, cytochrome P450 and/or epoxide hydrolase lowered systemic TNF-α and IL-6 levels and aminotransferase activities and decreased organ-specific infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes and macrophages, and septic shock-induced multiple organ damage. Furthermore, both dLGG and simvastatin increased the survival rates in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis model. This study provides new insights into the role of oxylipins in sepsis pathogenesis and highlights the potential of simvastatin and dLGG in sepsis therapy and prevention.



We thank Bing-Ying Ho for technical assistance, Miranda Loney for English editorial assistance, and the Metabolomics Core Facility and Laboratory Animal Core Facility of the Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan. This study was supported by grant funding from the Ministry of Science and Technology (NSC 100-2321-B-400-002 and NSC-102-2325-B-001-007) and institutional grant funding from Academia Sinica, Taiwan.

Supplementary material

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Karmella Apaya
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Chih-Yu Lin
    • 2
  • Ching-Yi Chiou
    • 2
  • Chung-Chih Yang
    • 2
    • 4
  • Chen-Yun Ting
    • 2
  • Lie-Fen Shyur
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences Program, Taiwan International Graduate ProgramAcademia SinicaTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Agricultural Biotechnology Research CenterAcademia SinicaNankang, TaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Graduate Institute of BiotechnologyNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  4. 4.Program for Cancer Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and TechnologyTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  5. 5.Biotechnology CenterNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  6. 6.Graduate Institute of PharmacognosyTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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