Decreased Langerhans Cell Responses to IL-36γ: Altered Innate Immunity in Patients with Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare, chronic disease caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) types 6 and 11 that is characterized by the polarization of adaptive immune responses that support persistent HPV infection. Respiratory papillomas express elevated mRNA levels of IL-36γ, a proinflammatory cytokine in comparison to autologous clinically normal laryngeal tissues; however there is no evidence of inflammation in these lesions. Consistent with this, respiratory papillomas do not contain TH1-like CD4+ T-cells or cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells, but instead contain a predominance of TH2-like and T regulatory cells (Tregs). In addition, papillomas also are infiltrated with immature Langerhans cells (iLCs). In this study, we show that papilloma cells express IL-36γ protein, and that human keratinocytes transduced with HPV11 have reduced IL-36γ secretion. We now provide the first evidence that peripheral blood-derived iLCs respond to IL-36γ by expressing inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. When stimulated with IL-36γ, iLCs from patients with RRP had lower expression levels of the TH2-like chemokine CCL-20 as compared with controls. Patients’ iLCs also had decreased steady state levels of CCL-1, which is a proinflammatory chemokine. Moreover, CCL-1 levels in iLCs inversely correlated with the severity of RRP. The combined decrease of TH1- and a TH2-like chemokines by iLCs from patients could have consequences in the priming of IFN-γ expression by CD8+ T-cells. Taken together, our results suggest that, in RRP, there is a defect in the proinflammatory innate immune responses made by iLCs in response to IL-36γ. The consequence of this defect may lead to persistent HPV infection by failing to support an effective HPV-specific, TH1-like and/or Tc1-like adaptive response, thus resulting in the predominant TH2-like and/or Treg micromilieu present in papillomas.
The authors would like to acknowledge the helpful discussion and encouragement of Isaac Rodriguez-Chavez. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01DE017227, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R21AI105987, and by the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-LIJ Health System. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
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