Molecular Medicine

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 135–137 | Cite as

A Systematic Nomenclature for the Redox States of High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) Proteins

  • Daniel J. Antoine
  • Helena Erlandsson Harris
  • Ulf Andersson
  • Kevin J. Tracey
  • Marco E. Bianchi


High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a central mediator in inflammation and immunity. Recently, it was shown that different redox states of the three cysteines of HMGB1 endow it with mutually exclusive activities, such as inducing chemotaxis or the transcription of cytokines and chemokines, via the interaction with different receptors. The different HMGB1 redox forms can be identified by mass spectrometry in body fluids of patients and may hold promise as biomarkers. We propose here a systematic nomenclature of the different redox forms of HMGB1 and related proteins, to replace the conflicting names used so far by different laboratories.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel J. Antoine
    • 1
  • Helena Erlandsson Harris
    • 2
  • Ulf Andersson
    • 3
  • Kevin J. Tracey
    • 4
  • Marco E. Bianchi
    • 5
  1. 1.MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical PharmacologyUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Rheumatology UnitKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Department of Women’s and Children’s HealthKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Laboratory of Biomedical ScienceThe Feinstein Institute for Medical ResearchManhassetUSA
  5. 5.San Raffaele University and Scientific InstituteMilanItaly

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