Molecular Medicine

, Volume 12, Issue 11–12, pp 324–327 | Cite as

Emerging Functions of Extracellular Pyridine Nucleotides

  • Richard A Billington
  • Santina Bruzzone
  • Antonio De Flora
  • Armando A Genazzani
  • Friedrich Koch-Nolte
  • Mathias Ziegler
  • Elena Zocchi


In addition to the well-known metabolic functions of NAD and NADP, it is rapidly emerging that these 2 pyridine nucleotides and their derivatives also play important roles in cell signaling. Surprisingly, a number of NAD(P) metabolizing enzymes and NAD(P) targets have been found on the outer surface of the plasma membrane and the presence of NAD has been confirmed in extracellular fluids. These findings have opened the door to a new field of research aimed at elucidating the contribution of extracellular pyridine nucleotides in physiological signaling pathways and pathological conditions.


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Copyright information

© Feinstein Institute for Medical Research 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard A Billington
    • 1
  • Santina Bruzzone
    • 2
  • Antonio De Flora
    • 2
  • Armando A Genazzani
    • 1
  • Friedrich Koch-Nolte
    • 3
  • Mathias Ziegler
    • 4
  • Elena Zocchi
    • 2
  1. 1.DiSCAFF and the DFB CentreUniversità del Piemonte OrientaleNovaraItaly
  2. 2.DIMES, Section of Biochemistry, and Center of Excellence for Biomedical ResearchUniversity of GenovaGenovaItaly
  3. 3.Institute of Immunology, Dept. of Clinical PathologyUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany
  4. 4.Department of Molecular BiologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

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