# Model of Shell Metal Mould Heating in the Automotive Industry

## Abstract

This article focuses on heat radiation intensity optimization on the surface of a shell metal mould. Such moulds are used in the automotive industry in the artificial leather production (the artificial leather is used, e.g., on car dashboards). The mould is heated by infrared heaters. After the required temperature is attained, the inner mould surface is sprinkled with special PVC powder. The powder melts and after cooling down it forms the artificial leather. A homogeneous temperature field of the mould is a necessary prerequisite for obtaining a uniform colour shade and material structure of the artificial leather. The article includes a description of a mathematical model that allows to calculate the heat radiation intensity on the outer mould surface for each fixed positioning of the infrared heaters. Next, we use this mathematical model to optimize the locations of the heaters to provide approximately the same heat radiation intensity on the whole outer mould surface during the heating process. The heat radiation intensity optimization is a complex task, because the cost function may have many local minima. Therefore, using gradient methods to solve this problem is not suitable. A differential evolution algorithm is applied during the optimization process. Asymptotic convergence of the algorithm is shown. The article contains a practical example including graphical outputs. The calculations were performed by means of Matlab code written by the authors.

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## Author information

Authors

### Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jaroslav Mlýnek.

This work was supported by SGS project of FP, Technical University of Liberec.

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Mlýnek, J., Knobloch, R. Model of Shell Metal Mould Heating in the Automotive Industry. Appl Math 63, 111–124 (2018). https://doi.org/10.21136/AM.2018.0086-17

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