Advertisement

Minerals & Metallurgical Processing

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 148–158 | Cite as

Acid mine drainage remediation strategies: A review on migration and source controls

  • Y. LiEmail author
  • W. Li
  • Q. Xiao
  • S. Song
  • Y. Liu
  • R. Naidu
Article

Abstract

Acid mine drainage (AMD) derives from the oxidation of sulfide minerals, primarily pyrite (FeS2), and is the most severe environmental issue facing the minerals industry. The most common short-term approach to AMD treatment is migration control, such as acid neutralization and metal/metalloid and sulfate removal, through the addition of alkaline materials, including lime (Ca (OH)2), limestone (Ca CO3), gangue minerals and industrial wastes. This requires the continuous input of materials and may result in the production of a vast amount of secondary sludge requiring further treatment and disposal. Addition of chemicals is usually more important in metal/metalloid removal than in sulfate removal unless the sulfate is present in very high concentrations. A more promising long-term strategy for AMD prevention is source control through the complete removal of pyritic minerals and encapsulation of potential risk minerals by coating with impermeable surface layers. This is regarded as the most cost-effective approach, although the mechanisms underpinning this and the implementation procedures are yet to be fully elucidated. It is likely that long- and short-term practices can be combined to optimize the remediation of contaminated mining sites. Some factors such as differing geological and mineralogical characteristics and transportation costs must also be considered for the successful implementation of AMD prevention and remediation strategies. This review also considers some implications for AMD remediation, but the promising bioremediation of AMD is not discussed as it has been extensively reviewed.

Keywords

Acid mine drainage Remediation Sulfide oxidation Migration control Source control 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahmaruzzaman, M., 2011, “Industrial wastes as low-cost potential adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater laden with heavy metals,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., Vol. 166, pp. 36–59,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2011.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akcil, A., and Koldas, S., 2006, “Acid Mine Drainage (AMD): causes, treatment and case studies,” J. Clean. Prod., Vol. 14, pp. 1139–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anawar, H.M., 2015, “Sustainable rehabilitation of mining waste and acid mine drainage using geochemistry, mine type, mineralogy, texture, ore extraction and climate knowledge,” J. Environ. Manage. Vol. 158, pp. 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benatti, C.T., Tavares, C.R.G., and Lenzi, E., 2009, “Sulfate removal from waste chemicals by precipitation,” J. Environ. Manage., Vol. 90, pp. 504–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blowes, D.W., Ptacek, C.J., Jambor, J.L., and Weisener, C.G., 2003, “The geochemistry of acid mine drainage,” Turekian, H.D.H.K., ed., Treatise on Geochemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 149–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowden, L.I., Johnson, K.L., Jarvis, A.P., Robinson, H., Ghazireh, N., and Younger, P.L., 2006, “The use of basic oxygen steel furnace slag (BOS) as a high surface area media for the removal of iron from circumneutral mine waters,” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), St. Louis, MO, pp. 25–30.Google Scholar
  7. Bowell, R., 2004, “A review of sulfate removal options for mine waters,” Proceedings of Mine Water, pp. 75–88.Google Scholar
  8. Buzzi, D.C., Viegas, L.S., Rodrigues, M.A.S., Bernardes, A.M., and Tenório, J.A.S., 2013, “Water recovery from acid mine drainage by electrodialysis,” Miner. Eng., Vol. 40, pp. 82–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carranza, F., Romero, R., Mazuelos, A., and Iglesias, N., 2016, “Recovery of Zn from acid mine water and electric arc furnace dust in an integrated process,” J. Environ. Manage., Vol. 165, pp. 175–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castillo, J., Gomez-Arias, A., Posthumus, J., and Welman-Purchase, M., 2015, “Geochemical Study of the Interaction of Acid and Alkaline Mine Drainage with BaCO3,” 10th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage & IMWA Annual Conference.Google Scholar
  11. Chen, T., Yan, B., Lei, C., and Xiao, X., 2014, “Pollution control and metal resource recovery for acid mine drainage,” Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 147–148, pp. 112–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cornell, R., Giovanoli, R., and Schindler, P., 1987, “Effect of silicate species on the transformation of ferrihydrite into goethite and hematite in alkaline media,” Clays Clay Miner., Vol. 35, pp. 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cravotta III, C.A., and Trahan, M.K., 1999, “Limestone drains to increase pH and remove dissolved metals from acidic mine drainage,” Appl. Geochem., Vol. 14, pp. 581–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diao, Z., Shi, T., Wang, S., Huang, X., Zhang, T., Tang, Y., Zhang, X., and Qiu, R., 2013, “Silane-based coatings on the pyrite for remediation of acid mine drainage,” Water Res., Vol. 47, pp. 4391–4402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DiLoreto, Z.A., Weber, P.A., and Weisener, C.G., 2016, “Solid phase characterization and metal deportment in a mussel shell bioreactor for the treatment of AMD, Stockton Coal Mine, New Zealand,” Appl. Geochem., Vol. 67, pp. 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Doye, I., and Duchesne, J., 2003, “Neutralisation of acid mine drainage with alkaline industrial residues: laboratory investigation using batch-leaching tests,” Appl. Geochem., Vol. 18, pp. 1197–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ellis, D., Bouchard, C., and Lantagne, G., 2000, “Removal of iron and manganese from groundwater by oxidation and microfiltration,” Desalination, Vol. 130, pp. 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, 2015, “AMDTreat.”Google Scholar
  19. Evangelou, V.P., 2001, “Pyrite microencapsulation technologies: Principles and potential field application,” Ecol. Eng., Vol. 17, pp. 165–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evangelou, V.P., and Zhang, Y.L., 1995, “A review: Pyrite oxidation mechanisms and acid mine drainage prevention,” Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 25, pp. 141–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Falayi, T., and Ntuli, F., 2014, “Removal of heavy metals and neutralisation of acid mine drainage with un-activated attapulgite,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem., Vol. 20, pp. 1285–1292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fan, R., Short, M.D., Zeng, S.-J., Qian, G., Li, J., Schumann, R.C., Kawashima, N., Roger St, C.S., and Gerson, A.R., 2017, “The formation of silicate-stabilized passivating layers on pyrite for reduced acid rock drainage,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 51, p. 11317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gallinger, R., and Fleury, A.-M., 2006, “Linking the world to eliminate acid rock drainage,” International Network for Acid Prevention, 7ICARD, USA, pp. 623–629.Google Scholar
  24. Gazea, B., Adam, K., and Kontopoulos, A., 1996, “A review of passive systems for the treatment of acid mine drainage,” Miner. Eng., Vol. 9, pp. 23–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Geldenhuys, A.J., Maree, J.P., and de Beer, M.P.H., 2003, “An integrated limestone/ lime process for partial sulphate remmoval,” J. S. Afr. Min. Metall., Vol. 103, pp. 345–354.Google Scholar
  26. Genç-Fuhrman, H., Mikkelsen, P.S., and Ledin, A., 2007, “Simultaneous removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from stormwater: Experimental comparison of 11 different sorbents,” Water Res., Vol. 41, pp. 591–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Glombitza, F., 2001, “Treatment of acid lignite mine flooding water by means of microbial sulfate reduction,” Waste Manage., Vol. 21, pp. 197–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goetz, E.R., and Riefler, R.G., 2014, “Performance of steel slag leach beds in acid mine drainage treatment,” Chem. Eng. J., Vol. 240, pp. 579–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gomo, M., and Vermeulen, D., 2014, “Hydrogeochemical characteristics of a flooded underground coal mine groundwater system,” J. Afr. Earth Sci., Vol. 92, pp. 68–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gupta, C.K., and Mukherjee, T.K., 1990, Hydrometallurgy in Extraction Processes, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  31. Gusek, J., and Plocus, V., 2015, “Case Study: 19 Years of Acid Rock Drainage Mitigation after a Bactericide Application,” 10th ICARD IMWA 2015, Santiago, Chile, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  32. Hammarstrom, J.M., Sibrell, P.L., and Belkin, H.E., 2003, “Characterization of limestone reacted with acid-mine drainage in a pulsed limestone bed treatment system at the Friendship Hill National Historical Site, Pennsylvania, USA,” Appl. Geochem., Vol. 18, pp. 1705–1721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hanahan, C., McConchie, D., Pohl, J., Creelman, R., Clark, M., and Stocksiek, C., 2004, “Chemistry of seawater neutralization of bauxite refinery residues (red mud),” Environ. Eng. Sci., Vol. 21, pp. 125–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hardy, L., and Morton, P., 2015, “Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) Inhibition by Sulfite Used as Part of the Inco Process for Cyanide Removal,” 10th International Coference on Acid Rock Drainage & IMWA Annual Conference.Google Scholar
  35. Harries, J., 1997, “Acid Mine Drainage in Australia: Its Extent and Potential Future Liability,” Supervising Scientist Canberra, Canberra: Office of the supervising Scientist, Australia Government.Google Scholar
  36. Hatar, H., Rahim, S.A., Razi, W.M., and Sahrani, F.K., 2013, “Heavy metals content in acid mine drainage at abandoned and active mining area,” AIP Conf. Proc., pp. 641–646.Google Scholar
  37. Hengen, T.J., Squillace, M.K., O’Sullivan, A.D., and Stone, J.J., 2014, “Life cycle assessment analysis of active and passive acid mine drainage treatment technologies,” Resour. Conserv. Recy., Vol. 86, pp. 160–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heviánková, S., Bestová, I., and Kyncl, M., 2014, “The application of wood ash as a reagent in acid mine drainage treatment,” Miner. Eng., Vol. 56, pp. 109–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huijgen, W.J.J., and Comans, R.N.J., 2005, “Mineral CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 39, pp. 9676–9682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huminicki, D.M., and Rimstidt, J.D., 2009, “Iron oxyhydroxide coating of pyrite for acid mine drainage control,” Appl. Geochem., Vol. 24, pp. 1626–1634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. International Network for Acid Prevention (INAP), 2003, “Treatment of sulphate in mine effluents.”Google Scholar
  42. International Network for Acid Prevention (INAP), 2009, “Global acid rock drainage guide (GARD Guide).”Google Scholar
  43. Jambor, J., Dutrizac, J., Groat, L., and Raudsepp, M., 2002, “Static tests of neutralization potentials of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals,” Environ. Geol. Vol. 43, pp. 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Johnson, D.B., and Hallberg, K.B., 2005, “Acid mine drainage remediation options: a review,” Sci. Total Environ., Vol. 338, pp. 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kargbo, D.M., Atallah, G., and Chatterjee, S., 2004, “Inhibition of pyrite oxidation by a phospholipid in the presence of silicate,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 38, pp. 3432–3441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kargbo, D.M., and Chatterjee, S., 2005, “Stability of silicate coatings on pyrite surfaces in a low pH environment,” J. Environ. Eng., Vol. 131, pp. 1340–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kassahun, A., Jenk, U., and Paul, M., 2015, “Investigation of microbial in-situ remediation of uranium mine site pollutants in the flooded mine Königstein,” 10th International Coference on Acid Rock Drainage & IMWA Annual Conference.Google Scholar
  48. Kirchner, T., and Mattson, B., 2015, “Scaling Geochemical Loads in Mine Drainage Chemistry Modeling: An Empirical Derivation of Bulk Scaling Factors, Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) Inhibition by Sulfite Used as Part of the Inco Process for Cyanide Removal.”Google Scholar
  49. Klauber, C., Gräfe, M., and Power, G., 2011, “Bauxite residue issues: II. options for residue utilization,” Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 108, pp. 11–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kruse, N., Mackey, A., Bowman, J., Brewster, K., and Riefler, R.G., 2012, “Alkalinity production as an indicator of failure in steel slag leach beds treating acid mine drainage,” Environ. Earth Sci., Vol. 67, pp. 1389–1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lakovleva, E., Mäkilä, E., Salonen, J., Sitarz, M., Wang, S., and Sillanpää, M., 2015, “Acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment: Neutralization and toxic elements removal with unmodified and modified limestone,” Ecol. Eng., Vol. 81, No. 30–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Li, J., Grerson, A., Kawashima, N., Fan, R., Smart, R., and Schumann, R., 2015, “Estimation of Immediate Acid and Neutralization Rates within ARD Waste Rock Storage Facilities,” 10th ICARD & IMWA Annual Conference, Santiagom Chile, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  53. Li, M.G., Aubé, B., and St-Arnaud, L., 1997, “Considerations in the use of shallow water covers for decommissioning reactive tailings,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Vancouver, pp. 115–130.Google Scholar
  54. Liu, Y., Naidu, R., and Ming, H., 2011, “Red mud as an amendment for pollutants in solid and liquid phases,” Geoderma, Vol. 163, pp. 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. López, E., Soto, B., Arias, M., Núñez, A., Rubinos, D., and Barral, M.T., 1998, “Adsorbent properties of red mud and its use for wastewater treatment,” Water Res., Vol. 32, pp. 1314–1322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lusilao-Makiese, J., Cukrowska, E., Tutu, H., Chimuka, L., and Weiersbye, I., 2015, “Prediction of Acid Neutralizing Potential of Wetlands Affected By Gold Mining in a Semi-Arid Area,” 10th ICARD IMWA 2015, Santiago, Chile.Google Scholar
  57. Madzivire, G., Gitari, W.M., Vadapalli, V.R.K., Ojumu, T.V., and Petrik, L.F., 2011, “Fate of sulphate removed during the treatment of circumneutral mine water and acid mine drainage with coal fly ash: Modelling and experimental approach,” Miner. Eng., Vol. 24, pp. 1467–1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Madzivire, G., Maleka, P.P., Vadapalli, V.R.K., Gitari, W.M., Lindsay, R., and Petrik, L.F., 2014, “Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide,” J. Environ. Manage., Vol. 133, pp. 12–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Madzivire, G., Petrik, L.F., Gitari, W.M., Ojumu, T.V., and Balfour, G., 2010, “Application of coal fly ash to circumneutral mine waters for the removal of sulphates as gypsum and ettringite,” Miner. Eng., Vol. 23, pp. 252–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Martins, M., Santos, E.S., Faleiro, M.L., Chaves, S., Tenreiro, R., Barros, R.J., Barreiros, A., and Costa, M.C., 2011, “Performance and bacterial community shifts during bioremediation of acid mine drainage from two Portuguese mines,” Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation, Vol. 65, pp. 972–981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martins, M., Santos, E.S., Pires, C., Barros, R.J., and Costa, M.C., 2010, “Production of irrigation water from bioremediation of acid mine drainage: comparing the performance of two representative systems,” J. Clean. Prod., Vol. 18, pp. 248–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McCullough, C.D., and Lund, M.A., 2011, “Bioremediation of acidic and metalliferous drainage (AMD) through organic carbon amendment by municipal sewage and green waste,” J. Environ. Manage., Vol. 92, pp. 2419–2426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McDonald, D.M., Webb, J.A., and Taylor, J., 2006, “Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 40, pp. 1984–1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Miller, S., Rusdinar, Y., Smart, R., Andrina, J., and Richards, D., 2006, “Design and construction of limestone blended waste rock dumps: lessons learned from a 10 year study at Grasberg,” R. Barnhisel, ed., Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, ASMR, United States, pp. 1287–1301.Google Scholar
  65. Miller, S.D., Schumann, R., Smart, R., and Rusdinar, Y., 2009, “ARD control by limestone induced armouring and passivation of pyrite minerals surfaces,” ICARD.Google Scholar
  66. Miller, S.D., Stewart, W.S., Rusdinar, Y., Schumann, R.E., Ciccarelli, J.M., Li, J., and Smart, R.S.C., 2010, “Methods for estimation of long-term non-carbonate neutralisation of acid rock drainage,” Sci. Total Environ., Vol. 408, pp. 2129–2135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mohan, D., and Chander, S., 2006, “Removal and recovery of metal ions from acid mine drainage using lignite—A low cost sorbent,” J. Hazard. Mater., Vol. 137, pp. 1545–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Munn, D.A., 2005, “Steel industry slags compared with calcium carbonate in neutralizing acid mine soil,” Ohio J. Sci., Vol. 105, pp. 79–87.Google Scholar
  69. Name, T., and Sheridan, C., 2014, “Remediation of acid mine drainage using metallurgical slags,” Miner. Eng., Vol. 64, pp. 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nancucheo, I., and Barrie Johnson, D., 2014, “Removal of sulfate from extremely acidic mine waters using low pH sulfidogenic bioreactors,” Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 150, pp. 222–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Neculita, C.-M., Zagury, G.J., and Bussière, B., 2008, “Effectiveness of sulfatereducing passive bioreactors for treating highly contaminated acid mine drainage: I. Effect of hydraulic retention time,” Appl. Geochem., Vol. 23, pp. 3442–3451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ouyang, Y., Liu, Y., Zhu, R., Ge, F., Xu, T., Luo, Z., and Liang, L., 2015, “Pyrite oxidation inhibition by organosilane coatings for acid mine drainage control,” Miner. Eng., Vol. 72, pp. 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pérez-López, R., Castillo, J., Quispe, D., and Nieto, J.M., 2010, “Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO2 emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste,” J. Hazard. Mater., Vol. 177, pp. 762–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Paradis, M., Duchesne, J., Lamontagne, A., and Isabel, D., 2007, “Long-term neutralisation potential of red mud bauxite with brine amendment for the neutralisation of acidic mine tailings,” Appl. Geochem., Vol. 22, pp. 2326–2333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Parbhakar-Fox, A., and Lottermoser, B.G., 2015, “A critical review of acid rock drainage prediction methods and practices,” Miner. Eng., Vol. 82, pp. 107–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pascual, D., and McPhee, M., 2015, “Fulfilment of EPA discharge requirements for ARD using co-precipitation iron process at neutral pH, 10th International Coference on Acid Rock Drainage & IMWA Annual Conference,” pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  77. Pozo-Antonio, S., Puente-Luna, I., Lagüela-López, S., and Veiga-Ríos, M., 2014, “Techniques to correct and prevent acid mine drainage: A review,” DAYA, Vol. 81, pp. 73–80.Google Scholar
  78. Qian, G., Schumann, R., Li, J., Short, M., Fan, R., Li, Y., Kawashima, N., Zhou, Y., Smart, R., and Gerson, A., 2017, “Strategies for reduced acid and metalliferous drainage by pyrite surface passivation,” Minerals, Vol. 7, p. 42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ríos, C.A., Williams, C.D., and Roberts, C.L., 2008, “Removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) using coal fly ash, natural clinker and synthetic zeolites,” J. Hazard. Mater., Vol. 156, pp. 23–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Robertson, A., Everett, D., and Du Plessis, N., 1994, “Sulfates removal by the GYP-CIX process following lime treatment,” Proceedings of the Superfund XIV Conference and Exhibition, Vol. 2.Google Scholar
  81. Sahoo, P.K., Tripathy, S., Panigrahi, M.K., and Equeenuddin, S.M., 2013, “Inhibition of acid mine drainage from a pyrite-rich mining waste using industrial byproducts: role of neo-formed phases,” Water, Air, Soil Pollut., Vol. 224, pp. 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sand, W., Jozsa, P.-G., Kovacs, Z.-M., Sasaran, N., and Schippers, A., 2007, “Long-term evaluation of acid rock drainage mitigation measures in large lysimeters,” J. Geochem. Explor., Vol. 92, pp. 205–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Santos, J., Castro, A., Cervantes, A., Neri, Á., Goslinga, J., and Isidro, G., 2015, “Acid Drainage Treatment Using Phyllite Rock in an Underground Mine.”Google Scholar
  84. Satur, J., Hiroyoshi, N., Tsunekawa, M., Ito, M., and Okamoto, H., 2007, “Carriermicroencapsulation for preventing pyrite oxidation,” Int. J. Miner. Process., Vol. 83, pp. 116–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sheoran, A.S., and Sheoran, V., 2006, “Heavy metal removal mechanism of acid mine drainage in wetlands: A critical review,” Miner. Eng., Vol. 19, pp. 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sheoran, A.S., Sheoran, V., and Choudhary, R.P., 2010, “Bioremediation of acidrock drainage by sulphate-reducing prokaryotes: A review,” Miner. Eng., Vol. 23, pp. 1073–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sibrell, P.L., Watten, B.J., Friedrich, A.E., and Vinci, B.J., 2000, “ARD remediation with limestone in a CO2 pressurized reactor,” Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, pp. 1017–1026.Google Scholar
  88. Silva, A.M., Cunha, E.C., Silva, F.D.R., and Leão, V.A., 2012, “Treatment of highmanganese mine water with limestone and sodium carbonate,” J. Clean. Prod., Vol. 29–30, pp. 11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Silva, A.M., Lima, R.M.F., and Leão, V.A., 2012, “Mine water treatment with limestone for sulfate removal,” J. Hazard. Mater., Vol. 221–222, pp. 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Simate, G.S., and Ndlovu, S., 2014, “Acid mine drainage: Challenges and opportunities,” J. Environ. Chem., Vol. Eng. 2, pp. 1785–1803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Singer, P.C., and Stumm, W., 1970, “Acidic mine drainage: The rate-determining step,” Science, Vol. 167, pp. 1121–1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Skousen, J., Politan, K., Hilton, T., and Meek, A., 1990, “Acid mine drainage treatment systems: chemicals and costs,” Green Lands, Vol. 20, pp. 31–37.Google Scholar
  93. Smart, R., Skinner, B., Levay, G., Gerson, A., Thomas, J., Sobieraj, H., Schumann, R., Weisener, C., Weber, P., and Miller, S., 2002, “ARD Test Handbook,” AMIRA International, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  94. Smart, R.S.C., Ciccarelli, J.M., Zeng, S., Fan, R., Li, J., Kawashima, N., and Gerson, A.R., 2015, “Assessment of acid neutralisation rates from site rock for AMD control,” 10th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage ( ICARD), Santiago, Chile.Google Scholar
  95. Song, H., Yim, G.-J., Ji, S.-W., Neculita, C.M., and Hwang, T., 2012, “Pilot-scale passive bioreactors for the treatment of acid mine drainage: Efficiency of mushroom compost vs. mixed substrates for metal removal,” J. Environ. Manage., Vol. 111, pp. 150–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sud, D., Mahajan, G., and Kaur, M.P., 2008, “Agricultural waste material as potential adsorbent for sequestering heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions — A review,” Bioresour. Technol., Vol. 99, pp. 6017–6027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tait, S., Clarke, W.P., Keller, J., and Batstone, D.J., 2009, “Removal of sulfate from high-strength wastewater by crystallisation,” Water Res., Vol. 43, pp. 762–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tolonen, E.-T., Sarpola, A., Hu, T., Rämö, J., and Lassi, U., 2014, “Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals,” Chemosphere, Vol. 117, pp. 419–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tuazon, D., and Corder, G.D., 2008, “Life cycle assessment of seawater neutralised red mud for treatment of acid mine drainage,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 52, pp. 1307–1314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vandiviere, M.M., and Evangelou, V.P., 1998, “Comparative testing between conventional and microencapsulation approaches in controlling pyrite oxidation,” J. Geochem. Explor., Vol. 64, pp. 161–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wingenfelder, U., Hansen, C., Furrer, G., and Schulin, R., 2005, “Removal of heavy metals from mine waters by natural zeolites,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 39, pp. 4606–4613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zeng, S., Li, J., Schumann, R., and Smart, R., 2013, “Effect of pH and dissolved silicate on the formation of surface passivation layers for reducing pyrite oxidation,” Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei, China, pp. 50–55.Google Scholar
  103. Zhou, Y., Short, M.D., Li, J., Schumann, R.C., Smart, R.S.C., Gerson, A.R., and Qian, G., 2017, “Control of acid generation from pyrite oxidation in a highly reactive natural waste: A laboratory case study,” Minerals, Vol. 7, p. 89.Google Scholar
  104. Ziemkiewicz, P., 1998, “Steel slag: applications for AMD control,” Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on Hazardous Waste Research, pp. 44–59.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • W. Li
    • 1
  • Q. Xiao
    • 2
  • S. Song
    • 1
  • Y. Liu
    • 3
  • R. Naidu
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Resources and Environmental EngineeringWuhan University of TechnologyHubeiChina
  2. 2.University of South AustraliaMawson LakesAustralia
  3. 3.Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of ScienceThe University of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia

Personalised recommendations